keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Distal tubule

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341694/mineralocorticoid-receptor-and-nacl-transport-mechanisms-in-the-renal-distal-nephron
#1
Shigeru Shibata
A key role of aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor is to regulate fluid volume and K+ homeostasis in the body by acting on the renal distal nephron. Global responses of the kidney to elevated aldosterone levels are determined by the coordinate action of different constituent tubule cells, including principal cells, intercalated cells, and distal convoluted tubule cells. Recent studies on genetic mutations causing aldosterone overproduction have identified molecules involved in aldosterone biosynthesis in the adrenal gland, and there is also increasing evidence for mechanisms and signaling pathways regulating the balance between renal NaCl reabsorption and K+ secretion, the two major effects of aldosterone...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331059/adaptive-changes-in-gfr-tubular-morphology-and-transport-in-subtotal-nephrectomized-kidneys-modeling-and-analysis
#2
Anita T Layton, Aurélie Edwards, Volker Vallon
Removal of renal mass stimulates anatomical and functional adaptations in the surviving nephrons, including elevation in single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) and tubular hypertrophy. A goal of this study is to assess the extent to which the concomitant increases in filtered load and tubular transport capacity preserve homeostasis of water and salt. To accomplish that goal, we developed computational models to simulate solute transport and metabolism along nephron populations in a uninephrectomized (UNX) rat and a 5/6-nephrectomized (5/6-NX) rat...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322790/short-chain-fatty-acids-gpr41-and-gpr43-ligands-inhibit-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-mcp-1-expression-by-modulating-p38-and-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-human-renal-cortical-epithelial-cells
#3
Mamiko Kobayashi, Daisuke Mikami, Hideki Kimura, Kazuko Kamiyama, Yukie Morikawa, Seiji Yokoi, Kenji Kasuno, Naoki Takahashi, Takanobu Taniguchi, Masayuki Iwano
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced predominantly by gut microbiota fermentation of dietary fiber. SCFAs are newly identified as endogenous ligands of two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, which have the potential to modulate inflammation. Therefore, GPR41 and GPR43 may mediate the link between the gut microbiome status and various disease conditions including renal inflammation. This study aimed at investigating whether SCFAs activate GPR41 and GPR43, and thereby exert anti-inflammatory effects in human renal cortical epithelial cells (HRCEs) as a main component of kidney tissue...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317878/kidney-specific-transposon-mediated-gene-transfer-in-vivo
#4
Lauren E Woodard, Jizhong Cheng, Richard C Welch, Felisha M Williams, Wentian Luo, Leslie S Gewin, Matthew H Wilson
Methods enabling kidney-specific gene transfer in adult mice are needed to develop new therapies for kidney disease. We attempted kidney-specific gene transfer following hydrodynamic tail vein injection using the kidney-specific podocin and gamma-glutamyl transferase promoters, but found expression primarily in the liver. In order to achieve kidney-specific transgene expression, we tested direct hydrodynamic injection of a DNA solution into the renal pelvis and found that luciferase expression was strong in the kidney and absent from extra-renal tissues...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292888/antibody-mediated-inhibition-of-egfr-reduces-phosphate-excretion-and-induces-hyperphosphatemia-and-mild-hypomagnesemia-in-mice
#5
Bernardo Ortega, Jason M Dey, Allison R Gardella, Jacob Proano, Deanna Vaneerde
Monoclonal antibody therapies targeting the EGF receptor (EGFR) frequently result in hypomagnesemia in human patients. In contrast, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors do not affect Mg(2+) balance in patients and only have a mild effect on Mg(2+) homeostasis in rodents at elevated doses. EGF has also been shown to affect phosphate (Pi) transport in rat and rabbit proximal convoluted tubules (PCT), but evidence from studies targeting EGFR and looking at Pi excretion in whole animals is still missing. Thus, the role of EGF in regulating reabsorption of Mg(2+) and/or Pi in the kidney remains controversial...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289184/renal-tubular-ubiquitin-protein-ligase-nedd4-2-is-required-for-renal-adaptation-during-long-term-potassium-depletion
#6
Lama Al-Qusairi, Denis Basquin, Ankita Roy, Renuga Devi Rajaram, Marc P Maillard, Arohan R Subramanya, Olivier Staub
Adaptation of the organism to potassium (K(+)) deficiency requires precise coordination among organs involved in K(+) homeostasis, including muscle, liver, and kidney. How the latter performs functional and molecular changes to ensure K(+) retention is not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-2, which negatively regulates the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), and with no-lysine-kinase 1 (WNK1). After dietary K(+) restriction for 2 weeks, compared with control littermates, inducible renal tubular NEDD4-2 knockout (Nedd4L(Pax8/LC1) ) mice exhibited severe hypokalemia and urinary K(+) wasting...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274929/hydrochlorothiazide-treatment-increases-the-abundance-of-the-nacl-cotransporter-in-urinary-extracellular-vesicles-of-essential-hypertensive-patients
#7
Ganesh Pathare, Omar A Z Tutakhel, Mark C V D Wel, Luke M Shelton, Jaap Deinum, Jacques W Lenders, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels
The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC), located apically in distal convoluted tubule epithelia, regulates the fine-tuning of renal sodium excretion. Three isoforms of NCC are generated through alternative splicing of the transcript, of which the third isoform has been the most extensively investigated in pathophysiological conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different anti-hypertensive treatments on the abundance and phosphorylation of all three NCC isoforms in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) of essential hypertensive patients...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274923/effect-of-diuretics-on-renal-tubular-transport-of-calcium-and-magnesium
