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Distal tubule

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904298/usefulness-of-urinary-biomarkers-for-nephrotoxicity-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-treated-with-gentamicin-cisplatin-and-puromycin-aminonucleoside
#1
Hiroshi Uchino, Junko Fujishima, Kaori Fukuoka, Teppei Iwakiri, Akira Kamikuri, Hidenori Maeda, Kazuhiro Nakama
The objective of this study was to investigate the availability of novel urinary biomarkers (BMs) such as total protein, albumin, β2-microglobulin, clusterin, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for the detection of acute nephrotoxicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Animals (total 9 males/3 groups) were administered gentamicin (GM) subcutaneously at 40 mg/kg for 7 days, cisplatin (CDDP) intravenously at 3 mg/kg once and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) intravenously at 20 mg/kg for 7 days...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902937/inside-out-and-standard-vein-grafts-associated-with-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-in-sciatic-nerve-repair-a-histomorphometric-study
#2
José Sidney Roque, Karina Torres Pomini, Rogério Leone Buchaim, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Domingos Donizeti Roque, Antonio de Castro Rodrigues, Geraldo Marco Rosa, Luis Henrique Rapucci Moraes, Fausto Viterbo
Purpose: To evaluated the tubulization technique with standard and inside-out vein, filled or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), in sciatic nerve repair. Methods: Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: IOVNF (Inside-Out Vein with No Filling); IOVPRP (Inside-Out Vein filled with PRP); SVNF (Standard Vein with No Filling); SVPRP (Standard Vein filled with PRP); Sham (Control). The left external jugular vein was used as graft in a 10 mm nervous gap...
August 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898451/comparative-ultrastructure-of-coxal-glands-in-unfed-larvae-of-leptotrombidium-orientale-schluger-1948-trombiculidae-and-hydryphantes-ruber-de-geer-1778-hydryphantidae
#3
Andrey B Shatrov
Coxal glands of unfed larvae Leptotrombidium orientale (Schluger, 1948) (Trombiculidae), a terrestrial mite parasitizing vertebrates, and Hydryphantes ruber (de Geer, 1778) (Hydryphantidae), a water mite parasitizing insects were studied using transmission electron microscopy. In both species, the coxal glands are represented by a paired tubular organ extending on the sides of the brain from the mouthparts to the frontal midgut wall and are formed of the cells arranged around the central lumen. As in other Parasitengona, the coxal glands are devoid of a proximal sacculus...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882112/identification-of-adenylyl-cyclase-isoforms-mediating-parathyroid-hormone-and-calcitonin-stimulated-cyclic-amp-accumulation-in-distal-tubule-cells
#4
Wararat Kittikulsuth, Peter A Friedman, Alfred van Hoek, Yang Gao, Donald E Kohan
BACKGROUND: The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is an important nephron site for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin regulation of urinary divalent cation excretion. These hormones exert their effects on the DCT in substantial part through activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC); however, it is unknown which AC isoforms are involved. METHODS: To examine this, two mouse DCT cell lines were studied: 209 and D1 cells. AC isoform mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR...
