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Distal tubule

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145401/anatomically-specific-intratubular-and-interstitial-biominerals-in-the-human-renal-medullo-papillary-complex
#1
Ling Chen, Ryan S Hsi, Feifei Yang, Benjamin A Sherer, Marshall L Stoller, Sunita P Ho
Limited information exists on the anatomically-specific early stage events leading to clinically detectable mineral aggregates in the renal papilla. In this study, quantitative multiscale correlative maps of structural, elemental and biochemical properties of whole medullo-papillary complexes from human kidneys were developed. Correlative maps of properties specific to the uriniferous and vascular tubules using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and immunolocalization of noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) along with their association with anatomy specific biominerals were obtained...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134970/circadian-potassium-excretion-is-unaffected-following-furosemide-induced-increase-in-sodium-delivery-to-the-distal-nephron
#2
B P Ilenwabor, E O Asowata, L F Obika
The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is widely accepted as a key regulator of K+ balance as well as urinary K+excretion. However, recent evidence suggests that the circadian control of K+ excretion is independent of aldosterone. Thedelivery of Na+ to the distal nephron is known to be an important determinant of aldosterone mediated secretion of K+ in thissegment of the nephron. Examining the link between distal Na+ delivery and K+ excretion; and how this link affect circadianK+ excretion will advance what is currently known about the maintenance of K+ homeostasis...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134279/dietary-k-and-cl-independently-regulate-basolateral-conductance-in-principal-and-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#3
Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg Zaika, Arohan R Subramanya, Oleh Pochynyuk
The renal collecting duct contains two distinct cell types, principal and intercalated cells, expressing potassium Kir4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16) and chloride ClC-K2 (ClC-Kb in humans) channels on their basolateral membrane, respectively. Both channels are thought to play important roles in controlling systemic water-electrolyte balance and blood pressure. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating activity of Kir4.1/5.1 and ClC-K2/b. Here, we employed patch clamp analysis at the single channel and whole cell levels in freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts to investigate regulation of Kir4...
November 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131070/pathophysiology-of-post-transplant-hypertension-in-kidney-transplant-focus-on-calcineurin-inhibitors-induced-oxidative-stress-and-renal-sodium-retention-and-implications-with-rhoa-rho-kinase-pathway
#4
Lorenzo A Calò, Verdiana Ravarotto, Francesca Simioni, Elena Naso, Francesco Marchini, Luciana Bonfante, Lucrezia Furian, Paolo Rigotti
Post-transplant hypertension is a common occurrence during treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in kidney transplant population. The pathogenesis of vasoconstriction induced by CNIs involves vascular tone alterations and kidney sodium transport regulation. Among the factors involved a key role is played by the activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system with enhanced release of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and increase of oxidative stress. A common pathway between oxidative stress and hypertension induced by CNIs may be identified in the involvement of the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway, key for the induction of hypertension and cardiovascular-renal remodeling, of the oxidative stress mediated increased nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and increased renal sodium retention via increased activity of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule...
October 16, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129401/deletion-of-claudin-10-rescues-claudin-16-deficient-mice-from-hypomagnesemia-and-hypercalciuria
#5
Tilman Breiderhoff, Nina Himmerkus, Hoora Drewell, Allein Plain, Dorothee Günzel, Kerim Mutig, Thomas E Willnow, Dominik Müller, Markus Bleich
The tight junction proteins claudin-10 and -16 are crucial for the paracellular reabsorption of cations along the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop in the kidney. In patients, mutations in CLDN16 cause familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, while mutations in CLDN10 impair kidney function. Mice lacking claudin-16 display magnesium and calcium wasting, whereas absence of claudin-10 results in hypermagnesemia and interstitial nephrocalcinosis. In order to study the functional interdependence of claudin-10 and -16 we generated double-deficient mice...
November 10, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122955/dnpep-is-not-the-only-peptidase-that-produces-spak-fragments-in-kidney
#6
Rainelli Koumangoye, Eric Delpire
SPAK (STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) regulates Na(+) and Cl(-) reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule, and possibly in the thick ascending limb of Henle. This kinase phosphorylates and activates the apical Na-Cl cotransporter in the DCT. Western blot analysis reveals that SPAK in kidney exists as a full-length protein as well as shorter fragments that might affect NKCC2 function in the TAL. Recently, we showed that kidney lysates exerts proteolytic activity towards SPAK, resulting in the formation of multiple SPAK fragments with possible inhibitory effects on the kinase...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113990/notch-is-required-for-the-formation-of-all-nephron-segments-and-primes-nephron-progenitors-for-differentiation
#7
Eunah Chung, Patrick Deacon, Joo-Seop Park
Notch signaling plays important roles during mammalian nephrogenesis. To investigate if Notch regulates nephron segmentation, we performed Notch loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies in developing nephrons in mice. Contrary to the previous notion that Notch signaling promotes the formation of proximal tubules and represses the formation of distal tubules in the mammalian nephron, we show that inhibition of Notch blocks the formation of all nephron segments and that constitutive activation of Notch in developing nephrons does not promote or repress the formation of a specific segment...
