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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636485/mineralocorticoids-modulate-the-expression-of-the-beta-3-subunit-of-the-na-k-atpase-in-the-renal-collecting-duct
#1
Macarena Rojas, Pablo Díaz, Pablo León, Alexis A González, Magdalena González, Víctor Barrientos, Nikolay B Pestov, Rodrigo Alzamora, Luis Michea
Renal sodium reabsorption depends on the activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α/β heterodimer. Four α (α1-4) and three β (β1-3) subunit isoforms have been described. It is accepted that renal tubule cells express α1/β1 dimers. Aldosterone stimulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and may modulate α1/β1 expression. However, some studies suggest the presence of β3 in the kidney. We hypothesized that the β3 isoform of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is expressed in tubular cells of the distal nephron, and modulated by mineralocorticoids...
June 21, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614118/the-renal-response-to-potassium-stress-integrating-past-with-present
#2
Cary R Boyd-Shiwarski, Arohan R Subramanya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review combines past findings with recent advances in our understanding of the homeostatic response to potassium imbalance. RECENT FINDINGS: Following the ingestion of a dietary potassium load, a combination of extrarenal and renal mechanisms act to maintain extracellular K+ within a tight window. Through hormonal regulation and direct K+ sensing, the nephron is ideally suited to respond to wide shifts in external K+ balance. Current evidence indicates that dietary K+ loading triggers a coordinated kaliuretic response that appears to involve voltage-dependent changes in sodium transport across multiple nephron segments, including the proximal tubule, medullary loop of Henle, and distal tubule...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606862/pathogenicity-profile-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-farmed-pacific-white-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei
#3
R Ananda Raja, R Sridhar, C Balachandran, A Palanisammi, S Ramesh, K Nagarajan
A pathobiological study was conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) strain isolated from vibriosis affected shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) farms in Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu during August 2014 to February 2015. The isolate was identified based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters. LD50 value with intramuscular injection was determined as 2.6 × 10(4) cfu/shrimp and sequential pathology was studied giving 6.1 × 10(3) cfu/shrimp (LD25). Total plate count (TPC) and total Vibrio count (TVC) in water, pond sediment, haemolymph, muscle, HP and gut were found significantly (P < 0...
June 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577072/regulation-of-renal-na-k-cl-cotransporters-by-vasopressin
#4
REVIEW
Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Vasopressin (AVP) induces antidiuresis, thus playing an essential role in body water and electrolyte homeostasis. Its antidiuretic effects are mediated chiefly by V2 vasopressin receptors (V2R) expressed along the distal nephron and collecting duct epithelia. NaCl reabsorption in the distal nephron, which includes the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT), largely depends on the activity of two structurally related Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters, NKCC2 in TAL and NCC in DCT. AVP-induced activation of these transporters contributes to urine concentration and renal electrolyte reabsorption...
June 2, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566500/gender-difference-in-electrolyte-transport-i-role-of-at1a-receptor-in-thiazide-sensitive-na-cl-cotransporter-activity-and-expression-in-male-and-female-mice
#5
Jing Li, Ryo Hatano, Shuhua Xu, Laxiang Wan, Lei Yang, Alan M Weinstein, Lawrence G Palmer, Tong Wang
We studied gender differences in NCC activity and expression in wild-type (WT) and AT1a receptor knockout (KO) mice. In renal clearance experiments, urine volume (UV), GFR, absolute Na and K (ENa; EK) and fractional Na and K (FENa; FEK) excretion were measured and compared at peak changes after bolus iv injection of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 30mg/kg). In WT, females responded more strongly than males to HCTZ, with larger fractional increases of UV (7.8- vs. 3.4-fold), ENa (11.7- vs. 5.7-fold), FENa (7.9-vs...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545410/combined-proximal-tubulopathy-crystal-storing-histiocytosis-and-cast-nephropathy-in-a-patient-with-light-chain-multiple-myeloma
#6
Chung-Kuan Wu, An-Hang Yang, Hung-Chih Lai, Bing-Shi Lin
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of myeloma, a plasma dyscrasia, often results from the workup of unexplained renal disease. Persistent renal failure in myeloma is commonly caused by tubular nephropathy due to circulating immunoglobulins and free light chains. Myeloma cast nephropathy is characterized by crystalline precipitates of monoclonal light chains within distal tubules. Immunoglobulin crystallization rarely occurs intracellularly, within proximal tubular cells (light chain proximal tubulopathy) and interstitial histiocytes (crystal-storing histiocytosis)...
May 25, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534087/interspecies-differences-in-pth-mediated-pka-phosphorylation-of-the-epithelial-calcium-channel-trpv5
#7
Mark K van Goor, Sjoerd Verkaart, Teunis J van Dam, Martijn A Huynen, Jenny van der Wijst
The epithelial calcium (Ca(2+)) channel TRPV5 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 5) is expressed in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney and facilitates active Ca(2+) reabsorption. This process is instrumental for the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis. Therefore, all aspects of TRPV5 function are tightly regulated by the calciotropic parathyroid hormone (PTH). Rabbit (rb)TRPV5 channel activity was shown to be stimulated upon PTH-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation. Since there is incomplete conservation of the PKA consensus motif (RR/QxT) across species, the aim of this study was to extend these findings to humans and characterize the expression and function of human (h)TRPV5...