#8
R Todd Alexander, Henrik Dimke
Calcium (Ca2+) and Magnesium (Mg2+) reabsorption along the renal tubule is dependent on distinct trans- and paracellular pathways. Our understanding of the molecular machinery involved is increasing. Ca2+ and Mg2+ reclamation in kidney is dependent on a diverse array of proteins, which are important for both forming divalent cation permeable pores and channels, but also for generating the necessary driving forces for Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport. Alterations in these molecular constituents lead to profound effects on tubular Ca2+ and Mg2+ handling...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254523/transcriptomic-analysis-and-plasma-metabolomics-in-aldh16a1-null-mice-reveals-a-potential-role-of-aldh16a1-in-renal-function
#9
Georgia Charkoftaki, Ying Chen, Ming Han, Monica Sandoval, Xiaoqing Yu, Hongyu Zhao, David J Orlicky, David C Thompson, Vasilis Vasiliou
ALDH16A1 is a novel member of the ALDH superfamily that is enzymatically-inactive and highly expressed in the kidney. Recent studies identified an association between a rare missense single nucleotide variant (SNV) in the ALDH16A1 gene and elevated serum uric acid levels and gout. The present study explores the mechanisms by which ALDH16A1 influences uric acid homeostasis in the kidney. We generated and validated a mouse line with global disruption of the Aldh16a1 gene through gene targeting and performed RNA-seq analyses in the kidney of wild-type (WT) and Aldh16a1 knockout (KO) mice, along with plasma metabolomics...
February 28, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252422/sorption-correction-of-nephron-sub-microscopic-changes-caused-by-neoplastic-chronic-intoxication-with-the-application-of-cytostatic-therapy
#10
Yu Soroka, N Lisnychuk, I Demkiv, O Oleshchuk
The electron microscopic changes of the nephron structural components under conditions of dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis with the development of colorectal adenocarcinoma in situ were evaluated. Destructive changes in epitheliocytes of proximal and distal tubules of the nephron, microcirculation disturbances in renal corpuscles and tubular structure are evidences of disorder in urine formation stages. Аdministration of cytostatics aggravates the degree of destructive changes in the kidney. The application of carbon enterosorbent of IV generation "Carboline" for chronic neoplastic endotoxemia correction in combination with chemotherapy components significantly reduces the structural changes of the cortical substance of the kidneys, activates processes of reparative regeneration...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250303/non-uniform-progression-of-chronic-tubulointerstitial-nephritis-and-widespread-nephrocalcification-in-a-patient-with-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Sho Hasegawa, Maki Shibata, Makoto Mochizuki, Takashi Katsuki, Manami Tada, Fumihiko Hinoshita
Although patients with anorexia nervosa (anorexia) are known to show tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), the pathophysiology of its progression is not fully understood. We herein report a 31-year-old woman with anorexia who showed acute exacerbation of chronic kidney disease. Renal biopsy showed non-uniform chronic TIN; some areas were obsolete lesions and other areas were active lesions. In addition, many calcium-containing crystals were widely deposited in the distal tubules. The results suggest that chronic TIN in the setting of anorexia does not uniformly progress and that not only TIN but also widespread calcification of distal tubules might aggravate the renal function of anorexia patients...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250053/two-photon-intravital-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-of-the-kidney-reveals-cell-type-specific-metabolic-signatures
#12
Takashi Hato, Seth Winfree, Richard Day, Ruben M Sandoval, Bruce A Molitoris, Mervin C Yoder, Roger C Wiggins, Yi Zheng, Kenneth W Dunn, Pierre C Dagher
In the live animal, tissue autofluorescence arises from a number of biologically important metabolites, such as the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Because autofluorescence changes with metabolic state, it can be harnessed as a label-free imaging tool with which to study metabolism in vivo Here, we used the combination of intravital two-photon microscopy and frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to map cell-specific metabolic signatures in the kidneys of live animals...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196131/altered-renal-sodium-handling-and-risk-of-incident-hypertension-results-of-the-olivetti-heart-study
#13
Lanfranco D'Elia, Francesco P Cappuccio, Roberto Iacone, Ornella Russo, Ferruccio Galletti, Pasquale Strazzullo
Renal tubular sodium (Na) handling plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Several cross-sectional studies reported a positive association between higher proximal tubule fractional reabsorption of Na and BP, but no prospective investigation has been reported of this possible association. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate the predictive role of renal Na handling on the risk of incident hypertension and the changes in BP occurring in the 8-year follow-up observation of a sample of initially normotensive men (The Olivetti Heart Study)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190920/acute-alloxan-renal-toxicity-in-the-rat-initially-causes-degeneration-of-thick-ascending-limbs-of-henle
#14
Yui Terayama, Yasushi Kodama, Tetsuro Matsuura, Kiyokazu Ozaki
Alloxan (AL) is a material well-known to induce diabetes. Prior to inducing a prolonged diabetic state, AL causes acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. However, the precise primary target site and mechanism of its nephrotoxicity remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics relevant to acute renal toxicity following AL administration. Rats were intravenously treated with AL. Eight hours after AL treatment, aquaporin 1-negative and Na/K pump-positive thick ascending limbs of Henle (TAL) were degenerated in the outer medulla...
