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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794148/tubulointerstitial-nephritis-with-igm-positive-plasma-cells
#1
Naoki Takahashi, Takako Saeki, Atsushi Komatsuda, Chishio Munemura, Takeaki Fukui, Naofumi Imai, Noriyuki Homma, Tsuguru Hatta, Ken-Ichi Samejima, Takashi Fujimoto, Hiroki Omori, Yumi Ito, Yudai Nishikawa, Mamiko Kobayashi, Yukie Morikawa, Sachiko Fukushima, Seiji Yokoi, Daisuke Mikami, Kenji Kasuno, Hideki Kimura, Tomoyuki Nemoto, Yasunari Nakamoto, Kiyonao Sada, Manabu Sugai, Hironobu Naiki, Haruyoshi Yoshida, Ichiei Narita, Yoshihiko Saito, Masayuki Iwano
Infiltration by IgG-positive plasma cells is a common finding in tubulointerstitial nephritis. Indeed, it has been thought that CD138-positive mature plasma cells secrete mainly IgG, and the occurrence of tubulointerstitial nephritis with CD138-positive plasma cells secreting IgM has rarely been reported. Routine immunofluorescence of fresh frozen sections is considered the gold standard for detection of immune deposits. However, the immunoenzyme method with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections is superior for detecting IgM- or IgG-positive cells within the renal interstitium, thus histologic variants may often go undetected...
August 9, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790860/the-level-of-urinary-semaphorin3a-is-associated-with-disease-activity-in-patients-with-minimal-change-nephrotic-syndrome
#2
Akiko Inoue-Torii, Shinji Kitamura, Jun Wada, Kenji Tsuji, Hirofumi Makino
Semaphorin3A is a secreted protein known to be involved in organogenesis, immune responses and cancer. In the kidney, semaphorin3A is expressed in the glomerular podocytes, distal tubules and collecting tubules, and believed to play a role in the regulation of the kidney development and function. We examined the serum and urinary semaphorin3A levels in 72 patients with renal disease and 5 healthy volunteers. The patients had been diagnosed with thin basement membrane disease (n=4), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS; n=22), IgA nephritis (n=21), membranous nephropathy (n=16) and focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (n=9)...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774999/sexual-dimorphic-pattern-of-renal-transporters-and-electrolyte-homeostasis
#3
Luciana C Veiras, Adriana C C Girardi, Joshua Curry, Lei Pei, Donna L Ralph, An Tran, Regiane C Castelo-Branco, Nuria Pastor-Soler, Cristina T Arranz, Alan S L Yu, Alicia A McDonough
Compared with males, females have lower BP before age 60, blunted hypertensive response to angiotensin II, and a leftward shift in pressure natriuresis. This study tested the concept that this female advantage associates with a distinct sexual dimorphic pattern of transporters along the nephron. We applied quantitative immunoblotting to generate profiles of transporters, channels, claudins, and selected regulators in both sexes and assessed the physiologic consequences of the differences. In rats, females excreted a saline load more rapidly than males did...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771454/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-drives-electroneutral-nacl-reabsorption-in-intercalated-cells-by-activating-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-oxgr1
#4
Paul R Grimm, Paul A Welling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the recent discoveries about a powerful electroneutral NaCl reabsorption mechanism in intercalated cells, and its regulation by an intrarenal metabolite paracrine, α-ketoglutartate, and the G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1. RECENT FINDINGS: The distal nephron fine-tunes sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and water transport to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Intercalated cells have been traditionally viewed as the professional regulators of acid-base balance, but recent studies reveal that a specific population of intercalated cells, identified by the pendrin-transporter, have a surprising role in the regulation of salt balance...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762895/encapsulation-of-equine-ecfcs-in-highly-uniform-injectable-hydrogel-microspheres-for-local-cell-delivery
#5
Wen J Seeto, Yuan Tian, Randolph L Winter, Fred J Caldwell, Anne A Wooldridge, Elizabeth Ann Lipke
A common challenge in cell therapy is the inability to routinely maintain survival and localization of injected therapeutic cells. Delivering cells by direct injection increases the flexibility of clinical applications, but may cause low cell viability and retention rates due to the high shear force by the needle and mechanical wash out. In this study, we present a custom-built microfluidic device that is capable of rapidly encapsulating high concentrations (10 million cells per mL) of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) in poly(ethylene glycol)-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogel microspheres; resulting cell-laden microspheres are highly uniform in shape and size...
August 1, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760814/sall1-nurd-interaction-regulates-multipotent-nephron-progenitors-and-is-required-for-loop-of-henle-formation
#6
Jeannine M Basta, Lynn Robbins, Darcy R Denner, Grant R Kolar, Michael Rauchman
The formation of the proper number of nephrons requires a tightly regulated balance between renal progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation. The molecular pathways that regulate the transition from renal progenitor to renal vesicle are not well understood. Here we show that Sall1interacts with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex (NuRD) to inhibit premature differentiation of nephron progenitor cells. Disruption of Sall1-NuRD in vivo in knock-in mice (ΔSRM) resulted in accelerated differentiation of nephron progenitors and bilateral renal hypoplasia...
