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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458217/a-new-two-dimensional-shear-wave-elastography-for-noninvasive-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-in-healthy-subjects-and-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease
#1
Carla Serra, Valentina Grasso, Fabio Conti, Cristina Felicani, Elena Mazzotta, Marco Lenzi, Gabriella Verucchi, Antonietta D'errico, Pietro Andreone
PURPOSE: To assess the performance of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) on the GE LOGIQ E9 ultrasound system in a cohort of healthy subjects and to investigate its accuracy in the staging of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) using liver biopsy as a reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2014 to June 2016, 54 healthy subjects and 174 patients with CLD were consecutively enrolled. Liver fibrosis stage was assessed by the METAVIR scoring system...
February 19, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458204/a-review-of-implantable-biosensors-for-closed-loop-glucose-control-and-other-drug-delivery-applications
#2
Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng
Closed-loop drug delivery promises autonomous control of pharmacotherapy through the continuous monitoring of biomarker levels. For decades, researchers have strived for portable closed-loop systems, capable of treating ambulatory patients with chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus. After years of development, the first of these systems have left the laboratory and entered commercial use. This long-awaited advance reflects recent development of chronically stable implantable biosensors, able to accurately measure biomarker levels in vivo...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458188/robust-is-not-necessarily-reliable-from-within-subjects-fmri-contrasts-to-between-subjects-comparisons
#3
Zachary P Infantolino, Katherine R Luking, Colin L Sauder, John J Curtin, Greg Hajcak
Advances in cognitive and affective neuroscience come largely from within-subjects comparisons, in which the functional significance of neural activity is determined by contrasting two or more experimental conditions. Clinical and social neuroscience studies have attempted to leverage between-subject variability in such condition differences to better understand psychopathology and other individual differences. Shifting from within-to between-subjects comparisons requires that measures have adequate internal consistency to function as individual difference variables...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458187/mri-techniques-to-measure-arterial-and-venous-cerebral-blood-volume
#4
Jun Hua, Peiying Liu, Tae Kim, Manus Donahue, Swati Rane, J Jean Chen, Qin Qin, Seong-Gi Kim
The measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) has been the topic of numerous neuroimaging studies. To date, however, most in vivo imaging approaches can only measure CBV summed over all types of blood vessels, including arterial, capillary and venous vessels in the microvasculature (i.e. total CBV or CBVtot). As different types of blood vessels have intrinsically different anatomy, function and physiology, the ability to quantify CBV in different segments of the microvascular tree may furnish information that is not obtainable from CBVtot, and may provide a more sensitive and specific measure for the underlying physiology...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458152/controversies-in-endoscopic-eradication-therapy-for-barrett-s-esophagus
#5
Srinadh Komanduri, V Raman Muthusamy, Sachin Wani
Advances in Endoscopic Eradication Therapy for Barrett's Esophagus associated neoplasia have resulted in a significant paradigm shift in diagnosis and management of this complex disease. A robust body of literature critically evaluating outcomes of resection and ablative strategies has allowed gastroenterologists to make quality, evidence based decisions for their patients. Despite this progress, there are still many unanswered questions and challenges that remain. Ultimately, identification of a cost-effective screening modality, biomarkers for risk stratification, and strides to eliminate post surveillance endoscopy after EET are essential to reach our long term goal for eradication of esophageal adenocarcinoma...
February 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458125/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-uncovering-the-role-of-mitochondria-in-human-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#6
REVIEW
Annika Zink, Josef Priller, Alessandro Prigione
Mitochondrial dysfunctions are a known pathogenetic mechanism of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. At the same time, mutations in genes encoding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain cause mitochondrial diseases, which commonly exhibit neurological symptoms. Mitochondria are therefore critical for the functionality of the human nervous system. The importance of mitochondria stems from their key roles in cellular metabolism, calcium handling, redox and protein homeostasis, and overall cellular homeostasis through their dynamic network...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458108/the-relaxin-receptor-as-a-therapeutic-target-perspectives-from-evolution-and-drug-targeting
#7
REVIEW
Ross A D Bathgate, Martina Kocan, Daniel J Scott, M Akhter Hossain, Sara V Good, Sergey Yegorov, Jan Bogerd, Paul Gooley
The peptide relaxin was first identified as an important circulating hormone during pregnancy over 90 years ago. Research over many years defined the numerous biological roles that relaxin plays throughout pregnancy in many mammalian species. These important biological actions have led to the testing of relaxin as a therapeutic agent for a number of indications. The discovery of the relaxin receptor, RXFP1, in 2002 facilitated the better understanding of the cellular targets of relaxin, its mechanism of action and enabled the development of relaxin mimetics and screening for small molecule agonists...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457984/cardio-oncology-the-role-of-advanced-echocardiography-in-cancer-patients
#8
Lucia Venneri, Giacomo Zoppellaro, Rajdeep S Khattar
Cardio-oncology is a rapidly growing field aimed at improving the quality of care of cancer patients by preventing and monitoring cardiovascular complications resulting from cancer treatment. Cardiac imaging, and in particular, transthoracic echocardiography, plays an essential role in the baseline assessment and serial follow-up of cardio-oncology patients. Areas covered: This review article discusses the role of cardiac imaging with a focus on advanced echocardiography for the detection and management of cancer therapy related cardiovascular complications, in particular, left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure...
