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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932903/a-survey-of-australian-dysphagia-practice-patterns
#1
Anna Rumbach, Caitlin Coombes, Sebastian Doeltgen
Dysphagia assessment and rehabilitation practice is complex, and significant variability in speech-language pathology approaches has been documented internationally. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing-related assessment and rehabilitation practices of SLPs currently working in Australia. One hundred and fifty-four SLPs completed an online questionnaire administered via QuickSurveys from May to July 2015. Results were analysed descriptively. The majority of clinicians had accessed post-graduate training in dysphagia management and assessment (66...
September 20, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921848/interconversion-rates-between-conformational-states-as-rationale-for-the-membrane-permeability-of-cyclosporines
#2
Jagna Witek, Max Mühlbauer, Bettina G Keller, Markus Blatter, Axel Meissner, Trixie Wagner, Sereina Riniker
Cyclic peptides have regained interest as potential inhibitors of challenging targets, but have often a low bioavailability. The natural product cyclosporine A (CsA) is the textbook exception. Despite its size and polar backbone it is able to passively cross membranes. This ability is hypothesized to be due to a conformational change from the low-energy conformation in water to a "congruent" conformation that is populated both in water and inside the membrane. Here, we use a combination of NMR measurements and kinetic models based on molecular dynamics simulations to rationalize the difference in the membrane permeability of cyclosporine E (CsE) and CsA...
September 17, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918294/potassium-channels-modulate-the-action-but-not-the-synthesis-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-rat-corpus-cavernosum
#3
H Abd Elmoneim, F Sharabi, M Mohy El Din, L Louedec, X Norel, A Senbel
AIM: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a newly-introduced gasotransmitter in penile tissues. However, its exact mechanism of action in mediating penile erection is not fully elucidated. The major aim of this study was to examine the role of different K(+) channels in mediating the responses to H2S in the corpus cavernosum. MAIN METHODS: Tension studies using isolated rat corpus cavernosum strips were conducted. Endogenous H2S production was measured using polarographic technique...
September 13, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915625/long-term-cigarette-smoke-exposure-inhibits-histone-deacetylase-2-expression-and-enhances-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#4
Dongmei Huang, Zhiying Ma, Yili He, Ying Xiao, Honglin Luo, Qiuli Liang, Xiaoning Zhong, Jing Bai, Zhiyi He
Long-term cigarette smoke induces lung inflammatory injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with skeletal muscle inflammation. This study aimed at investigating how cigarette smoke promotes skeletal muscle inflammation and its molecular pathogenesis. Mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 12 or 24 weeks, and C2C12 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The mass and function, myotube formation, inflammatory cytokine production, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression were detected in the gastrocnemius muscles of mice and C2C12 cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893015/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-unilateral-spinal-anaesthesia-with-sequential-combined-spinal-epidural-anaesthesia-for-lower-limb-orthopaedic-surgery
#5
Jyoti Sandeep Magar, Kishori Dhaku Bawdane, Rahul Patil
INTRODUCTION: Orthopaedic anaesthesia plan requires customi-zation as per patient's need for safe outcome. Sequential Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia (Sequential CSEA) and Unilateral Single Shot Spinal anaesthesia (Unilateral SA), both have advantages over conventional spinal anaesthesia that they provide longer lasting block with less hypotension. AIM: To compare safety and efficacy of unilateral spinal anaesthesia with sequential combined spinal epidural anaesthesia for lower limb orthopaedic surgery ...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889119/sham-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-and-its-effects-on-corticospinal-excitability-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Thusharika D Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary F Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Sham stimulation is used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of active stimulation and placebo effects. It should mimic the characteristics of active stimulation to achieve blinding integrity. The present study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to identify the effects of sham transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS, c-tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE), compared to baseline in healthy individuals...
September 11, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886496/convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-a-quaternary-hospital-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-picu-in-south-africa-an-8-year-review
#7
Yavini Reddy, Yusentha Balakrishna, Lawrence Mubaiwa
PURPOSE: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to describe the clinical profile, aetiology, neuroimaging and EEG findings as well as outcome of children with CSE in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of electronic records of children with CSE admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) over an 8-year period from January 2007 to December 2014. RESULTS: Seventy six patients were admitted to the PICU with CSE and 55(72%) had refractory status epilepticus...