May 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507171/first-in-man-demonstration-of-direct-endothelin-mediated-natriuresis-and-diuresis
#8
Robert W Hunter, Rebecca Moorhouse, Tariq E Farrah, Iain M MacIntyre, Takae Asai, Peter J Gallacher, Debbie Kerr, Vanessa Melville, Alicja Czopek, Emma E Morrison, Jess R Ivy, James W Dear, Matthew A Bailey, Jane Goddard, David J Webb, Neeraj Dhaun
Endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists are potentially novel therapeutic agents in chronic kidney disease and resistant hypertension, but their use is complicated by sodium and water retention. In animal studies, this side effect arises from ETB receptor blockade in the renal tubule. Previous attempts to determine whether this mechanism operates in humans have been confounded by the hemodynamic consequences of ET receptor stimulation/blockade. We aimed to determine the effects of ET signaling on salt transport in the human nephron by administering subpressor doses of the ET-1 precursor, big ET-1...
May 15, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499081/negative-correlation-between-serum-uric-acid-and-kidney-urat1-mrna-expression-caused-by-resveratrol-in-rats
#9
Cheng-Tse Lee, Li-Ching Chang, Ching-Wen Liu, Pei-Fung Wu
SCOPE: This study established a hyperuricemic rat model to elucidate the effect of resveratrol on the transport of UA in the kidney. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hyperuricemia was induced in rats through daily oral gavage of a potassium oxonate and UA mixture over 3 weeks. Our results revealed that resveratrol significantly reduced the serum UA levels but not creatinine, c-creative protein, alanine aminotransferase, or aspartate aminotransferase levels in these rats. Furthermore, renal URAT1 and OAT1 mRNA expression were significantly higher in the rats treated with allopurinol than in those with no treatment...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494709/hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-california-sea-lions-zalophus-californianus-pathologic-findings-in-natural-infections
#10
Mauricio Seguel, Nicole L Gottdenker, Kathleen Colegrove, Shawn Johnson, Carsten Struve, Elizabeth W Howerth
Tissues of stranded California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus) naturally infected with a hyperviruluent strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae were examined by histopathology and immunohistochemistry against the K. pneumoniae K2 capsular antigen. In 7 of 8 animals, there was severe purulent bronchopneumonia, sometimes complicated by fibrinonecrotizing pleuritis with pyothorax. In affected areas of lung, large numbers of degenerate neutrophils and macrophages were admixed with rare large extracellular and intracellular gram-negative bacilli surrounded by a prominent capsule...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493961/aldosterone-signaling-regulates-the-over-expression-of-claudin-4-and-8-at-the-distal-nephron-from-type-1-diabetic-rats
#11
Eduardo Molina-Jijón, Rafael Rodríguez-Muñoz, Ricardo González-Ramírez, Carmen Namorado-Tónix, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Jose L Reyes
Hyperglycemia in diabetes alters tight junction (TJ) proteins in the kidney. We evaluated the participation of aldosterone (ALD), and the effect of spironolactone (SPL), a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, on the expressions of claudin-2, -4, -5 and -8, and occludin in glomeruli, proximal and distal tubules isolated from diabetic rats. Type 1 diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats by a single tail vein injection of streptozotocin (STZ), and SPL was administrated daily by gavage, from days 3-21. Twenty-one days after STZ injection the rats were sacrificed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486600/sclt1-deficiency-causes-cystic-kidney-by-activating-erk-and-stat3-signaling
#12
Jianshuang Li, Di Lu, Huadie Liu, Bart O Williams, Paul A Overbeek, Brendan Lee, Ling Zheng, Tao Yang
Ciliopathies form a group of inherited disorders sharing several clinical manifestations due to abnormal cilia formation or function, and few treatments have been successful against these disorders. Here, we report a mouse model with mutated Sclt1 gene, which encodes a centriole distal appendage protein important for ciliogenesis. SCLT1 mutations were associated with the oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD), an autosomal recessive ciliopathy. The Sclt1-/- mice exhibit typical ciliopathy phenotypes, including cystic kidney, cleft palate, and polydactyly...
May 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476225/genetics-of-diabetes-insipidus
#13
REVIEW
Marie Helene Schernthaner-Reiter, Constantine A Stratakis, Anton Luger
Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterized by polyuria and polydipsia due to inadequate release of arginine vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus) or due to arginine vasopressin insensitivity by the renal distal tubule, leading to a deficiency in tubular water reabsorption (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). This article reviews the genetics of diabetes insipidus in the context of its diagnosis, clinical presentation, and therapy.
