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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915449/common-variants-in-cldn14-are-associated-with-differential-excretion-of-magnesium-over-calcium-in-urine
#1
REVIEW
Tanguy Corre, Eric Olinger, Sarah E Harris, Michela Traglia, Sheila Ulivi, Stefania Lenarduzzi, Hendrica Belge, Sonia Youhanna, Natsuko Tokonami, Olivier Bonny, Pascal Houillier, Ozren Polasek, Ian J Deary, John M Starr, Daniela Toniolo, Paolo Gasparini, Peter Vollenweider, Caroline Hayward, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
The nature and importance of genetic factors regulating the differential handling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) by the renal tubule in the general population are poorly defined. We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio to identify associated common genetic variants. We included 9320 adults of European descent from four genetic isolates and three urban cohorts. Urinary magnesium and calcium concentrations were measured centrally in spot urine, and each study conducted linear regression analysis of urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio on ~2...
December 3, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909897/nha2-is-expressed-in-distal-nephron-and-regulated-by-dietary-sodium
#2
Kalyan C Kondapalli, R Todd Alexander, Jennifer L Pluznick, Rajini Rao
Increased renal reabsorption of sodium is a significant risk factor in hypertension. An established clinical marker for essential hypertension is elevated sodium lithium countertransport (SLC) activity. NHA2 is a newly identified Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter with potential genetic links to hypertension, which has been shown to mediate SLC activity and H(+)-coupled Na(+)(Li(+)) efflux in kidney-derived MDCK cells. To evaluate a putative role in sodium homeostasis, we determined the effect of dietary salt on NHA2...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908582/effect-of-curcumin-on-kidney-histopathological-changes-lipid-peroxidation-and-total-antioxidant-capacity-of-serum-in-sodium-arsenite-treated-mice
#3
Hamid Reza Momeni, Najmeh Eskandari
Sodium arsenite is an environmental pollutant with the ability to generate free radicals and curcumin acts as a potent antioxidant. This study investigates the effect of curcumin on kidney histopathology, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of serum in the mice treated with sodium arsenite. Adult male mice were divided into four groups: control, sodium arsenite, curcumin and curcumin+sodium arsenite. The treatments were delivered for 5 weeks. After the treatment period, blood samples were collected and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity of serum were determined...
November 28, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906866/inherited-and-acquired-disorders-of-magnesium-homeostasis
#4
Matthias Tilmann Florian Wolf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnesium (Mg) imbalances are frequently overlooked. Hypermagnesemia usually occurs in preeclamptic women after Mg therapy or in end-stage renal disease patients, whereas hypomagnesemia is more common with a prevalence of up to 15% in the general population. Increasing evidence points toward a role for mild-to-moderate chronic hypomagnesemia in the pathogenesis of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The kidneys are the major regulator of total body Mg homeostasis...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906863/bartter-s-and-gitelman-s-syndrome
#5
Hannsjörg W Seyberth, Stefanie Weber, Martin Kömhoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical presentations of Bartter's syndrome and Gitelman's syndrome will be reviewed including two most recently described hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies. By taking the quite heterogeneous presentations and the apparently different pathophysiologies as the basis, the applicability of the physiologic classification has been tested. RECENT FINDINGS: According to the physiologic approach, salt-losing tubulopathies can be divided into two major groups (with completely different tubular defects): first, disorders of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (loop disorders); second, disorders of the distal convolute tubule (DCT disorders)...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899376/gwas-of-clinically-defined-gout-and-subtypes-identifies-multiple-susceptibility-loci-that-include-urate-transporter-genes
#6
Akiyoshi Nakayama, Hirofumi Nakaoka, Ken Yamamoto, Masayuki Sakiyama, Amara Shaukat, Yu Toyoda, Yukinori Okada, Yoichiro Kamatani, Takahiro Nakamura, Tappei Takada, Katsuhisa Inoue, Tomoya Yasujima, Hiroaki Yuasa, Yuko Shirahama, Hiroshi Nakashima, Seiko Shimizu, Toshihide Higashino, Yusuke Kawamura, Hiraku Ogata, Makoto Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Inaho Danjoh, Atsumi Tokumasu, Keiko Ooyama, Toshimitsu Ito, Takaaki Kondo, Kenji Wakai, Blanka Stiburkova, Karel Pavelka, Lisa K Stamp, Nicola Dalbeth, Yutaka Sakurai, Hiroshi Suzuki, Makoto Hosoyamada, Shin Fujimori, Takashi Yokoo, Tatsuo Hosoya, Ituro Inoue, Atsushi Takahashi, Michiaki Kubo, Hiroshi Ooyama, Toru Shimizu, Kimiyoshi Ichida, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Tony R Merriman, Hirotaka Matsuo
OBJECTIVE: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. METHODS: Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zealand Polynesian samples was done to further validate the loci identified in this study...