November 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109726/il-36%C3%AE-regulates-tubulointerstitial-inflammation-in-the-mouse-kidney
#8
Osamu Ichii, Junpei Kimura, Tadashi Okamura, Taro Horino, Teppei Nakamura, Hayato Sasaki, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Yasuhiro Kon
IL-36α, a member of the IL-1 family, is a crucial mediator of inflammatory responses. We previously found that IL-36α was overexpressed in injured distal tubules (DTs); however, its pathological function remains unclear. Herein, unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) or folic acid (FA) injection was performed in mouse kidneys to assess the role of IL-36α in kidney injury. IL-36α mRNA and protein expression significantly increased in the kidneys within 24 h after UUO. IL-36α localized to dilated DTs. IL-36α expression significantly correlated with the progression of tubulointerstitial cell infiltration and tubular epithelium cell death in UUO kidneys and with renal dysfunction in FA-induced acute kidney injury mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104982/on-the-toxicity-and-transport-mechanisms-of-cisplatin-in-kidney-tissues-in-comparison-to-a-gold-based-cytotoxic-agent
#9
Sarah Spreckelmeyer, Natalia Estrada-Ortiz, Gerian G H Prins, Margot van der Zee, Bente Gammelgaard, Stefan Stürup, Inge A M de Graaf, Geny M M Groothuis, Angela Casini
Mechanisms of toxicity and cellular transport of anticancer metallodrugs, including platinum-based agents, have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we studied the toxic effects and accumulation mechanisms of cisplatin in healthy rat kidneys ex vivo, using the Precision Cut Tissue Slices (PCTS) method. In addition, for the first time, we investigated the nephrotoxic effects of an experimental anticancer cyclometallated complex [Au(py(b)-H)(PTA)Cl]PF6 (PTA = 1,3,5-triazaphosphaadamantane). The viability of the kidney slices after metallodrug treatment was evaluated by ATP content determination and histomorphology analysis...
November 6, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096595/pleiotropic-actions-of-fgf23
#10
Reinhold G Erben
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone, mainly produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes in response to increased extracellular phosphate and circulating vitamin D hormone. Endocrine FGF23 signaling requires co-expression of the ubiquitously expressed FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) and the co-receptor α-Klotho (Klotho). In proximal renal tubules, FGF23 suppresses the membrane expression of the sodium-phosphate cotransporters Npt2a and Npt2c which mediate urinary reabsorption of filtered phosphate...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090001/phenotypic-changes-of-schwann-cells-on-the-proximal-stump-of-injured-peripheral-nerve-during-repair-using-small-gap-conduit-tube
#11
Shi-Jun Zhang, Wen-Liang Wu, Kai-Yun Yang, Yun-Zhen Chen, Hai-Chun Liu
Dedifferentiation of Schwann cells is an important feature of the response to peripheral nerve injury and specific negative myelination regulators are considered to have a major role in this process. However, most experiments have focused on the distal nerve stump, where the Notch signaling pathway is strongly associated with Schwann cell dedifferentiation and repair of the nerve. We observed the phenotypic changes of Schwann cells and changes of active Notch signaling on the proximal stump during peripheral nerve repair using small gap conduit tubulization...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082348/expression-of-luteinizing-hormone-lh-subunit-genes-in-mouse-testis
#12
Hee Soo Kim, Sung-Ho Lee
Gonadotropins are heterodimers consisting an alpha chain (Cgα) and a beta chain. Interestingly, presence of complicated LH-β transcripts in rat testis was accidently found; testicular LH-β transcripts were confined in seminiferous tubules to spermatids, and the translated products were localized in the elongated spermatids. We hypothesized that mouse testis has potential to produce the tissue specific LH-β with similar structure to the rat testicular forms. To verify our hypothesis, we examined the adult mouse (ICR) testis using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry...