August 2, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883932/effect-of-vitamin-d3-on-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-human-airway-surface-liquid-preliminary-results-of-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#8
Luis G Vargas Buonfiglio, Marlene Cano, Alejandro A Pezzulo, Oriana G Vanegas Calderon, Joseph Zabner, Alicia K Gerke, Alejandro P Comellas
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D3 supplementation has been reported to prevent lung infections and increase the gene expression of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin. We investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the antimicrobial activity of airway surface liquid (ASL) in human subjects. Since smoking can increase the risk of respiratory infections, we also investigated the effect of smoking in the cathelicidin response to vitamin D3 in human airway epithelia in vitro. METHODS: This study is a subanalysis of single-centre community-based randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879629/feasibility-of-coping-effectiveness-training-for-caregivers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-genetic-counseling-intervention
#9
Christy Haakonsen Smith, Erin Turbitt, John Muschelli, Lori Leonard, Katie L Lewis, Brian Freedman, Michelle Muratori, Barbara B Biesecker
Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may find it difficult to feel a sense of control and to cope with the overall physical and emotional demands of caring for their child. While caregivers are able to successfully cope with a high level of stress, there are limits to their resources and abilities to cope over time. Genetic counselors working with affected families may be able to help parents more effectively manage stress related to the disorder. Few short-term interventions have been reported in genetic counseling yet implementation of evidence-based examples may be achievable...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878037/silencing-caffeoyl-shikimate-esterase-affects-lignification-and-improves-saccharification
#10
Marina de Lyra Soriano Saleme, Igor Cesarino, Lívia Vargas, Hoon Kim, Ruben Vanholme, Geert Goeminne, Rebecca Van Acker, Fernando Campos de Assis Fonseca, Andreas Pallidis, Wannes Voorend, José Nicomedes, Dharshana Padmakshan, Jan Van Doorsseleare, John Ralph, Wout A Boerjan
Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) was recently shown to play an essential role in lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana and later in Medicago truncatula. However, the general function of this enzyme was recently questioned by the apparent lack of CSE activity in lignifying tissues of different plant species. Here, we show that downregulation of CSE in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × P. alba) resulted in up to 25% reduced lignin deposition, increased levels of p-hydroxyphenyl units in the lignin polymer, and a relatively higher cellulose content...
September 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877979/fatty-acids-promote-fatty-liver-disease-via-the-dysregulation-of-3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-hydrogen-sulfide-pathway
#11
Meng Li, Chengfu Xu, Junping Shi, Jiexia Ding, Xingyong Wan, Dahua Chen, Jianguo Gao, Chunxiao Li, Jie Zhang, Yiming Lin, Zhenhua Tu, Xiaoni Kong, Youming Li, Chaohui Yu
OBJECTIVE: Accumulation of free fatty acids (FFAs) in hepatocytes induces lipotoxicity, leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which FFA contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD via the regulation of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST), a key enzyme that regulates endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biosynthesis. DESIGN: Hepatic MPST expression was evaluated in mice and patients with NAFLD...
September 6, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875709/continuous-epidural-infusion-versus-programmed-intermittent-epidural-bolus-for-labor-analgesia-optimal-configuration-of-parameters-to-reduce-physician-administered-top-ups
#12
Carlos Delgado, Christopher Ciliberto, Laurent Bollag, Margaret Sedensky, Ruth Landau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) is a delivery mode associated with decreased local analgesia dosing, motor block, and physician-administered top-ups (PATU) during labor analgesia. We hypothesized that PIEB delivery at different settings will result in fewer PATU for labor analgesia than the same hourly volume of a continuous epidural infusion (CEI). METHODS: 'Before and after' study design of combined-spinal epidural (CSE) for labor, with bupivacaine 0...
September 6, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873751/validation-of-coffee-silverskin-extract-as-a-food-ingredient-by-the-analysis-of-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity
#13
Amaia Iriondo-DeHond, Ana I Haza, Alicia Ávalos, María Dolores Del Castillo, Paloma Morales
The aim of the present study was to validate the food safety of CSE, by studying its effect on cytotoxicity (100-20000μg/ml) and genotoxicity (10, 100 and 1000μg/ml) and also to investigate its preventive potential (1, 10 and 100μg/ml) against B(a)P induced DNA damage. Prior to analyses, the antioxidant capacity and the microbiological quality of CSE were tested. DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidized purines/pyrimidines) was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay. HepG2 cells were pre-treated with CSE (1, 10 and 100μg/ml) for 24h followed by the addition of 100μM B(a)P in presence of CSE for other 24h...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867672/phagocytosis-and-inflammation-exploring-the-effects-of-the-components-of-e-cigarette-vapor-on-macrophages
#14
Miranda P Ween, Jonathan J Whittall, Rhys Hamon, Paul N Reynolds, Sandra J Hodge
E-cigarettes are perceived as harmless; however, evidence of their safety is lacking. New data suggests E-cigarettes discharge a range of compounds capable of physiological damage to users. We previously established that cigarette smoke caused defective alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. The present study compared the effect E-cigarette of components; E-liquid flavors, nicotine, vegetable glycerine, and propylene glycol on phagocytosis, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and phagocytic recognition molecule expression using differentiated THP-1 macrophages...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866335/predictors-of-outcomes-and-refractoriness-in-status-epilepticus-a-prospective-study
#15
Murat Mert Atmaca, Nerses Bebek, Betül Baykan, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Candan Gürses
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of outcomes and refractoriness in status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: This is a prospective study of 59 adult patients with SE who were admitted to the Emergency Department between February 2012 and December 2013. The effects of clinical, demographic, and electrophysiologic features of patients with SE were evaluated. To evaluate outcome in SE, STESS, mSTESS, and EMSE scales were used. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that being aged ≥65years (p=0...