January 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187982/the-renal-trpv4-channel-is-essential-for-adaptation-to-increased-dietary-potassium
#15
Mykola V Mamenko, Nabila Boukelmoune, Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg L Zaika, V Behrana Jensen, Roger G O'Neil, Oleh M Pochynyuk
To maintain potassium homeostasis, kidneys exert flow-dependent potassium secretion to facilitate kaliuresis in response to elevated dietary potassium intake. This process involves stimulation of calcium-activated large conductance maxi-K (BK) channels in the distal nephron, namely the connecting tubule and the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that the TRPV4 channel is a critical determinant of flow-dependent intracellular calcium elevations in these segments of the renal tubule. Here, we demonstrate that elevated dietary potassium intake (five percent potassium) increases renal TRPV4 mRNA and protein levels in an aldosterone-dependent manner and causes redistribution of the channel to the apical plasma membrane in native collecting duct cells...
February 7, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179254/a-mathematical-model-of-the-rat-kidney-k-induced-natriuresis
#16
Alan M Weinstein
A model of the rat nephron (Am. J. Physiol. 308:F1098, 2015) has been extended with addition of medullary vasculature. Blood vessels contain solutes from the nephron model, plus additional species from the model of Atherton et al. (Am. J. Physiol. 247:F61, 1984), representing hemoglobin buffering. In contrast to prior models of the urine concentrating mechanism, reflection coefficients for DVR are near zero. Model unknowns are initial proximal tubule pressures and flows, connecting tubule pressure, and medullary interstitial pressures and concentrations...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174181/cardiovascular-benefits-associated-with-higher-dietary-k-versus-lower-dietary-na-evidence-from-population-and-mechanistic-studies
#17
Alicia A McDonough, Luciana C Veiras, Claire A Guevara, Donna L Ralph
The WHO ranks hypertension the leading global risk factor for disease, specifically, cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure is higher in westernized populations consuming sodium-rich processed foods compared to isolated societies consuming potassium-rich natural foods. Evidence suggests that lowering dietary Na(+) is particularly beneficial in hypertensives who consume a high Na(+) diet. Nonetheless, numerous population studies demonstrate a relationship between higher dietary K(+), estimated from urinary excretion or dietary recall, and lower blood pressure regardless of sodium intake...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148531/primary-proximal-tubule-hyperreabsorption-and-impaired-tubular-transport-counterregulation-determine-glomerular-hyperfiltration-in-diabetes-a-modeling-analysis
#18
Karen Melissa Hallow, Yeshitila Gebremichael, Gabriel Helmlinger, Volker Vallon
Glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration in early diabetes is associated with development and progression of diabetic kidney disease. The tubular hypothesis of diabetic hyperfiltration proposes that it is initiated by a primary increase in sodium (Na) reabsorption in the proximal tubule (PT) and the resulting tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response and lowering of Bowman space pressure (PBow). Here we utilized a mathematical model of the human kidney to investigate over acute and chronic timescales the mechanisms responsible for the magnitude of the hyperfiltration response...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133684/antioxidant-effect-of-vitamin-e-and-5-aminosalicylic-acid-on-acrylamide-induced-kidney-injury-in-rats
#19
Nisreen A Rajeh, Najlaa M Al-Dhaheri
To explore renal toxicity caused by sub-acute exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and Vitamin E (vit-E)on Acrylamide (ACR) induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g) aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone)...
February 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125972/gitelman-syndrome-in-a-south-african-family-presenting-with-hypokalaemia-and-unusual-food-cravings
#20
Pieter Du Toit van der Merwe, Megan A Rensburg, William L Haylett, Soraya Bardien, M Razeen Davids
BACKGROUND: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterised by renal salt wasting with hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria. It is caused by mutations in SLC12A3 encoding the sodium-chloride cotransporter on the apical membrane of the distal convoluted tubule. We report a South African family with five affected individuals presenting with hypokalaemia and unusual food cravings. METHODS: The affected individuals and two unaffected first degree relatives were enrolled into the study...
January 26, 2017: BMC Nephrology
keyword
keyword
67921
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"