September 7, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877879/uninephrectomy-and-apical-fluid-shear-stress-decrease-enac-abundance-in-collecting-duct-principal-cells
#5
Thomas Ernandez, Khalil Udwan, Alexandra Chassot, Pierre-Yves Martin, Eric Feraille
Acute nephron reduction such as after living kidney donation may increase the risk of hypertension. Uninephrectomy induces major hemodynamic changes in the remaining kidney resulting in rapid increase of single nephron GFR and fluid delivery in the distal nephron. Decreased sodium (Na) fractional reabsorption after the distal tubule has been reported after uninephrectomy in animals preserving volume homeostasis. In the present study, we thought to specifically explore the effect of unilateral nephrectomy on ENaC subunits expression in mice...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860117/drosophila-atlastin-in-motor-neurons-is-required-for-locomotion-and-presynaptic-function
#6
Cristian De Gregorio, Ricardo Delgado, Andrés Ibacache, Jimena Sierralta, Andrés Couve
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are characterized by spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs that result from length-dependent axonopathy of the corticospinal tracts. atlastin, the second most common HSP gene, catalyzes homotypic membrane fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules. How defects in neuronal Atlastin contribute to axonal degeneration has not been explained satisfactorily. Using Drosophila we demonstrate that downregulation or overexpression of Atlastin in motor neurons result in decreased crawling speed and contraction frequency in larvae, while adult flies show progressive decline in climbing ability...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852943/comparative-stylostome-ultrastructure-of-hirsutiella-zachvatkini-trombiculidae-and-trombidium-holosericeum-trombidiidae-larvae
#7
Andrey B Shatrov, Magdalena Felska
Stylostomes (feeding tubes) of Hirsutiella zachvatkini (Schluger) (Trombiculidae), feeding on bank voles [Myodes glareolus (Schreber)], and of Trombidium holosericeum (L.) (Trombidiidae), feeding on larvae of Stenodemini sp. (Heteroptera, Miridae), were studied by TEM methods and on semi-thin sections. The stylostome of H. zachvatkini is a homogeneous structure of low electron density and without strict margins. It extends within the concave host epidermis, undergoing hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis. TEM does not reveal any obvious stratification in the stylostome walls...
August 29, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794148/tubulointerstitial-nephritis-with-igm-positive-plasma-cells
#8
Naoki Takahashi, Takako Saeki, Atsushi Komatsuda, Chishio Munemura, Takeaki Fukui, Naofumi Imai, Noriyuki Homma, Tsuguru Hatta, Ken-Ichi Samejima, Takashi Fujimoto, Hiroki Omori, Yumi Ito, Yudai Nishikawa, Mamiko Kobayashi, Yukie Morikawa, Sachiko Fukushima, Seiji Yokoi, Daisuke Mikami, Kenji Kasuno, Hideki Kimura, Tomoyuki Nemoto, Yasunari Nakamoto, Kiyonao Sada, Manabu Sugai, Hironobu Naiki, Haruyoshi Yoshida, Ichiei Narita, Yoshihiko Saito, Masayuki Iwano
Infiltration by IgG-positive plasma cells is a common finding in tubulointerstitial nephritis. Indeed, it has been thought that CD138-positive mature plasma cells secrete mainly IgG, and the occurrence of tubulointerstitial nephritis with CD138-positive plasma cells secreting IgM has rarely been reported. Routine immunofluorescence of fresh frozen sections is considered the gold standard for detection of immune deposits. However, the immunoenzyme method with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections is superior for detecting IgM- or IgG-positive cells within the renal interstitium, thus histologic variants may often go undetected...
August 9, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790860/the-level-of-urinary-semaphorin3a-is-associated-with-disease-activity-in-patients-with-minimal-change-nephrotic-syndrome
#9
Akiko Inoue-Torii, Shinji Kitamura, Jun Wada, Kenji Tsuji, Hirofumi Makino
Semaphorin3A is a secreted protein known to be involved in organogenesis, immune responses and cancer. In the kidney, semaphorin3A is expressed in the glomerular podocytes, distal tubules and collecting tubules, and believed to play a role in the regulation of the kidney development and function. We examined the serum and urinary semaphorin3A levels in 72 patients with renal disease and 5 healthy volunteers. The patients had been diagnosed with thin basement membrane disease (n=4), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS; n=22), IgA nephritis (n=21), membranous nephropathy (n=16) and focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (n=9)...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774999/sexual-dimorphic-pattern-of-renal-transporters-and-electrolyte-homeostasis