August 31, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864214/microrna-218-acts-by-repressing-tnfr1-mediated-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-which-is-involved-in-muc5ac-hyper-production-and-inflammation-in-smoking-induced-bronchiolitis-of-copd
#16
Hui Xu, Qian Sun, Lu Lu, Fei Luo, Liang Zhou, Jianping Liu, Lei Cao, Qiushi Wang, Junchao Xue, Qianlei Yang, Ping Yang, Jiachun Lu, Quanyong Xiang, Qizhan Liu
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is largely attributable to cigarette smoke (CS). However, little is known about the effect of miRNAs on CS-induced mucus hypersecretion and the inflammatory response in the airway epithelium, which are pathological characteristics of COPD-related chronic bronchiolitis. As determined in the present investigation, population-based data indicate that smokers with COPD had serious airflow obstruction and inflammation, whereas smokers without COPD had mild airflow obstruction and inflammation...
August 31, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862351/chemical-shift-encoding-cse-for-sensitive-fluorine-19-mri-of-perfluorocarbons-with-complex-spectra
#17
Ruud B van Heeswijk, Roberto Colotti, Emeline Darçot, Jean Delacoste, Maxime Pellegrin, Davide Piccini, Diego Hernando
PURPOSE: To implement a fluorine-19 ((19) F) chemical shift encoding (CSE) approach for the sensitive imaging of molecules with multi-resonance spectra to remove their chemical shift displacement (CSD) artifacts, and to characterize its sensitivity versus established pulse sequences. METHODS: The feasibility of CSE spoiled gradient echo (GRE) and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) was first demonstrated in a phantom study. The dependence of the sensitivity of CSE-bSSFP on several pulse sequence parameters was then established, after which the occurrence of out-of-plane excitation was assessed for 2D and 3D techniques...
September 1, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861754/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-mediated-neuroprotective-efficacy-of-cicer-microphyllum-seed-extract-in-global-hypoxia
#18
Deepti Sharma, Surya Narayan Biswal, Kushal Kumar, Pushpendar Bhardwaj, Kalpana Kumari Barhwal, Ashish Kumar, Sunil Kumar Hota, Om Prakash Chaurasia
Hypoxia induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus has been implicated for memory impairment in conditions like stroke, ischemia and hypobaric hypoxia. The present study, aimed at investigating the potential of ethanolic extract of Cicer microphyllum seeds (CSE) for amelioration of global hypoxia induced neurodegeneration in CA1 region of hippocampus. CSE supplementation considerably reduced neurodegeneration and dendritic atrophy in CA1 neurons along with improvement of memory in hypoxic rats...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860481/increased-expression-of-siglec-9-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
Zhilin Zeng, Miao Li, Meijia Wang, Xiaomei Wu, Qinghai Li, Qin Ning, Jianping Zhao, Yongjian Xu, Jungang Xie
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common inflammatory lung disease. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins 9 (Siglec-9) is predominantly expressed on innate immune cells and has been shown to exert regulatory effect on immune cells through glycan recognition. Soluble Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9), the extracellular region of Siglec-9, might fulfill its function partly by competitive inhibiting siglec-9 binding to its ligands; however, the role of Siglec-9 and sSiglec-9 in the pathogenesis COPD remain largely unknown...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858636/damage-associated-molecular-pattern-markers-hmgb1-and-cell-free-fetal-telomere-fragments-in-oxidative-stressed-amnion-epithelial-cell-derived-exosomes
#20
Samantha Sheller-Miller, Rheanna Urrabaz-Garza, George Saade, Ramkumar Menon
Term labor in humans is associated with increased oxidative stress (OS) -induced senescence and damages to amnion epithelial cells (AECs). Senescent fetal cells release alarmin high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and cell-free fetal telomere fragments (cffTF) which can be carried by exosomes to other uterine tissues to produce parturition-associated inflammatory changes. This study characterized AEC-derived exosomes under normal and OS conditions and their packaging of HMGB1 and cffTF. Primary AECs were treated with either standard media or oxidative stress-induced media (exposure to cigarette smoke extract for 48h)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
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