November 29, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882813/dietary-zinc-modifies-diabetic-induced-renal-pathology-in-rats
#7
Wael M Elsaed, Hazem Abdelhamid Mohamed
This study was conducted to investigate how far dietary zinc (Zn) modifies the histomorphological alterations induced by diabetes in rat kidneys. The animals were divided into negative control group (10 rats). Diabetes was induced in thirty animals by streptozotocin. After confirming diabetes, the animals were divided into three groups (n = 10). Group II served as the positive control group (fed on standard diet), group III was fed on Zn deficient diet, and group IV was fed on Zn supplemented diet. Caspase-3 immune staining was used to estimate the caspase activity...
November 24, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878608/claudins-in-barrier-and-transport-function-the-kidney
#8
REVIEW
Yongfeng Gong, Jianghui Hou
Claudins are discovered to be key players in renal epithelial physiology. They are involved in developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological differentiation. In the glomerular podocytes, claudin-1 is an important determinant of cell junction fate. In the proximal tubule, claudin-2 plays important roles in paracellular salt reabsorption. In the thick ascending limb, claudin-14, -16, and -19 regulate the paracellular reabsorption of calcium and magnesium. Recessive mutations in claudin-16 or -19 cause an inherited calcium and magnesium losing disease...
November 23, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859898/structural-and-ultrastructural-features-of-the-malpighian-tubules-of-dolycoris-baccarum-linnaeus-1758-heteroptera-pentatomidae
#9
Nurcan Özyurt, Damla Amutkan, Irmak Polat, Tenay Kocamaz, Selami Candan, Zekiye Suludere
The morphology and ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubules of Dolycoris baccarum were analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy in order to determine their functional organization. The Malpighian tubules are compared with similar structures of other insects based on cell structure and functional organization. The Malpighian tubules of D. baccarum extend from the midgut-hindgut region of the digestive tract. The Malpighian tubules are divided into two regions: the proximal segment is short and flattened and the distal segment is long, stringy in shape and free in hemolymph...
November 11, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852932/epididymis-like-tubules-in-adult-renal-hypodysplasia-immunohistochemical-features-indicate-a-mesonephric-origin
#10
Madhavi A Naik, Sanjay A Pai
We report the presence of epididymis-like tubules in unilateral renal hypodysplasia in 3 adult men. Microscopy showed dilated tubules lined by ciliated columnar epithelium and smaller basal cells, morphologically resembling epididymal tubules. Small tubules lined by cuboidal epithelium were also present in all cases, with glomeruli in 2 cases. The epididymis-like tubules expressed CD10, CK7, PAX8, and AR in the luminal epithelium, while the basal cells were positive for p63, CK7, and focally for CD10. The smooth muscle bundles around the epididymis-like tubules were focally AR and WT1 (cytoplasmic) positive...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826126/the-expression-patterns-of-tetratricopeptide-repeat-domain-36-ttc36
#11
Yuru Zhou, Qingling He, Jihui Chen, Yunhong Liu, Zhaomin Mao, Zhongshi Lyu, Dongsheng Ni, Yaoshui Long, Pan Ju, Jianing Liu, Yuping Gu, Qin Zhou
Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 36 (Ttc36), whose coding protein belongs to tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif family, has not been studied extensively. We for the first time showed that Ttc36 is evolutionarily conserved across mammals by bioinformatics. Rabbit anti-mouse Ttc36 polyclonal antibody was generated by injecting synthetic full-length peptides through "antigen intersection" strategy. Subsequently, we characterized Ttc36 expression profile in mouse, showing its expression in liver and kidney both from embryonic day 15...
November 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821911/acute-alloxan-toxicity-causes-granulomatous-tubulointerstitial-nephritis-with-severe-mineralization
#12
Lianshan Zhang, Yui Terayama, Taiki Nishimoto, Yasushi Kodama, Kiyokazu Ozaki
Alloxan had been recognized as having a direct nephrotoxic effect different from its diabetogenic action. We encountered previously unreported granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis with severe luminal and interstitial mineralization in one diabetic rat after one week of alloxan administration. Histopathologically, many dilated and occluded proximal and distal tubules were segmentally observed in the cortex and outer medulla. The tubular lumen contained minerals and cell debris. Tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and piled up, and they protruded into the lumen, where they enveloped minerals...
