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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442491/constitutively-active-spak-causes-hyperkalemia-by-activating-ncc-and-remodeling-distal-tubules
#1
P Richard Grimm, Richard Coleman, Eric Delpire, Paul A Welling
Aberrant activation of with no lysine (WNK) kinases causes familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt). Thiazide diuretics treat the disease, fostering the view that hyperactivation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is solely responsible. However, aberrant signaling in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and inhibition of the potassium-excretory renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel have also been implicated. To test these ideas, we introduced kinase-activating mutations after Lox-P sites in the mouse Stk39 gene, which encodes the terminal kinase in the WNK signaling pathway, Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437192/phototoxicity-of-vascular-endothelial-cells-caused-by-contact-with-talaporfin-sodium-for-15-120-min-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#2
Risa Hamada, Emiyu Ogawa, Tsunenori Arai
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the mechanism of vascular patency in the myocardium after photosensitization immediately after talaporfin sodium (TS) injection in a canine model, we investigated acute injury to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in vitro and in vivo. BACKGROUND DATA: There are many reports of vascular shutdown within the target region in photodynamic therapy with TS. Vascular patency within healthy canine myocardium in which a photosensitization reaction starts immediately after injection of TS has been reported...
February 22, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431046/brg1-interacts-with-sox10-to-establish-the-melanocyte-lineage-and-to-promote-differentiation
#3
Himangi G Marathe, Dawn E Watkins-Chow, Matthias Weider, Alana Hoffmann, Gaurav Mehta, Archit Trivedi, Shweta Aras, Tupa Basuroy, Aanchal Mehrotra, Dorothy C Bennett, Michael Wegner, William J Pavan, Ivana L de la Serna
Mutations in SOX10 cause neurocristopathies which display varying degrees of hypopigmentation. Using a sensitized mutagenesis screen, we identified Smarca4 as a modifier gene that exacerbates the phenotypic severity of Sox10 haplo-insufficient mice. Conditional deletion of Smarca4 in SOX10 expressing cells resulted in reduced numbers of cranial and ventral trunk melanoblasts. To define the requirement for the Smarca4 -encoded BRG1 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, we employed in vitro models of melanocyte differentiation in which induction of melanocyte-specific gene expression is closely linked to chromatin alterations...
April 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414128/impaired-degradation-of-medullary-wnk4-in-the-kidneys-of-klhl2-knockout-mice
#4
Yuri Kasagi, Daiei Takahashi, Tomomi Aida, Hidenori Nishida, Naohiro Nomura, Moko Zeniya, Takayasu Mori, Emi Sasaki, Fumiaki Ando, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida, Eisei Sohara
Mutations in the with-no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1), WNK4, Kelch-like 3 (KLHL3), and Cullin3 (CUL3) genes were identified as being responsible for hereditary hypertensive disease pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII). Normally, the KLHL3/CUL3 ubiquitin ligase complex degrades WNKs. In PHAII, the loss of interaction between KLHL3 and WNK4 increases levels of WNKs because of impaired ubiquitination, leading to abnormal over-activation of the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade in the kidney's distal convoluted tubules (DCT)...
April 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397803/tomatidine-enhances-lifespan-and-healthspan-in-c-elegans-through-mitophagy-induction-via-the-skn-1-nrf2-pathway
#5
Evandro F Fang, Tyler B Waltz, Henok Kassahun, Qiping Lu, Jesse S Kerr, Marya Morevati, Elayne M Fivenson, Bradley N Wollman, Krisztina Marosi, Mark A Wilson, Wendy B Iser, D Mark Eckley, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Ilya G Goldberg, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Mark P Mattson, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Kevin G Becker
Aging is a major international concern that brings formidable socioeconomic and healthcare challenges. Small molecules capable of improving the health of older individuals are being explored. Small molecules that enhance cellular stress resistance are a promising avenue to alleviate declines seen in human aging. Tomatidine, a natural compound abundant in unripe tomatoes, inhibits age-related skeletal muscle atrophy in mice. Here we show that tomatidine extends lifespan and healthspan in C. elegans, an animal model of aging which shares many major longevity pathways with mammals...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392346/uchl1-regulates-melanogenesis-through-controlling-mitf-stability-in-human-melanocytes
#6
Eun Young Seo, Seon-Pil Jin, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Chi-Hyun Park, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is involved in many signaling pathways via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. UCHL1 is expressed in the human skin and serves as a neuronal marker; however, its functions in melanogenesis remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of UCHL1 in melanogenesis, and elucidated the underlying mechanism using human melanocytes. UCHL1 downregulation by siRNA resulted in upregulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and melanin...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391819/automatic-gender-determination-from-3d-digital-maxillary-tooth-plaster-models-based-on-the-random-forest-algorithm-and-discrete-cosine-transform
#7
Betül Akkoç, Ahmet Arslan, Hatice Kök
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: One of the first stages in the identification of an individual is gender determination. Through gender determination, the search spectrum can be reduced. In disasters such as accidents or fires, which can render identification somewhat difficult, durable teeth are an important source for identification. This study proposes a smart system that can automatically determine gender using 3D digital maxillary tooth plaster models. METHODS: The study group was composed of 40 Turkish individuals (20 female, 20 male) between the ages of 21 and 24...