July 31, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760224/hemodynamic-and-renal-implications-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Alberto Tejedor Jorge
In DM2, there is increased expression of the proximal glucose transporter SGLT2. The increased glucose reabsorption from the urine to the proximal tubule and subsequently to the bloodstream, has three direct effects on the prognosis of patients with DM2: a) it increases the daily glucose load by raising the renal threshold for glucose, thus augmenting requirements for oral antidiabetics and insulin. This progressive increase occurs throughout the course of the disease and in parallel with the increase in renal mass (renal hypertrophy); b) because of the greater glucose reabsorption, glycosuria is lower than the level corresponding to glycaemia, decreasing the stimulus on the tubuloglomerular feedback system of the distal nephron...
November 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748873/apoptosis-of-rat-renal-cells-by-organophosphate-pesticide-quinalphos-ultrastructural-study
#8
Refaat A Eid
Quinalphos or Ekalux, an organophosphate pesticide, is used in controlling the pests of a variety of crops. Quinalphos was studied on male Sprague-Dawley albino rats. The acute po LD50 of technical Ekalux was 19.95 mg/kg in males. Ekalux, produced several pathological changes in the kidney. A glomerulus demonstrated capillary lumina occluded by degenerated cellular debris. Basement membrane showed irregular wrinkling and branching. The proximal tubular cells showed damage such as dilation of endoplasmic reticulum, accumulation of glycogen granules, and pyknotic nucleus...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747141/biochemical-and-pathological-changes-in-the-male-rat-kidney-and-bladder-following-exposure-to-continuous-900-mhz-electromagnetic-field-on-postnatal-days-22-59
#9
Sibel Türedi, Gökçen Kerimoğlu, Tolga Mercantepe, Ersan Odacı
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect on male rat kidney and bladder tissues of exposure to 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) applied on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 21 days, were used. These were divided equally into one of three groups, control (CG), sham (SG) or EMF (EMFG). CG was not exposed to any procedure. SG rats were kept inside a cage, without being exposed to the effect of EMF, for 1 h a day on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744758/gitelman-syndrome-an-analysis-of-the-underlying-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-of-acid-base-and-electrolyte-abnormalities
#10
REVIEW
T D Filippatos, C V Rizos, E Tzavella, M S Elisaf
Gitelman syndrome is the most common inherited tubular disease resulting from mutations of the SLC12A3 gene that encodes the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter in the early distal convoluted tubules. The review presents the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities observed in patients with Gitelman syndrome. The syndrome is usually characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. Additionally, increased chloride excretion and renin/aldosterone levels, hypophosphatemia (occasionally), hyponatremia (rarely) and glucose intolerance/insulin resistance have been reported...
July 25, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743496/wnk4-is-indispensable-for-the-pathogenesis-of-pseudohypoaldosteronism-type-ii-caused-by-mutant-klhl3
#11
Koichiro Susa, Eisei Sohara, Daiei Takahashi, Tomokazu Okado, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC signaling cascade is important for regulating salt balance and blood pressure. Activation of WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NaCl cotransporter (NCC) cascade increases sodium reabsorption in the kidney, leading to pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) characterized by salt-sensitive hypertension and hyperkalemia. It has been previously demonstrated that the amount of phosphorylated and total NCC markedly decreased in WNK4(-/-) mice, indicating that WNK4 plays a major role for activation of OSR1/SPAK-NCC signaling...
July 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742022/modeling-of-axonal-endoplasmic-reticulum-network-by-spastic-paraplegia-proteins
#12
Belgin Yalçın, Lu Zhao, Martin Stofanko, Niamh C O'Sullivan, Zi Han Kang, Annika Roost, Matthew R Thomas, Sophie Zaessinger, Olivier Blard, Alex L Patto, Anood Sohail, Valentina Baena, Mark Terasaki, Cahir J O'Kane
Axons contain a smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network that is thought to be continuous with ER throughout the neuron; the mechanisms that form this axonal network are unknown. Mutations affecting reticulon or REEP proteins, with intramembrane hairpin domains that model ER membranes, cause an axon degenerative disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We show that Drosophila axons have a dynamic axonal ER network, which these proteins help to model. Loss of HSP hairpin proteins causes ER sheet expansion, partial loss of ER from distal motor axons, and occasional discontinuities in axonal ER...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739647/compensatory-distal-reabsorption-drives-diuretic-resistance-in-human-heart-failure
#13
Veena S Rao, Noah Planavsky, Jennifer S Hanberg, Tariq Ahmad, Meredith A Brisco-Bacik, Francis P Wilson, Daniel Jacoby, Michael Chen, W H Wilson Tang, David Z I Cherney, David H Ellison, Jeffrey M Testani
Understanding the tubular location of diuretic resistance (DR) in heart failure (HF) is critical to developing targeted treatment strategies. Rodents chronically administered loop diuretics develop DR due to compensatory distal tubular sodium reabsorption, but whether this translates to human DR is unknown. We studied consecutive patients with HF (n=128) receiving treatment with loop diuretics at the Yale Transitional Care Center. We measured the fractional excretion of lithium (FELi), the gold standard for in vivo assessment of proximal tubular and loop of Henle sodium handling, to assess sodium exit after loop diuretic administration and FENa to assess the net sodium excreted into the urine...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724608/erbb4-deletion-accelerates-renal-fibrosis-following-renal-injury
