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Healthy eating

Saroj Prasad Deo
INTRODUCTION: Third molar surgery (TMS) became a routine, safe office procedure with generally predictable outcomes and relative low cost. It affects quality of life (QOL) of patients by causing considerable pain, swelling and trismus; by changing what people eat, their speech in the first few days after surgery. The purpose of the present study was to improve QOL of patient after lower TMS by injecting single dose 8 mg submucosal dexamethasone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy adult subjects of either gender underwent surgical removal of the lower impacted third molar under local anaesthesia and after being randomly assigned to receive either 8 mg dexamethasone submucosal injection or normal saline injection in proximity to surgical site...
September 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Kentaro Murakami, M Barbara E Livingstone
This cross-sectional study examined how energy density (ED) in meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference (WC). On the basis of the data from 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15; snacks: <15%) in 1451 British adults aged 19-64 years. Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, both meal ED and snack ED (kJ/g; calculated on the basis of solid food only) were inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the healthy diet indicator (regression coefficient (β)=-0·29 to -0·21 and -0·07 to -0·04, respectively) and Mediterranean diet score (β=-0·43 to -0·30 and -0·13 to -0·06, respectively) in both sexes (P≤0·002), although the associations were stronger for meal ED...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
L Frerichs, O Ataga, G Corbie-Smith, S Tessler Lindau
A growing number of childhood obesity interventions involve children and youth in participatory roles, but these types of interventions have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to identify child and youth participatory interventions in the peer-reviewed literature in order to characterize the approaches and examine their impact on obesity and obesity-related lifestyle behaviours. We searched PubMed/Medline, psychINFO and ERIC for quasi-experimental and randomized trials conducted from date of database initiation through May 2015 that engaged children or youth in implementing healthy eating, physical activity or weight management strategies...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Fiona B Gillison, Ava B Lorenc A B, Ester F C Sleddens, Stefanie L Williams, Lou Atkinson
Many parents express concern that raising the issue of weight risks harming their child's physical self-perceptions and wellbeing. Such concerns can deter families from engaging with weight management services. This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence behind these concerns by analysing the association between parent-child weight-talk and child wellbeing. A systematic search of eight databases identified four intervention studies and 38 associative studies. Meta-analysis was only possible for the associative studies; to facilitate more meaningful comparisons, weight-talk was categorized into four communication types and effect size estimates for the association between these and wellbeing indicators were calculated through a random effects model...
October 13, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Ruth W Kimokoti, Barbara E Millen
Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally, and are attributable largely to poor nutrition and suboptimal lifestyle behaviors. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans promote healthy eating and lifestyle patterns across the lifespan to reduce risk of NCDs. Physicians are well positioned to provide lifestyle preventive interventions that are personalized to their patients' biological needs and cultural preferences through multidisciplinary team activities or referral to professional nutrition and physical activity experts...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Paula D N Dworatzek, Joanne Stier
PURPOSE: Peer education (PE) has been used effectively in nutrition; however, research examining dietitians' attitudes regarding PE is lacking. METHODS: An online survey was sent to a random sample of 1198 Dietitians of Canada members to assess attitudes regarding PE by practice area. RESULTS: A representative sample of dietitians by practice area and location was obtained (n = 229; 19%). Their total attitude score (TAS) was 226 ± 26 (mean ± SD) out of 295 (maximum)...
July 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Conxa Perpiñá, Mara Segura, Sergio Sánchez-Reales
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare decision-making and cognitive flexibility in patients with disordered eating and weight, ranging from anorexia nervosa to obesity, and a healthy group. METHOD: Participants were 113 patients (86 with eating disorders and 27 with obesity), and a group of 39 healthy subjects; all completed the Iowa gambling task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and several clinical self-report measures. RESULTS: Eating disordered and obese patients showed impaired performance on the decision-making task, and the obese group showed the worst performance on the set-shifting task...