September 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070574/cell-adhesion-molecule-1-cadm1-shedding-induces-apoptosis-of-renal-epithelial-cells-and-exacerbates-human-nephropathies
#13
Takashi Kato, Man Hagiyama, Yasutoshi Takashima, Azusa Yoneshige, Akihiko Ito
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important problem throughout the world, associated with the increase of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (sCre), and renal tubular injuries. It is crucial to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of renal injuries in order to identify the new therapeutics and early diagnostic methods. We focused on cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) protein. CADM1, its isoform SP4, is expressed in the epithelial cells of various tissues including renal distal tubules, localized on the lateral cell membrane, mediates cell-cell adhesion via trans-homophilic binding, and interacts with various proteins...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046297/renal-and-colonic-potassium-transporters-in-the-pregnant-rat
#14
Crystal A West, Paul A Welling, David A West, Richard A Coleman, Kit-Yan Cheng, Chao Chen, Thomas D DuBose, Jill W Verlander, Chris Baylis, Michelle L Gumz
Gestational potassium retention, most of which occurs during late pregnancy, is essential for fetal development. The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms underlying changes in potassium handling by the kidney and colon in pregnancy. We found that potassium intake and renal excretion increased in late pregnancy while fecal potassium excretion remained unchanged and that pregnant rats exhibited net potassium retention. By qPCR we found markedly increased H+/K+-ATPase type2 (HKA2) mRNA expression in cortex and OM of late pregnant vs virgin...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040332/the-developmental-programme-for-genesis-of-the-entire-kidney-is-recapitulated-in-wilms-tumour
#15
Ryuji Fukuzawa, Matthew R Anaka, Ian M Morison, Anthony E Reeve
Wilms tumour (WT) is an embryonal tumour that recapitulates kidney development. The normal kidney is formed from two distinct embryological origins: the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and the ureteric bud (UB). It is generally accepted that WT arises from precursor cells in the MM; however whether UB-equivalent structures participate in tumorigenesis is uncertain. To address the question of the involvement of UB, we assessed 55 Wilms tumours for the molecular features of MM and UB using gene expression profiling, immunohistochemsitry and immunofluorescence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037855/nephrosphere-derived-cells-are-induced-to-multilineage-differentiation-when-cultured-on-human-decellularized-kidney-scaffolds
#16
Silvia Bombelli, Chiara Meregalli, Carla Scalia, Giorgio Bovo, Barbara Torsello, Sofia De Marco, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Paolo Viganò, Guido Strada, Giorgio Cattoretti, Cristina Bianchi, Roberto A Perego
In end-stage chronic kidney disease, the option of organ transplantation is limited because of the scarce availability of kidneys. The combination of stem cell research, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering seems a promising approach to produce new transplantable kidneys. Currently, the possibility to repopulate naturally obtained scaffolds with cells of different sources is advancing. Our aim was to test, for the first time, whether the nephrosphere (NS) cells, composed by renal stem/progenitor-like cells, were able to repopulate different nephron portions of renal extracellular matrix scaffolds obtained after decellularization of human renal tissue slices...
October 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034531/sealer-penetration-and-adaptation-in-root-canals-with-the-butterfly-effect
#17
Assil Russell, Lara Friedlander, Nicholas Chandler
The butterfly effect is a phenomenon seen in some roots and is related to density of dentinal tubules. The aim was to investigate penetration depth and adaptation quality of root canal sealers and ProRoot MTA into bucco-lingual and mesio-distal aspects of roots with and without the effect. One hundred and twenty teeth were decoronated at the cemento-enamel junction. Canals were prepared and assigned to obturation groups: gutta-percha with a sealer (AH Plus, EndoREZ, Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer, MTA Fillapex) or ProRoot MTA alone (each containing 10 butterfly and 10 non-butterfly roots)...
October 16, 2017: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030026/nephroprotective-effect-of-electrolyzed-reduced-water-against-cisplatin-induced-kidney-toxicity-and-oxidative-damage-in-mice
#18
Tse-Chou Cheng, Yu-Wen Hsu, Fung-Jou Lu, Ya-Yu Chen, Nu-Man Tsai, Wen-Kang Chen, Chia-Fang Tsai
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug for cancer therapy, but it has serious side effects in clinical treatment, particularly nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on renal injury caused by cisplatin. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group, cisplatin control group, ERW control group and ERW + cisplatin group. Each group comprised 10 animals, which were orally treated with normal saline or ERW daily companion by administration of one dose of cisplatin for 28 days...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021560/the-thiazide-sensitive-sodium-chloride-co-transporter-ncc-is-modulated-by-site-specific-ubiquitylation
#19
Lena L Rosenbaek, Federica Rizzo, Qi Wu, Lorena Rojas-Vega, Gerardo Gamba, Nanna MacAulay, Olivier Staub, Robert A Fenton
The renal sodium chloride cotransporter, NCC, in the distal convoluted tubule is important for maintaining body Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis. Endogenous NCC is highly ubiquitylated, but the role of individual ubiquitylation sites is not established. Here, we assessed the role of 10 ubiquitylation sites for NCC function. Transient transfections of HEK293 cells with human wildtype (WT) NCC or various K to R mutants identified greater membrane abundance for K706R, K828R and K909R mutants. Relative to WT-NCC, stable tetracycline inducible MDCKI cell lines expressing K706R, K828R and K909R mutants had significantly higher total and phosphorylated NCC levels at the apical plasma membrane under basal conditions...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021385/aldosterone-is-essential-for-angiotensin-ii-induced-upregulation-of-pendrin
#20
Daigoro Hirohama, Nobuhiro Ayuzawa, Kohei Ueda, Mitsuhiro Nishimoto, Wakako Kawarazaki, Atsushi Watanabe, Tatsuo Shimosawa, Takeshi Marumo, Shigeru Shibata, Toshiro Fujita
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has an important role in the control of fluid homeostasis and BP during volume depletion. Dietary salt restriction elevates circulating angiotensin II (AngII) and aldosterone levels, increasing levels of the Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger pendrin in β-intercalated cells and the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in distal convoluted tubules. However, the independent roles of AngII and aldosterone in regulating these levels remain unclear. In C57BL/6J mice receiving a low-salt diet or AngII infusion, we evaluated the membrane protein abundance of pendrin and NCC; assessed the phosphorylation of the mineralocorticoid receptor, which selectively inhibits aldosterone binding in intercalated cells; and measured BP by radiotelemetry in pendrin-knockout and wild-type mice...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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