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Stephen Ss Teo, Arjun Rao, Jason Acworth
The Paediatric Acute Care Conference is an annual conference organised by APLS Australia to advance paediatric acute care topics for clinicians in pre-hospital medicine, EDs, acute paediatrics, intensive care and anaesthesia. The Conference 2017 was held at Surfers Paradise, Queensland. We provide a summary of some of the presentations.
April 25, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Bernard Thébaud
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains the main complication of extreme preterm birth. Research over the past 10 years suggests the potential for stem cell-based therapies to prevent and/or restore organ damage in extreme preterm infants. Mesenchymal stromal cells, in particular, have advanced as the forerunner among various cell therapies based on very promising preclinical studies in animal models of neonatal lung injury. Early phase clinical trials are now underway to determine the safety and feasibility of this cell therapy in preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Gerard R Martin, Richard A Jonas
Cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease has changed dramatically since the first surgery in 1938. During the early era, children underwent surgery at older ages often with palliative procedures before their corrective operation. Not surprisingly, in the early era, there was considerably higher early and late mortality, including the additive risks of having more than one procedure and a long period of living with an unphysiological palliated circulation. Over time with advances in noninvasive diagnosis, surgical approach, cardiopulmonary bypass techniques, and team-based care, outcomes have improved...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Mary T Donofrio
Advances in prenatal imaging have improved the examination of the fetal cardiovascular system. Fetal echocardiography facilitates the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) and through sequential examination, allows assessment of fetal cardiac hemodynamics, predicting the evolution of anatomical and functional cardiovascular abnormalities in utero and during the transition to a postnatal circulation at delivery. This approach allows detailed diagnosis with prenatal counseling and enables planning to define perinatal management, selecting the fetuses at a risk of postnatal hemodynamic instability who are likely to require a specialized delivery plan...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Eduardo Bancalari, Deepak Jain
The advances in obstetric and neonatal care over the last half century have resulted in changes in pathophysiology and clinical presentation of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In contrast to the original description of BPD by Northway et al as a severe lung injury in relatively mature preterm infants, the most common form of BPD currently is characterized by chronic respiratory insufficiency in extremely preterm infants. This evolution in the presentation of BPD, along with changes in respiratory support strategies such as increased use of nasal cannula oxygen, has presented a unique challenge to find a definition that describes the severity of lung damage and predict the long-term respiratory outcomes with some accuracy...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Zheng-Ming Zhu, Fang-Teng Liu, Xuan Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (CASC2) is downregulated in various cancers and involved in both tumorigenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of lncRNA CASC2 in cancer patients. METHODS: We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the Wanfang database to identify studies evaluating the prognostic value of lncRNA CASC2 in cancer patients...
April 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Junghoon Shin, Kyu Sang Lee, Kyung Ah Yoh, Hyun Jin Cho, Moon Ki Choi, Se Hyun Kim, Yu Jung Kim, Jin-Haeng Chung, Sukki Cho, Kwhanmien Kim, Sanghoon Jheon, Ho Il Yoon, Jae Ho Lee, Choon-Taek Lee, Jong Seok Lee
OBJECTIVE: Multimodal treatments that include preoperative platinum-based chemotherapy are fundamental to the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of DNA repair protein expression in surgically resected NSCLCs in terms of prognosis and responses to platinum-containing chemotherapy. METHODS: This retrospective study included 136 patients with NSCLC who were treated with preoperative platinum-based chemotherapy, followed by curative lung resection...
April 25, 2018: Oncology
Meng-Yu Wu, Giou-Teng Yiang, Wan-Ting Liao, Andy Po-Yi Tsai, Yeung-Leung Cheng, Pei-Wen Cheng, Chia-Ying Li, Chia-Jung Li
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with serious clinical manifestations, including myocardial hibernation, acute heart failure, cerebral dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysfunction, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a critical medical condition that poses an important therapeutic challenge for physicians. In this review article, we present recent advances focusing on the basic pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion injury, especially the involvement of reactive oxygen species and cell death pathways...
April 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Lorena Franco-Martínez, Diego Romero, Camila Peres Rubio, Fernando Tecles, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Mariana Teles, Asta Tvarijonaviciute
The aim of the present report was to develop and validate new automated spectrophotometric assays for measurement of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiols, and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in mussel gills, digestive gland and hemolymph samples, and to evaluate their possible utility in biomonitoring programs. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by different methods: trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC1 and TEAC2), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)...
April 22, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Mohthash Musambil, Salma Majid Wakil, Haya Al-Saud, Amr T M Saeb, Sara Al-Qasim, Dhekra Al-Naqib
In the case of diabetes and other complex diseases, the challenge has always been to find genetic markers that explain the excess risk associated with development of the disease. In the last 12 years, advances in genotyping technology provided substantial development in the discovery of loci contributing to Type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to custom design, for the first time in Arab world, an "Arab Diabetes Gene Centric Array" (ADGCA) that assays 643, 745 SNP markers including 50,617 diabetes associated SNPs...
April 22, 2018: Gene
Deepali Rathore, Anneliese Faustino, John Schiel, Eric Pang, Michael Boyne, Sarah Rogstad
Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used in the characterization of biomolecules including peptide and protein therapeutics. These biotechnology products have seen rapid growth over the past few decades and continue to dominate the global pharmaceutical market. Advances in MS instrumentation and techniques have enhanced protein characterization capabilities and supported an increased development of biopharmaceutical products. Areas covered: This review describes recent developments in MS-based biotherapeutic analysis including sequence determination, post-translational modifications (PTMs) and higher order structure (HOS) analysis along with improvements in ionization and dissociation methods...