October 2016: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802315/exosomal-gapdh-from-proximal-tubule-cells-regulate-enac-activity
#13
Kishore Kumar Jella, Ling Yu, Qiang Yue, Daniel Friedman, Billie J Duke, Abdel A Alli
Exosomes are nanometer-scale, cell-derived vesicles that contain various molecules including nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. These vesicles can release their cargo into adjacent or distant cells and mediate intercellular communication and cellular function. Here we examined the regulation of epithelial sodium channels in mpkCCD cells and distal tubule Xenopus 2F3 cells by exosomes isolated from proximal tubule LLC-PK1 cells. Cultured mpkCCD cells were stained with CTX coupled to a green fluorophore in order to label the cell membranes and freshly isolated exosomes from LLC-PK1 cells were labeled with the red lipophilic dye PKH26 in order to visualize uptake of exosomes into the cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798456/future-considerations-based-on-the-information-from-barrter-s-and-gitelman-s-syndromes
#14
Hadas Alfandary, Daniel Landau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bartter and Gitelman syndromes are typical normotensive salt losing hypokalaemic tubulopathies. Their pathogenesis was gradually deciphered in the past 5 decades, first by typical salt balance studies and histopathology, followed by genetic characterization and discovery of the affected different ion channels. Although the different genotypic subtypes were originally thought to show a similar phenotype, important clinical and biochemical differences can now be found...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789743/channel-transporter-complexes-an-emerging-theme-in-cell-signaling
#15
Geoffrey W Abbott
In a recent edition of Biochemical Journal, Mistry and colleagues described the discovery of a novel protein complex, formed from the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) [Biochem. J. (2016) Hoover, S.R]. The importance of these two proteins in the regulation of salt balance and blood pressure has long been known, as has their overlapping expression in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. The new study by Mistry et al. now demonstrates their physical interaction in the kidney and when heterologously co-expressed...
November 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777198/-effect-of-low-selenium-diet-on-expressions-of-ccr7-cd206-and-cd163-in-the-liver-and-kidney-of-rats
#16
Li-Yun Wang, Jian-Hua Yi, Hang-Chao Xu, Xiao-Fang Wu, Dan-Yang Li, Jing Han
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low-selenium diet on the liver and kidneys of rats and explore the role of macrophage polarization into M1 and M2 phenotypes in liver and kidney injuries. METHODS: Twenty-four rats (12 female and 12 male) were randomly divided into control group and low-selenium group and fed with normal chow (dietary selenium of 0.18 mg/kg) and low-selenium diet (dietary selenium of 0.02 mg/kg) for 109 days. After the feeding, the rats were sacrificed for HE staining to observe liver and kidney pathologies, and immunohistochemistry was performed for analyzing CCR7, CD206, CD163-positive cell numbers in the liver and kidneys...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760765/deletion-of-protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE%C2%B5-attenuates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-ameliorates-ischemic-renal-injury
#17
Grazyna Nowak, Diana Takacsova Bakajsova, Judit Megyesi
Previously, we documented that activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) mediates mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC). This study tested whether deletion of the PKC-ε decreases dysfunction of renal cortical mitochondria and improves kidney function after renal ischemia. PKC-ε levels in mitochondria of ischemic kidneys increased 24h after ischemia. Complex I- and complex II-coupled state 3 respirations were reduced 44% and 27%, respectively, in wild-type (WT) but unchanged and increased in PKC-ε-deficient (KO) mice after ischemia...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759103/caudal-migration-and-proliferation-of-renal-progenitors-regulates-early-nephron-segment-size-in-zebrafish
#18
Richard W Naylor, Rachel C Dodd, Alan J Davidson
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney and is divided into distinct proximal and distal segments. The factors determining nephron segment size are not fully understood. In zebrafish, the embryonic kidney has long been thought to differentiate in situ into two proximal tubule segments and two distal tubule segments (distal early; DE, and distal late; DL) with little involvement of cell movement. Here, we overturn this notion by performing lineage-labelling experiments that reveal extensive caudal movement of the proximal and DE segments and a concomitant compaction of the DL segment as it fuses with the cloaca...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754252/os-36-03-e-box-cpg-hypomethylation-of-nmn-producing-enzyme-nampt-in-proximal-tubules-enables-constant-supply-of-nmn-from-tubules-to-glomeruli-which-is-disrupted-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#19
Hirokazu Muraoka, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Shu Wakino
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) cooperates with a longevity gene, Sirt1, to exert the potentiation of stress resistance. We have reported that the high expression level of Nampt in PTs contributes to the sufficient supply of NMN to glomeruli. We also showed that downregulation of Nampt and NMN in PT in DN leads to glomerular damages (Nature Medicine 2013). However, the regulation mechanisms of Nampt expression remain unknown. DESIGN AND METHOD: We investigated how Nampt expression is consistently retained at high levels in PTs under normal conditions and how Nampt levels are decreased in DN...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753890/ish-nia-os-05-interleukin-6-transactivation-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#20
Brandi Wynne, Trinity Kronk, Otor Al-Khalili, Benjamin Ko, Franziska Theilig, Douglas Eaton, Robert Hoover
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is characterized by increased sodium reabsorption along the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and systemic inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a possible mediator, signaling via the transmembrane IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6Rα); however, whether IL-6Rα is present in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is unknown. Increased sodium reabsorption is not always correlated with increased aldosterone (Aldo). Thus, understanding how Aldo-independent sodium reabsorption occurs is critical...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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