February 19, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457974/a-multi-omics-analysis-of-glycine-max-leaves-reveals-alteration-in-flavonoid-and-isoflavonoid-metabolism-upon-ethylene-and-abscisic-acid-treatment
#9
Ravi Gupta, Cheol Woo Min, Katharina Kramer, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal, Ki-Hun Park, Yiming Wang, Iris Finkemeier, Sun Tae Kim
Phytohormones are central to the plant growth and development. Despite the advancement in our knowledge of hormone signaling, downstream targets and their interactions upon hormones action remain largely fragmented, especially at the protein and metabolite levels. With an aim to get new insight into the effects of two hormones, ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA), this study utilizes an integrated proteomics and metabolomics approach to investigate their individual and combined (ABA+ET) signaling in soybean leaves...
February 19, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457959/biosynthesis-and-applications-of-prenylquinones
#10
Makoto Kawamukai
Prenylquinones are isoprenoid compounds with a characteristic quinone structure and isoprenyl tail that are ubiquitous in almost all living organisms. There are four major prenylquinone classes: ubiquinone (UQ), menaquinone (MK), plastoquinone (PQ), and rhodoquinone (RQ). The quinone structure and isoprenyl tail length differ among organisms. UQ, PQ, and RQ contain benzoquinone, while MK contains naphthoquinone. UQ, MK, and RQ are involved in oxidative phosphorylation, while PQ functions in photosynthetic electron transfer...
February 19, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457946/the-provision-of-ambulatory-systemic-anti-cancer-therapy
#11
Susan Cooper, Kate de Lord
This article reflects on the changing nature of the provision of care and delivery of ambulatory systemic anti-cancer therapy (SACT) services. It reviews the national guidance and looks at ambulatory SACT in terms of patients being treated closer to home, i.e. ambulatory care in its truest sense. It considers the impact on quality of life for patients receiving treatments at a place of their choice. It explores the role of the nurse as an advanced practitioner while also examining the safety and delivery of complex regimens ensuring robust pathways are in place to deliver care in a safe and standardised way...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457921/ribociclib-for-the-treatment-of-hormone-receptor-positive-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-negative-advanced-breast-cancer
#12
Howard A Burris
The emergence of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors marked a significant advancement in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Ribociclib is an orally bioavailable, highly selective inhibitor of CDK4/6. In combination with various endocrine therapies, ribociclib has demonstrated clinical activity as a first-line therapy for patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer, without compromising the favorable toxicity profile associated with endocrine therapy. Thus, ribociclib is now considered a new standard of care for HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer...
March 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457886/janus-gradient-meshes-for-continuous-separation-and-collection-of-flowing-oils-under-water
#13
Ning Li, Cunlong Yu, Yifan Si, Meirong Song, Zhichao Dong, Lei Jiang
Gradient meshes with Janus wettabilities are fabricated to stably separate and collect spilled oils from a range of flowing oily wastewater. Here, we demonstrate an overflow with separation methodology, which combines selective oil overflow and membrane separation, to separate low content oils from dynamic flowing oil-water mixtures by a curved gradient mesh that covered on a solid edge. The microscaled air-oil-water-solid four-phase wetting state during the oil-water separation process is visualized and demonstrated...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457856/dual-input-regulation-and-positional-control-in-hybrid-oligonucleotide-discotic-supramolecular-wires
#14
Miguel Ángel Alemán García, Eva Magdalena Estirado, Lech-Gustav Milroy, Luc Brunsveld
The combination of oligonucleotides and synthetic supramolecular systems allows for novel and long needed modes of regulation of the self-assembly of both molecular elements. Discotic molecules were conjugated with short oligonucleotides and their assembly into responsive supramolecular wires studied. The self-assembly of the discotics provides additional stability for DNA-duplex formation due to a cooperative effect. Reversely, the appended oligonucleotides allow for positional control of the discotic elements within the supramolecular wire...
February 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457812/diffusive-interaction-of-multiple-surface-nanobubbles-shrinkage-growth-and-coarsening
#15
Xiaojue Zhu, Roberto Verzicco, Xuehua Zhang, Detlef Lohse
Surface nanobubbles are nanoscopic spherical-cap shaped gaseous domains on immersed substrates which are stable, even for days. After the stability of a single surface nanobubble has been theoretically explained, i.e. contact line pinning and gas oversaturation are required to stabilize it against diffusive dissolution [Lohse and Zhang, Phys. Rev. E, 2015, 91, 031003(R)], here we focus on the collective diffusive interaction of multiple nanobubbles. For that purpose we develop a finite difference scheme for the diffusion equation with the appropriate boundary conditions and with the immersed boundary method used to represent the growing or shrinking bubbles...
