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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351639/call-to-action-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-africa
#1
Peyton Wilson, Jonathan B Parr, Ravi Jhaveri, Steve R Meshnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue that has not been adequately addressed, especially in the high-prevalence region of Africa. Despite the incorporation of HBV vaccines into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), children continue to be infected with HBV through maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT). The addition of a birth dose of HBV vaccine would be a cost-effective method to reduce MTCT. Birth-dose HBV vaccine policies have been adopted in the Western Pacific region but have yet to be implemented in the African region...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350753/impact-of-relaxation-of-the-one-child-policy-on-maternal-mortality-in-guangzhou-china
#2
Wen Sun, Shiliang Liu, Fang He, Lili Du, Yanfang Guo, Darine El-Chaar, Shi Wu Wen, Dunjin Chen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the one-child policy in China on maternal mortality. METHODS: The present retrospective study included maternal death data from Guangdong, China, from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015; data from 2013 were excluded because they were not available. Maternal deaths were divided into legal and illegal pregnancies based on adherence to the one-child policy. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was compared between the groups, temporal trends in the MMR were examined, and comparisons were made of the causes of death and access to maternity care...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350747/low-semen-quality-and-experiences-of-masculinity-and-family-building
#3
Randi Sylvest, Jeanette Krogh Fürbringer, Anja Pinborg, Emily Koert, Jeanette Bogstad, Kristine Loessl, Lisbeth Praetorius, Lone Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Infertility is a concern for men and women.There is limited knowledge on how male factor infertility affects the couple in fertility treatment. The aim of this study was to explore how severe male factor infertility affects men's sense of masculinity, the couple's relationship and intentions about family formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interview study at the Fertility Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark...
January 19, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349527/genetic-test-reporting-and-counseling-for-melanoma-risk-in-minors-may-improve-sun-protection-without-inducing-distress
#4
Tammy K Stump, Lisa G Aspinwall, Wendy Kohlmann, Marjan Champine, Jamie Hauglid, Yelena P Wu, Emily Scott, Pamela Cassidy, Sancy A Leachman
Genetic testing of minors is advised only for conditions in which benefits of early intervention outweigh potential psychological harms. This study investigated whether genetic counseling and test reporting for the CDKN2A/p16 mutation, which confers highly elevated melanoma risk, improved sun protection without inducing distress. Eighteen minors (Mage = 12.4, SD = 1.9) from melanoma-prone families completed measures of protective behavior and distress at baseline, 1 week (distress only), 1 month, and 1 year following test disclosure...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349479/resilience-and-protective-factors-among-people-with-a-history-of-child-maltreatment-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Xiangfei Meng, Marie-Josee Fleury, Yu-Tao Xiang, Muzi Li, Carl D'Arcy
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of resilience and protective factors associated with a better life following child maltreatment exposure, to compare protective factors across specific subtypes of maltreatment, and to explore existing issues in the current state of the literature. METHODS: Electronic databases and grey literature up to October 2017 were systematically searched for English language with observational study designs for the research on resilience and childhood maltreatment...
January 18, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345007/aetiology-of-neonatal-conjunctivitis-evaluated-in-a-population-based-setting
#6
Minna Honkila, Marjo Renko, Irma Ikäheimo, Tytti Pokka, Matti Uhari, Terhi Tapiainen
AIM: Our aim was to study prospectively the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis in a population-based setting. METHODS: Altogether 173 neonates with clinical conjunctivitis aged on average 20 (SD 10) days were recruited from child welfare clinics in Oulu, Finland, in 2010-2015. Conjunctival specimens were collected from 167 neonates for multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect 16 respiratory viruses, from 163 for polymerase chain reaction to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and from 160 for bacterial culture studies...