#14
Fenghua Zeng, Tomoki Miyazawa, Lance A Kloepfer, Raymond C Harris
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a prominent factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) regardless of etiology. ErbB4 expression levels were inversely correlated to renal fibrosis in human fibrotic kidneys. In both unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and ischemia reperfusion injury followed by uninephrectomy (IRI/UNx) mouse models, expression levels of ErbB4 were elevated in the early stage of renal injury. Using mice with global ErbB4 deletion except for transgenic rescue in cardiac tissue (ErbB4-/-ht+), we determined that UUO induced similar injury in proximal tubules compared to wild-type mice but more severe injury in distal nephrons...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705707/gata3-as-a-valuable-marker-to-distinguish-clear-cell-papillary-renal-cell-carcinomas-from-morphologic-mimics
#15
Jose G Mantilla, Tatjana Antic, Maria Tretiakova
Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a low-grade, indolent neoplasm, with no reported cases of death from disease or metastasis. These lesions can show clinical, morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with several aggressive forms of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), including clear cell (CCRCC), translocation RCC and papillary RCC (PRCC) with cytoplasmic clearing. Given the difference in behavior, it is important to reliably separate these entities. We retrospectively reviewed 47 tumors from 45 patients with morphologic features of CCPRCC...
July 10, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699114/reversible-hypokalemia-and-bartter-like-syndrome-during-prolonged-systemic-therapy-with-colistimethate-sodium-in-an-adult-patient
#16
Tarek Kamal Eldin, Grazia Tosone, Alfredo Capuano, Raffaele Orlando
We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who developed hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis 2 weeks after therapy with colistimethate sodium for the treatment of chronic lower limb ulcer infection by extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The metabolic changes observed resembled Bartter syndrome, a group of congenital disorders affecting the distal segments of the renal tubules. The metabolic abnormalities reversed spontaneously 6 days after drug discontinuation. Acquired forms of Bartter syndrome have been reported during courses of antibiotic therapy; however, to our knowledge, this is the first documented case associated with colistimethate therapy in an adult...
December 2017: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695400/role-of-collecting-duct-renin-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Alexis A Gonzalez, Lucienne S Lara, Minolfa C Prieto
The presence of renin production by the principal cells of the collecting duct has opened new perspectives for the regulation of intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II). Angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are present in the tubular fluid coming from the proximal tubule and collecting duct. All the components needed for Ang II formation are present along the nephron, and much is known about the mechanisms regulating renin in juxtaglomerular cells (JG); however, those in the collecting duct remain unclear...
August 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688582/net-k-secretion-in-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-mice-on-a-low-na-high-k-diet
#18
Bangchen Wang, Donghai Wen, Huaqing Li, Jun Wang-France, Steven C Sansom
Because of its cardio-protective effects, a low-Na, high-K diet (LNaHK) is often warranted in conjunction with diuretics to treat hypertensive patients. However, it is necessary to understand the renal handling of such diets in order to choose the best diuretic. Wild-type (WT) or Renal Outer Medullary K channel (ROMK) knockout mice (KO) were given a regular (CTRL), LNaHK, or high-K diet (HK) for 4-7 days. On LNaHK, mice treated with either IP furosemide for 12 hrs, or given furosemide in drinking water for 7 days, exhibited decreased K clearance...
July 6, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688180/effect-of-silver-diamine-fluoride-sdf-on-the-dentin-pulp-complex-ex-vivo-histological-analysis-on-human-primary-teeth-and-rat-molars
#19
Glenda Rossi, Aldo Squassi, Patricia Mandalunis, Andrea Kaplan
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of SDF on the dentin-pulp complex using two models: teeth after SDF application (ex vivo) and experimental animal molars. A descriptive study was performed using two models. In the first model, primary teeth (ex vivo) with enamel-dentin caries, without pulp involvement and previously treated with 38% SDF, were evaluated by means of two techniques: (a) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray detector (EDS) to determine qualitative and quantitative composition, and (b) brightfield optical microscopy (OM) after decalcification...
April 2017: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685938/acquired-gitelman-syndrome-in-a-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome-patient-with-a-slc12a3-heterozygous-mutation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Xiangchen Gu, Zheling Su, Min Chen, Yanqiu Xu, Yi Wang
Acquired Gitelman's syndrome (GS) associated with Sjögren syndrome (SS) is rare. A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our department because of nausea, acratia and sicca complex. Laboratory tests after admission showed renal failure, hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria, all of which met the diagnostic criteria for GS. Diagnostic evaluation identified primary SS as the cause of the acquired GS. Light microscopy of the renal tissue from the patient showed severe membranoproliferative glomerunephritis and tubulointerstitial nephritis...
August 2017: Nephrology
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