May 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389400/comparison-in-docetaxel-loaded-nanoparticles-based-on-three-different-carboxymethyl-chitosans
#8
Enhui Zhang, Ronge Xing, Song Liu, Kecheng Li, Yukun Qin, Huahua Yu, Pengcheng Li
In this study, three different carboxymethyl chitosans (CMCs), namely O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OC), N-carboxymethyl chitosan (NC) and N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOC), were prepared as nano-carriers for an anti-tumor drug, docetaxel (DCT). Three CMCs were fabricated into drug-loading nanoparticles under different preparing conditions respectively. A series of characterization parameters were determined including drug loading capacity (DC), entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size distribution, zeta potential, and morphology, which were used to find the optimized preparing condition for three kinds of nanoparticles (NPs)...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381053/lithographic-source-optimization-based-on-adaptive-projection-compressive-sensing
#9
Xu Ma, Dongxiang Shi, Zhiqiang Wang, Yanqiu Li, Gonzalo R Arce
This paper proposes to use the a-priori knowledge of the target layout patterns to design data-adaptive compressive sensing (CS) methods for efficient source optimization (SO) in lithography systems. A set of monitoring pixels are selected from the target layout based on blue noise random patterns. The SO is then formulated as an under-determined linear problem to improve image fidelity according to the monitoring pixels. Adaptive projections are then designed, based on the a-priori knowledge of the target layout, in order to further reduce the dimension of the optimization problem, while trying to retain the SO performance...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365586/enac-and-romk-activity-are-inhibited-in-the-dct2-cnt-of-tgwnk4-phaii-mice
#10
Chengbiao Zhang, Lijun Wang, Xiao-Tong Su, Junhui Zhang, Dao-Hong Lin, Wen-Hui Wang
Mice transgenic for genomic segments harboring PHAII (pseudohypoaldosteronism type II) mutant Wnk4 (with-No-Lysine kinase 4) (TgWnk4(PHAII)) have hyperkalemia which is currently believed to be the result of high activity of Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC). This leads to decreasing Na(+) delivery to the distal nephron segment including late distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and connecting tubule (CNT). Since epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) and renal outer medullary K(+) channel (ROMK or Kir4.1) are expressed in the late DCT and play an important role in mediating K(+) secretion, the aim of the present study is to test whether ROMK and ENaC activity in the DCT/CNT are also compromised in the mice expressing PHAII mutant Wnk4...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356287/pgf2%C3%AE-regulates-the-basolateral-k-channels-in-the-distal-convoluted-tubule-dct
#11
Lijun Wang, Chengbiao Zhang, Xiao-Tong Su, Dao-Hong Lin, Peng Wu, Michal Laniado Schwartzman, Wen-Hui Wang
We aim to examine the role of PGF2α receptor (FP), a highly expressed prostaglandin receptor in the DCT, in regulating basolateral 40 pS K channel. The single channel studies demonstrated that PGF2α had a biphasic effect on the 40 pS K channel in the DCT: PGF2α stimulated at low concentrations (less than 500 nM) while at high concentrations (above 1µM) it inhibited the 40 pS K channels. Moreover, neither 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2α (a metabolite of PGF2α) nor PGE2 was able to mimic the effect of PGF2α on the 40 pS K channel in the DCT...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356087/evaluation-of-ocular-pulse-amplitude-in-non-arteritic-anterior-ischaemic-optic-neuropathy
#12
Durgul Acan, Omer Karti, Tuncay Kusbeci
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) in patients with chronic non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION). METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised a study group of 30 eyes from 30 patients with NAION and a control group of 31 eyes from 31 age and gender-matched healthy subjects. Bilateral OPA was measured with dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) and was compared between the study and control groups. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the study and control groups in terms of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischaemic heart disease and hyperlipidemia...
March 29, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343061/automated-diabetic-macular-edema-dme-grading-system-using-dwt-dct-features-and-maculopathy-index
#13
U Rajendra Acharya, Muthu Rama Krishnan Mookiah, Joel E W Koh, Jen Hong Tan, Sulatha V Bhandary, A Krishna Rao, Yuki Hagiwara, Chua Kuang Chua, Augustinus Laude
The cause of diabetic macular edema (DME) is due to prolonged and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) which affects the vision of diabetic subjects. DME is graded based on the exudate location from the macula. It is clinically diagnosed using fundus images which is tedious and time-consuming. Regular eye screening and subsequent treatment may prevent the vision loss. Hence, in this work, a hybrid system based on Radon transform (RT), discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) are proposed for an automated detection of DME...