January 18, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345005/-there-s-no-acknowledgement-of-what-this-does-to-people-a-qualitative-exploration-of-mental-health-among-parents-of-children-with-critical-congenital-heart-defects
#7
Sarah Woolf-King, Emily Arnold, Sandra Weiss, David Teitel
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological impact of parenting a child with a critical congenital heart defect (CHD), and the feasibility and acceptability of integrating psychological services into pediatric cardiology care. BACKGROUND: Children with critical CHD are at an increased risk for long-term behavioral, social, and emotional difficulties. Data suggest that this risk is partially attributable to parental mental health, which is a stronger predictor of long-term behavioral problems in CHD children than disease-specific and surgical factors...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341329/violence-and-child-mental-health-in-brazil-the-itabora%C3%A3-youth-study-methods-and-findings
#8
I A Bordin, C S Duarte, W S Ribeiro, C S Paula, E S F Coutinho, A Sourander, J A Rønning
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate a study design that could be useful in low-resource and violent urban settings and to estimate the prevalence of child violence exposure (at home, community, and school) and child mental health problems in a low-income medium-size city. METHODS: The Itaboraí Youth Study is a Norway-Brazil collaborative longitudinal study conducted in Itaboraí city (n = 1409, 6-15 year olds). A 3-stage probabilistic sampling plan (random selection of census units, eligible households, and target child) generated sampling weights that were used to obtain estimates of population prevalence rates...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341271/review-shows-that-early-fetal-alcohol-exposure-may-cause-adverse-effects-even-when-the-mother-consumes-low-levels
#9
Ihsan Sarman
AIM: Studies are increasingly focusing on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on child health. The aim of this review was to provide paediatricians with new insights to help them communicate key messages about avoiding alcohol during pregnancy. METHODS: Inspired by the 7th International Conference on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, which focused on integrating research, policy and practice, we studied English language papers published since 2010 on how early PAE triggered epigenetic mechanisms that had an impact on the development of some chronic diseases...
January 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341259/child-syndrome-mimicking-verrucous-nevus-in-a-chinese-patient-responded-well-to-the-topical-therapy-of-compound-of-simvastatin-and-cholesterol
#10
Xia Yu, Jia Zhang, Yan Gu, Dan Deng, Zhouwei Wu, Lei Bao, Ming Li, Zhirong Yao
BACKGROUND: Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects (CHILD) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant disorder characterized by peculiar cutaneous presentations and ipsilateral skeletal abnormalities. CHILD syndrome is caused by mutations in NSDHL gene, which involves in cholesterol synthesis. OBJECTIVES: To verify the diagnosis of CHILD syndrome and seek effective pathogenesis-based therapy with little side effects. METHOD: We comprehensively evaluated the patient's conditions...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341240/a-case-report-and-literature-review-of-autism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-paediatric-chronic-pain
#11
Camilla Wiwe Lipsker, Margareta von Heijne, Sven Bölte, Rikard K Wicksell
Psychiatric disorders are common in paediatric patients with chronic pain, but the overall prevalence of comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders is unclear. We report on a case of severe chronic pain in a child with undiagnosed comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), where significant improvements in pain and function occurred following methylphenidate medication and parental behavioural training. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of behavioural assessment and screening for neurodevelopmental comorbidity may be essential in addressing complex paediatric chronic pain...
January 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341239/interaction-between-healthcare-professionals-and-parents-is-a-key-determinant-of-parental-distress-during-childhood-hospitalisation-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-european-rsv-outcomes-study-eros
#12
Xavier Carbonell-Estrany, Alberto Dall'Agnola, John R Fullarton, Barry S Rodgers-Gray, Elisa Girardi, Alessandro Mussa, Natalia Paniagua, Marta Pieretto, Rosa Rodríguez-Fernandez, Paolo Manzoni
AIM: We characterised the distress that parents experienced when their child was hospitalised for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. METHODS: This survey-based, observational study was conducted during 2014-2015. Meetings were held in Spain and Italy, with 24 parents of RSV hospitalised infants and 11 healthcare professionals experienced in RSV, which identified 110 factors related to parental distress. The resulting questionnaire was completed by another 105 Spanish and Italian parents and 56 healthcare professionals, to assess the impact these factors had on parental distress, using a scale from 0-10 (very unimportant to very important)...
January 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339318/dietary-patterns-body-mass-index-and-inflammation-pathways-to-depression-and-mental-health-problems-in-adolescents
#13
Wendy H Oddy, Karina L Allen, Georgina S A Trapp, Gina L Ambrosini, Lucinda J Black, Rae-Chi Huang, Peter Rzehak, Kevin C Runions, Feng Pan, Lawrence J Beilin, Trevor A Mori
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that dietary patterns may impact mental health outcomes, although biologically plausible pathways are yet to be tested. We aimed to elucidate the longitudinal relationship between dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health including depressive symptoms in a population-based cohort of adolescents. METHODS: Data were provided from 843 adolescents participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study at 14 and 17 years (y) of age...