June 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471235/mechanism-of-grape-seeds-extract-protection-against-paracetamol-renal-cortical-damage-in-male-albino-rats
#14
S M N Abdel-Hafez, R A Rifaai, W Y Abd Elzaher
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the possible protective role of grape seeds extract (GSE) in ameliorating the toxic effects of paracetamol overdose on the rat renal cortical tissue. BACKGROUND: Paracetamol is one of the widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Unfortunately, it was reported as the most common cause of toxic ingestion in the world. Grape seeds extract (GSE) is known to have a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461473/ildr1-is-important-for-paracellular-water-transport-and-urine-concentration-mechanism
#15
Yongfeng Gong, Nina Himmerkus, Abby Sunq, Susanne Milatz, Cosima Merkel, Markus Bleich, Jianghui Hou
Whether the tight junction is permeable to water remains highly controversial. Here, we provide evidence that the tricellular tight junction is important for paracellular water permeation and that Ig-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1) regulates its permeability. In the mouse kidney, ILDR1 is localized to tricellular tight junctions of the distal tubules. Genetic knockout of Ildr1 in the mouse kidney causes polyuria and polydipsia due to renal concentrating defects. Microperfusion of live renal distal tubules reveals that they are impermeable to water in normal animals but become highly permeable to water in Ildr1 knockout animals whereas paracellular ionic permeabilities in the Ildr1 knockout mouse renal tubules are not affected...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446322/-research-advances-in-treatment-of-myeloma-nephropathy-review
#16
Xiao-Ping Zhang, Zu-Yao Xia, Bao-An Chen, Chong Gao
Myeloma nephropathy is a common complication in patients with myltiple myeloma (MM) that causes high morbidity. In the majority of cases, renal impairment is caused by the accumulation and precipitation of light chains, which form casts in the distal tubules, resulting in renal obstruction. This review discusses the recent advances on its treatment, so as to provide reference for clinical treatment of MM induced-renal failure.
April 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442491/constitutively-active-spak-causes-hyperkalemia-by-activating-ncc-and-remodeling-distal-tubules
#17
P Richard Grimm, Richard Coleman, Eric Delpire, Paul A Welling
Aberrant activation of with no lysine (WNK) kinases causes familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt). Thiazide diuretics treat the disease, fostering the view that hyperactivation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is solely responsible. However, aberrant signaling in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and inhibition of the potassium-excretory renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel have also been implicated. To test these ideas, we introduced kinase-activating mutations after Lox-P sites in the mouse Stk39 gene, which encodes the terminal kinase in the WNK signaling pathway, Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414128/impaired-degradation-of-medullary-wnk4-in-the-kidneys-of-klhl2-knockout-mice
#18
Yuri Kasagi, Daiei Takahashi, Tomomi Aida, Hidenori Nishida, Naohiro Nomura, Moko Zeniya, Takayasu Mori, Emi Sasaki, Fumiaki Ando, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida, Eisei Sohara
Mutations in the with-no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1), WNK4, Kelch-like 3 (KLHL3), and Cullin3 (CUL3) genes were identified as being responsible for hereditary hypertensive disease pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII). Normally, the KLHL3/CUL3 ubiquitin ligase complex degrades WNKs. In PHAII, the loss of interaction between KLHL3 and WNK4 increases levels of WNKs because of impaired ubiquitination, leading to abnormal over-activation of the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade in the kidney's distal convoluted tubules (DCT)...
May 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409341/zebrafish-pronephros-development
#19
Richard W Naylor, Sarah S Qubisi, Alan J Davidson
The pronephros is the first kidney type to form in vertebrate embryos. The first step of pronephrogenesis in the zebrafish is the formation of the intermediate mesoderm during gastrulation, which occurs in response to secreted morphogens such as BMPs and Nodals. Patterning of the intermediate mesoderm into proximal and distal cell fates is induced by retinoic acid signaling with downstream transcription factors including wt1a, pax2a, pax8, hnf1b, sim1a, mecom, and irx3b. In the anterior intermediate mesoderm, progenitors of the glomerular blood filter migrate and fuse at the midline and recruit a blood supply...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408636/aldosterone-regulates-a-5-variant-sgk1-transcript-via-a-shared-hormone-response-element-in-the-sgk1-5-regulatory-region
#20
Nandita S Raikwar, Christie P Thomas
We previously identified a 5' variant alternate transcript of Sgk1 (Sgk1_v3) encoding an NH2-terminal variant Sgk1 isoform, Sgk1_i3 that, like Sgk1, is expressed in the distal convoluted tubule, connecting tubule and collecting duct and can stimulate epithelial Na(+) transport (Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 303: F1527-F1533, 2012). We now demonstrate that, similar to Sgk1, aldosterone and glucocorticoids stimulate Sgk1_v3 expression in cell lines from the collecting duct and airway epithelia. In mice, short term aldosterone infusion and maneuvers that increase endogenous aldosterone secretion including dietary Na(+) deprivation and K(+) loading increases distal nephron Sgk1_v3 expression in vivo...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
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