March 19, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339086/identification-of-novel-mutations-in-endometrial-cancer-patients-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#14
Ya-Sian Chang, Hsien-Da Huang, Kun-Tu Yeh, Jan-Gowth Chang
The aim of the present study was to identify genomic alterations in Taiwanese endometrial cancer patients. This information is vitally important in Taiwan, where endometrial cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer. We performed whole-exome sequencing on DNA from 14 tumor tissue samples from Taiwanese endometrial cancer patients. We used the Genome Analysis Tool kit software package for data analysis, and the dbSNP, Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases for comparisons...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333624/a-fast-and-robust-beamspace-adaptive-beamformer-for-medical-ultrasound-imaging
#15
Ali Mohades Deylami, Babak Mohammadzadeh Asl
Minimum variance beamformer (MVB) increases the resolution and contrast of medical ultrasound imaging compared to non-adaptive beamformers. These advantages come at the expense of high computational complexity that prevents this adaptive beamformer to be applied in a real-time imaging system. A new beamspace based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed in which the medical ultrasound signals can be represented with less dimensions compared to the standard beamspace. This is because of symmetric beampattern of the beams in the proposed beamspace compared to the asymmetric ones in the standard beamspace...
March 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306258/liquid-structure-of-bis-trifluoromethylsulfonyl-imide-based-ionic-liquids-assessed-by-ft-ir-spectroscopy
#16
Cassie Kimble, Christopher M Burba
Ionic liquids are a fertile and active area of research, in part, due to the unique properties these solvents offer over traditional molecular solvents. Because these properties are rooted in the fundamental ion-ion interactions that govern their liquid structure, there is a strong motivation to characterize the liquid structure of ionic liquids. Infrared spectroscopy is a standard analytical tool for assessing liquid structures, for the intramolecular vibrational modes of the ions composing the materials are often quite sensitive to their local potential energy environment...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292562/a-quantitative-analysis-of-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-muse-cells-in-human-adipose-tissue-and-efficacy-of-melanocytes-induction
#17
Takeshi Yamauchi, Kenshi Yamasaki, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Saaya Koike, Setsuya Aiba
We have shown previously that multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in neonatal fibroblasts can differentiate into functional melanocytes. In this study, we quantitate Muse cells in adipose-mesenchymal stem cells (adipose-MSCs) of human subcutaneous tissue obtained from 11 subjects of various ages, and measured efficacy of melanocytes induction from Adipose-MSC-derived Muse cells (hASC-Muse cells). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the age of donors and the numbers of adipose-MSCs recovered per g fat as well as the percentage of SSEA3+ cells in the adipose-MSC populations, but isolated hASC-Muse cells showed pluripotency and growth curves equally regardless the age of donors...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287974/low-complexity-multidimensional-dct-approximations-for-high-order-tensor-data-decorrelation
#18
Vitor A de A Coutinho, Renato J Cintra, Fabio M Bayer
In this paper, we introduce low-complexity multidimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT) approximations. 3D DCT approximations are formalized in terms of high-order tensor theory. The formulation is extended to higher dimensions with arbitrary lengths. Several multiplierless 8×8 ×8 approximate methods are proposed and the computational complexity is discussed for the general multidimensional case. The proposed methods complexity cost was assessed, presenting considerably lower arithmetic operations when compared with the exact 3D DCT...
May 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287970/dct-regularized-extreme-visual-recovery
#19
Yunhe Wang, Chang Xu, Shan You, Chao Xu, Dacheng Tao
Here we study the extreme visual recovery problem, in which over 90% of pixel values in a given image are missing. Existing low rank-based algorithms are only effective for recovering data with at most 90% missing values. Thus, we exploit visual data's smoothness property to help solve this challenging extreme visual recovery problem. Based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), we propose a novel DCT regularizer that involves all pixels and produces smooth estimations in any view. Our theoretical analysis shows that the total variation (TV) regularizer, which only achieves local smoothness, is a special case of the proposed DCT regularizer...
March 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277872/assessing-the-stability-of-lamotrigine-dispersible-chewable-tablets-when-stored-in-blister-punch-cards
#20
Héctor R Loscertales, Pilar Modamio, Cecilia F Lastra, Eduardo L Mariño
OBJECTIVES: To determine the stability of lamotrigine dispersible/chewable tablets (DCTs) when stored in blister punch cards (BPCs). METHODS: Lamotrigine 100 mg DCTs were randomly repackaged into a US Pharmacopeia Class A 1 week cold-sealed BPC. Chemical and physical stability were evaluated over a 60 day period, in controlled conditions corresponding to Climatic Zones I/II (25 °C ± 2 °C; 60% ± 5% relative humidity). At scheduled times, various tests were performed on tablets in their primary packaging (reference samples) and on tablets repackaged (BPC samples)...
May 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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