#10
Luciana C Veiras, Adriana C C Girardi, Joshua Curry, Lei Pei, Donna L Ralph, An Tran, Regiane C Castelo-Branco, Nuria Pastor-Soler, Cristina T Arranz, Alan S L Yu, Alicia A McDonough
Compared with males, females have lower BP before age 60, blunted hypertensive response to angiotensin II, and a leftward shift in pressure natriuresis. This study tested the concept that this female advantage associates with a distinct sexual dimorphic pattern of transporters along the nephron. We applied quantitative immunoblotting to generate profiles of transporters, channels, claudins, and selected regulators in both sexes and assessed the physiologic consequences of the differences. In rats, females excreted a saline load more rapidly than males did...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771454/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-drives-electroneutral-nacl-reabsorption-in-intercalated-cells-by-activating-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-oxgr1
#11
Paul R Grimm, Paul A Welling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the recent discoveries about a powerful electroneutral NaCl reabsorption mechanism in intercalated cells, and its regulation by an intrarenal metabolite paracrine, α-ketoglutartate, and the G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1. RECENT FINDINGS: The distal nephron fine-tunes sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and water transport to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Intercalated cells have been traditionally viewed as the professional regulators of acid-base balance, but recent studies reveal that a specific population of intercalated cells, identified by the pendrin-transporter, have a surprising role in the regulation of salt balance...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762895/encapsulation-of-equine-ecfcs-in-highly-uniform-injectable-hydrogel-microspheres-for-local-cell-delivery
#12
Wen J Seeto, Yuan Tian, Randolph L Winter, Fred J Caldwell, Anne A Wooldridge, Elizabeth Ann Lipke
A common challenge in cell therapy is the inability to routinely maintain survival and localization of injected therapeutic cells. Delivering cells by direct injection increases the flexibility of clinical applications, but may cause low cell viability and retention rates due to the high shear force by the needle and mechanical wash out. In this study, we present a custom-built microfluidic device that is capable of rapidly encapsulating high concentrations (10 million cells per mL) of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) in poly(ethylene glycol)-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogel microspheres; resulting cell-laden microspheres are highly uniform in shape and size...
August 1, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760814/sall1-nurd-interaction-regulates-multipotent-nephron-progenitors-and-is-required-for-loop-of-henle-formation
#13
Jeannine M Basta, Lynn Robbins, Darcy R Denner, Grant R Kolar, Michael Rauchman
The formation of the proper number of nephrons requires a tightly regulated balance between renal progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation. The molecular pathways that regulate the transition from renal progenitor to renal vesicle are not well understood. Here we show that Sall1interacts with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex (NuRD) to inhibit premature differentiation of nephron progenitor cells. Disruption of Sall1-NuRD in vivo in knock-in mice (ΔSRM) resulted in accelerated differentiation of nephron progenitors and bilateral renal hypoplasia...
July 31, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760224/hemodynamic-and-renal-implications-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Alberto Tejedor Jorge
In DM2, there is increased expression of the proximal glucose transporter SGLT2. The increased glucose reabsorption from the urine to the proximal tubule and subsequently to the bloodstream, has three direct effects on the prognosis of patients with DM2: a) it increases the daily glucose load by raising the renal threshold for glucose, thus augmenting requirements for oral antidiabetics and insulin. This progressive increase occurs throughout the course of the disease and in parallel with the increase in renal mass (renal hypertrophy); b) because of the greater glucose reabsorption, glycosuria is lower than the level corresponding to glycaemia, decreasing the stimulus on the tubuloglomerular feedback system of the distal nephron...