February 19, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457795/random-access-in-large-scale-dna-data-storage
#16
Lee Organick, Siena Dumas Ang, Yuan-Jyue Chen, Randolph Lopez, Sergey Yekhanin, Konstantin Makarychev, Miklos Z Racz, Govinda Kamath, Parikshit Gopalan, Bichlien Nguyen, Christopher N Takahashi, Sharon Newman, Hsing-Yeh Parker, Cyrus Rashtchian, Kendall Stewart, Gagan Gupta, Robert Carlson, John Mulligan, Douglas Carmean, Georg Seelig, Luis Ceze, Karin Strauss
Synthetic DNA is durable and can encode digital data with high density, making it an attractive medium for data storage. However, recovering stored data on a large-scale currently requires all the DNA in a pool to be sequenced, even if only a subset of the information needs to be extracted. Here, we encode and store 35 distinct files (over 200 MB of data), in more than 13 million DNA oligonucleotides, and show that we can recover each file individually and with no errors, using a random access approach. We design and validate a large library of primers that enable individual recovery of all files stored within the DNA...
February 19, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457790/cd163-macrophages-promote-angiogenesis-and-vascular-permeability-accompanied-by-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis
#17
Liang Guo, Hirokuni Akahori, Emanuel Harari, Samantha L Smith, Rohini Polavarapu, Vinit Karmali, Fumiyuki Otsuka, Rachel L Gannon, Ryan E Braumann, Megan H Dickinson, Anuj Gupta, Audrey L Jenkins, Michael J Lipinski, Johoon Kim, Peter Chhour, Paul S de Vries, Hiroyuki Jinnouchi, Robert Kutys, Hiroyoshi Mori, Matthew D Kutyna, Sho Torii, Atsushi Sakamoto, Cheol Ung Choi, Qi Cheng, Megan L Grove, Mariem A Sawan, Yin Zhang, Yihai Cao, Frank D Kolodgie, David P Cormode, Dan E Arking, Eric Boerwinkle, Alanna C Morrison, Jeanette Erdmann, Nona Sotoodehnia, Renu Virmani, Aloke V Finn
Intake of hemoglobin by the hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor CD163 leads to a distinct alternative non-foam cell antiinflammatory macrophage phenotype that was previously considered atheroprotective. Here, we reveal an unexpected but important pathogenic role for these macrophages in atherosclerosis. Using human atherosclerotic samples, cultured cells, and a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of intraplaque hemorrhage on macrophage function with respect to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inflammation, and plaque progression...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457774/a-review-of-advances-in-pixel-detectors-for-experiments-with-high-rate-and-radiation
#18
Maurice Garcia-Sciveres, N Wermes
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments ATLAS and CMS have established hybrid pixel detectors as the instrument of choice for particle tracking and vertexing in high rate and radiation environments, as they operate close to the LHC interaction points. With the High Luminosity-LHC upgrade now in sight, for which the tracking detectors will be completely replaced, new generations of pixel detectors are being devised. They have to address enormous challenges in terms of data throughput and radiation levels, ionizing and non-ionizing, that harm the sensing and readout parts of pixel detectors alike...
February 19, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457761/degradation-of-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-municipal-wastewater-by-heterogeneous-photocatalysis-and-electro-fenton-process
#19
Minerva Villanueva-Rodríguez, Ricardo Bello-Mendoza, Aracely Hernández-Ramírez, Edgar J Ruiz-Ruiz
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are compounds frequently found in municipal wastewater and their degradation by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is generally incomplete. This study compared the efficiency of two advanced oxidation processes, namely heterogeneous photocatalysis (HP) and electro-Fenton (EF), in the degradation of a mixture of common NSAID (diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen) dissolved in either deionized water or effluent from a WWTP. Both processes were effective in degrading the NSAID mixture and the trend of degradation was as follows, diclofenac>naproxen>ibuprofen...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457746/cardiac-rupture-caused-by-traffic-accident-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#20
Stefania Zerbo
The commonest cause of blunt cardiac injuries is from traffic accidents followed by violent falls, sport activities, accidents or a fight but rupture of the heart is rare and lethal. The precise incidence of cardiac injury after a blunt chest trauma is unknown as rates vary greatly in the literature from between 7% and 76% of cases. Autopsy studies have shown that the right ventricle is the most frequently ruptured, followed by the left ventricle, right atrium, intraventricular septum, left atrium and interatrial septum with decreasing frequency...
January 1, 2018: Medico-legal Journal
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