April 25, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Emre Sevgen, Federico Giberti, Hythem Sidky, Jonathan K Whitmer, Giulia Galli, Francois Gygi, Juan J de Pablo
We present a seamless coupling of a suite of codes designed to perform advanced sampling simulations, with a first principles molecular dynamics (MD) engine. As an illustrative example, we discuss results for the free energy and potential surfaces of the alanine dipeptide obtained using both local and hybrid density functionals (DFT), and we compare them with those of a widely used classical force field, Amber99sb. In our calculations, the efficiency of first principles MD using hybrid functionals is augmented by hierarchical sampling, where hybrid free energy calculations are initiated using estimates obtained with local functionals...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Qi Gao, Xuan Cao, Yuying Huang, Jinglin Yang, Jun Chen, Liujing Wei, Qiang Hua
Recent advances in the production of biofuels by microbes have attracted attention due to increasingly-limited fossil fuels. Biodiesels, especially fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), are considered a potentially fully-sustainable fuel in the near future due to similarities with petrodiesels and compatibility with existing infrastructure. However, biosynthesis of FAEEs is limited by the supply of precursor lipids and acetyl-CoA. In the present study, we explored the production potential of an engineered biosynthetic pathway coupled to the addition of ethanol in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica...
April 25, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Guillermo A Ortiz, Hirsh D Trivedi, Claudia Nader
Hepatitis C infection in patients with chronic kidney disease or kidney transplant carries higher morbidity and mortality compared to noninfected patients. Historically, patients with advanced kidney disease and kidney transplant recipients were undertreated given the multiple adverse effects and limited efficacy of interferon-based therapies for chronic hepatitis C. The development of direct-acting antivirals in the past few years has opened an unprecedented opportunity for treating these populations. However, the impaired renal clearance of some of these medications in patients with kidney disease, and the potential interactions of antiviral therapies with immunosuppressants after kidney transplantation, present some challenges in choosing the proper regimen...
April 2018: Hemodialysis International
Julia M Rogers, Martha L Bulyk
Sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) bind short DNA sequences in the genome to regulate the expression of target genes. In the last decade, numerous technical advances have enabled the determination of the DNA-binding specificities of many of these factors. Large-scale screens of many TFs enabled the creation of databases of TF DNA-binding specificities, typically represented as position weight matrices (PWMs). Although great progress has been made in determining and predicting binding specificities systematically, there are still many surprises to be found when studying a particular TF's interactions with DNA in detail...
April 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Katherine J McNamara, Thomas F C Saunders, Adnan Darr, Sonia Kumar, Simon Shaw, Natarajan Saravanappa
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy is now widely recognised as being the chosen method of resecting pituitary gland tumours. There have been a number of advances both in technology and management of this group of patients over the years from the introduction of a multi disciplinary team (MDT) to the use of computed tomography (CT) navigation system for operative guidance. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: This study reviews one UK centre's experience of pituitary tumour resection over a period of 26 years and identifies how management of these cases has changed over this time...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Sean DuBois, Ankur R Desai, Aditya Singh, Shawn P Serbin, Michael L Goulden, Dennis D Baldocchi, Siyan Ma, Walter C Oechel, Sonia Wharton, Eric L Kruger, Philip A Townsend
A central challenge to understanding how climate anomalies, such as drought and heatwaves, impact the terrestrial carbon cycle, is quantification and scaling of spatial and temporal variation in ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). Existing empirical and model-based satellite broadband spectra-based products have been shown to miss critical variation in GPP. Here, we evaluate the potential of high spectral resolution (10 nm) shortwave (400-2500 nm) imagery to better detect spatial and temporal variations in GPP across a range of ecosystems, including forests, grassland-savannas, wetlands, and shrublands in a water-stressed region...
April 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Bettina Kruck, Elizabeth A Zimmermann, Sophie Damerow, Christine Figge, Catherine Julien, Dag Wulstein, Tobias Thiele, Madge Martin, Reggie Hamdy, Marie K Reumann, Georg N Duda, Sara Checa, Bettina M Willie
During bone healing, tissue formation processes are governed by mechanical strain. Sost/sclerostin, a key Wnt signaling inhibitor and mechano-sensitive pathway, is downregulated in response to mechanical loading. Sclerostin neutralizing antibody (SclAb) increases bone formation. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether sclerostin inhibition can rescue bone healing in situations of mechanical instability, which otherwise delay healing. We investigated SclAb's influence on tissue formation in a mouse femoral osteotomy, stabilized with Rigid or Semi-rigid external fixation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Brian Blanton, Kendra Dresback, Brian Colle, Randy Kolar, Humberto Vergara, Yang Hong, Nicholas Leonardo, Rachel Davidson, Linda Nozick, Tricia Wachtendorf
Hurricane track and intensity can change rapidly in unexpected ways, thus making predictions of hurricanes and related hazards uncertain. This inherent uncertainty often translates into suboptimal decision-making outcomes, such as unnecessary evacuation. Representing this uncertainty is thus critical in evacuation planning and related activities. We describe a physics-based hazard modeling approach that (1) dynamically accounts for the physical interactions among hazard components and (2) captures hurricane evolution uncertainty using an ensemble method...
April 25, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Soufia Naccache, Mouna Ben Kilani, Rami Tlili, Youssef Ben Ameur, Mohamed Rachid Boujnah
Atrial fibrillation and hypertension are often coexistent. Their incidence increases with advancing age and they are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. The relation between theses 2 diseases has long been discussed and determined by clinical studies. Left ventricular hypertrophy and left atrial remodeling during hypertension favor the development of atrial fibrillation. AF during hypertension increases the risk of thromboembolic complications and heart failure. In patients with hypertension, pharmacological treatment may control the cardiac structural changes and retard or prevent the occurrence of atrial fibrillation...
July 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
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