November 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748873/apoptosis-of-rat-renal-cells-by-organophosphate-pesticide-quinalphos-ultrastructural-study
#15
Refaat A Eid
Quinalphos or Ekalux, an organophosphate pesticide, is used in controlling the pests of a variety of crops. Quinalphos was studied on male Sprague-Dawley albino rats. The acute po LD50 of technical Ekalux was 19.95 mg/kg in males. Ekalux, produced several pathological changes in the kidney. A glomerulus demonstrated capillary lumina occluded by degenerated cellular debris. Basement membrane showed irregular wrinkling and branching. The proximal tubular cells showed damage such as dilation of endoplasmic reticulum, accumulation of glycogen granules, and pyknotic nucleus...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747141/biochemical-and-pathological-changes-in-the-male-rat-kidney-and-bladder-following-exposure-to-continuous-900-mhz-electromagnetic-field-on-postnatal-days-22-59
#16
Sibel Türedi, Gökçen Kerimoğlu, Tolga Mercantepe, Ersan Odacı
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect on male rat kidney and bladder tissues of exposure to 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) applied on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 21 days, were used. These were divided equally into one of three groups, control (CG), sham (SG) or EMF (EMFG). CG was not exposed to any procedure. SG rats were kept inside a cage, without being exposed to the effect of EMF, for 1 h a day on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744758/gitelman-syndrome-an-analysis-of-the-underlying-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-of-acid-base-and-electrolyte-abnormalities
#17
REVIEW
T D Filippatos, C V Rizos, E Tzavella, M S Elisaf
Gitelman syndrome is the most common inherited tubular disease resulting from mutations of the SLC12A3 gene that encodes the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter in the early distal convoluted tubules. The review presents the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities observed in patients with Gitelman syndrome. The syndrome is usually characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. Additionally, increased chloride excretion and renin/aldosterone levels, hypophosphatemia (occasionally), hyponatremia (rarely) and glucose intolerance/insulin resistance have been reported...
July 25, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743496/wnk4-is-indispensable-for-the-pathogenesis-of-pseudohypoaldosteronism-type-ii-caused-by-mutant-klhl3
#18
Koichiro Susa, Eisei Sohara, Daiei Takahashi, Tomokazu Okado, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC signaling cascade is important for regulating salt balance and blood pressure. Activation of WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NaCl cotransporter (NCC) cascade increases sodium reabsorption in the kidney, leading to pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) characterized by salt-sensitive hypertension and hyperkalemia. It has been previously demonstrated that the amount of phosphorylated and total NCC markedly decreased in WNK4(-/-) mice, indicating that WNK4 plays a major role for activation of OSR1/SPAK-NCC signaling...
September 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742022/modeling-of-axonal-endoplasmic-reticulum-network-by-spastic-paraplegia-proteins
#19
Belgin Yalçın, Lu Zhao, Martin Stofanko, Niamh C O'Sullivan, Zi Han Kang, Annika Roost, Matthew R Thomas, Sophie Zaessinger, Olivier Blard, Alex L Patto, Anood Sohail, Valentina Baena, Mark Terasaki, Cahir J O'Kane
Axons contain a smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network that is thought to be continuous with ER throughout the neuron; the mechanisms that form this axonal network are unknown. Mutations affecting reticulon or REEP proteins, with intramembrane hairpin domains that model ER membranes, cause an axon degenerative disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We show that Drosophila axons have a dynamic axonal ER network, which these proteins help to model. Loss of HSP hairpin proteins causes ER sheet expansion, partial loss of ER from distal motor axons, and occasional discontinuities in axonal ER...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739647/compensatory-distal-reabsorption-drives-diuretic-resistance-in-human-heart-failure
#20
Veena S Rao, Noah Planavsky, Jennifer S Hanberg, Tariq Ahmad, Meredith A Brisco-Bacik, Francis P Wilson, Daniel Jacoby, Michael Chen, W H Wilson Tang, David Z I Cherney, David H Ellison, Jeffrey M Testani
Understanding the tubular location of diuretic resistance (DR) in heart failure (HF) is critical to developing targeted treatment strategies. Rodents chronically administered loop diuretics develop DR due to compensatory distal tubular sodium reabsorption, but whether this translates to human DR is unknown. We studied consecutive patients with HF (n=128) receiving treatment with loop diuretics at the Yale Transitional Care Center. We measured the fractional excretion of lithium (FELi), the gold standard for in vivo assessment of proximal tubular and loop of Henle sodium handling, to assess sodium exit after loop diuretic administration and FENa to assess the net sodium excreted into the urine...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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