January 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338094/postnatal-experiences-knowledge-and-perceptions-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#14
C E Eades, E F France, J M M Evans
AIM: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to explore experiences, knowledge and perceptions of women with GDM to inform the design of interventions to prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 16 women with GDM who were recruited from a clinic in one Scottish health board. A framework approach was used to manage and analyse data according to themes informed by psychological theory (self-regulation model and theory of planned behaviour)...
January 16, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337407/insufficient-sleep-syndrome-an-unrecognized-but-important-clinical-entity
#15
Jun Kohyama, Yuki Anzai, Makoto Ono, Ai Kishino, Keita Tamanuki, Kazuma Takada, Kento Inoue, Maho Horiuchi, Yoshiho Hatai
BACKGROUND: In the Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Centre, a sleep clinic for adults and children was established in August 2012. As few sleep clinics are available in Japan that are specifically for children, this clinic provides the opportunity to provide data on child patients who have been suffering from sleep problems and who visited the sleep clinic. METHODS: Records of patients who visited the sleep clinic at the Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Centre at the age of 20 years or younger on their first visit were retrospectively examined, and their initial and final diagnoses were examined...
January 16, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336232/wealth-social-protection-programs-and-child-labor-in-colombia-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Ángela María Pinzón-Rondón, Liseth B Cifuentes, Catalina Zuluaga, Juan Carlos Botero, Mariana Pinzon-Caicedo
This article has 3 main objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of child labor in Colombia, (2) to identify factors associated with child labor, and (3) to determine whether social protection programs have an association with the prevalence of child labor in the country. Using a cross-sectional study with data from the Colombian Demographic and Health Survey 2010, a working child was defined as a child who worked during the week prior to the survey in an activity other than household chores. Through descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and multivariate regressions, it was found that child labor was associated with gender (boys were more likely to work), older age, ethnicity (children from indigenous communities were more likely to be workers), school dropout, disability (children with disabilities were less likely to be working), subsidized health social security system membership, and lower number of years of mother's schooling...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335821/maternal-incarceration-child-protection-and-infant-mortality-a-descriptive-study-of-infant-children-of-women-prisoners-in-western-australia
#17
Caitlin McMillen Dowell, Gloria C Mejia, David B Preen, Leonie Segal
BACKGROUND: There are no population statistics collected on a routine basis on the children of prisoners in Australia. Accordingly, their potential vulnerability to adverse outcomes remains unclear. This study draws on linked administrative data to describe the exposure of children aged less than 2 years to maternal imprisonment in Western Australia, their contact with child protection services, and infant mortality rates. RESULTS: In Western Australia, 36.5 per 1000 Indigenous (n = 804) and 1...
January 15, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334142/severe-ectropion-in-lamellar-ichthyosis-managed-medically-with-oral-acitretin
#18
Manpreet Singh, Manpreet Kaur, Ripanjeet Kaur, Shakeen Singh
Congenital ectropion is commonly associated with lamellar ichthyosis. Severe eyelid ectropion may cause corneal exposure, keratopathy, and permanent corneal scarring. We report a neonate with severe, bilateral, congenital ectropion and eclabium managed using oral retinoids. Both corneas were protected with topical antibiotics and lubricating eyedrops and eye ointments. At 12-month follow-up, the child was doing well, with no ectropion or corneal opacity.
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332543/difficult-but-close-relationships-children-s-perspectives-on-relationships-with-their-mothers-in-the-context-of-domestic-violence
#19
Simon Lapierre, Isabelle Côté, Amélie Lambert, David Buetti, Chantal Lavergne, Dominique Damant, Vanessa Couturier
This article reports findings from a participative and qualitative study conducted with children who had experienced domestic violence, focusing on their perspectives on their relationships with their mothers. Three focus groups and 46 individual interviews were conducted with children to gather their experiences. The research findings demonstrate that women's and children's victimizations are inextricably linked, and that domestic violence affects mother-child relationships. They also show that, despite the challenges and difficulties, children generally consider their mothers as very significant individuals in their lives, and have close relationships with them...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332303/mitochondrial-dna-nuclear-context-and-the-risk-for-carcinogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Brett A Kaufman, Martin Picard, Neal Sondheimer
The inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from mother to child is complicated by differences in the stability of the mitochondrial genome. Although the germ line mtDNA is protected through the minimization of replication between generations, sequence variation can occur either through mutation or due to changes in the ratio between distinct genomes that are present in the mother (known as heteroplasmy). Thus, the unpredictability in transgenerational inheritance of mtDNA may cause the emergence of pathogenic mitochondrial and cellular phenotypes in offspring...
January 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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