October 15, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Gnel Gabrielyan, Drew S Hanks, Kathryn Hoy, David R Just, Brian Wansink
School cafeterias and, subsequently, food service directors (FSDs) play a vital role in feeding children in the U.S. This study investigates which FSDs with different characteristics and organizational affiliations are most willing to embrace and implement new programs in their cafeterias. In 2014 we surveyed a representative sample of 8143 school FSDs across the U.S. regarding their knowledge and use of innovative methods that encourage children to select healthy food options. Nearly all of the surveyed FSDs (93%) are aware of behavioral strategies to promote healthier eating in school lunchrooms, and nearly 93% report having made at least one change in their lunchroom...
September 11, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
James W Varni, Robert J Shulman, Mariella M Self, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Shehzad A Saeed, Ashish S Patel, Chelsea Vaughan Dark, Cristiane B Bendo, John F Pohl
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patient-reported multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). METHODS: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 259 pediatric patients with functional constipation, functional abdominal pain (FAP), or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
October 14, 2016: Quality of Life Research
A Bion, T Cascales, S Dubedout, N Bodeau, J P Olives, J P Raynaud
INTRODUCTION: Interest in the study of early feeding disorders (FD) has steadily increased during recent decades. During this period, research described the importance of the transactional relationships and the complex interplay between caregiver and child over time. On the basis of the previous studies, our study tried to explore the associations between the characteristics of the parents and the temperamental characteristics of the infants with early FD. GOALS: A first aim of the present study was to show if parental perception of child temperament (including ability for arousal self-regulation) and parental characteristics (emotional and eating attitudes) are associated with early FD...
October 11, 2016: L'Encéphale
Kate Churruca, Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz
Bulimia, an eating disorder that affects more women than men, involves binging and compensatory behaviors. Given the importance of food in experiences of these behaviors, in this article, we examine constructions of food in accounts of bulimic behavior: how these constructions relate to cultural discourses, and their implications for subjectivity. Fifteen women who engaged in bulimic behaviors were interviewed. Through a thematic decomposition of their accounts, we identified six discursive constructions of food: "good/healthy" or "bad/unhealthy," "contaminating body and soul," "collapsed into fat," "pleasurable reward," "comfort," and "fuel for the body...
October 13, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Min Min Tan, Carina K Y Chan, Daniel D Reidpath
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong predictor of health, and individuals with higher SES generally have better health than those with lower SES. One of the pathways that SES influences health is through health behaviors, such as dietary intake, and a higher SES has been associated with a better diet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a social gradient in dietary habits among the Seventh-Day Adventists, a group of conservative Christians, where healthy eating is part of the doctrinal teaching...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Bastiaan Boh, Anita Jansen, Ineke Clijsters, Chantal Nederkoorn, Lotte H J M Lemmens, Gerasimos Spanakis, Anne Roefs
Cognitions and emotions are considered important determinants of eating behaviour in cognitive behavioural models of obesity. Ecological data on these determinants is still limited. The present study investigated cognitions and emotions of overweight (n = 57) and healthy-weight (n = 43) participants via Ecological Momentary Assessment. It was found that eating-related cognitions mainly focused on desire and taste. Unexpectedly, dysfunctional cognitions (i.e., thoughts that may promote overeating) did not occur more often for overweight participants in almost all cases...
October 4, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Charlotte C Gupta, Jill Dorrian, Crystal L Grant, Maja Pajcin, Alison M Coates, David J Kennaway, Gary A Wittert, Leonie K Heilbronn, Chris B Della Vedova, Siobhan Banks
Shiftworkers have impaired performance when driving at night and they also alter their eating patterns during nightshifts. However, it is unknown whether driving at night is influenced by the timing of eating. This study aims to explore the effects of timing of eating on simulated driving performance across four simulated nightshifts. Healthy, non-shiftworking males aged 18-35 years (n = 10) were allocated to either an eating at night (n = 5) or no eating at night (n = 5) condition. During the simulated nightshifts at 1730, 2030 and 0300 h, participants performed a 40-min driving simulation, 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), and recorded their ratings of sleepiness on a subjective scale...
October 13, 2016: Chronobiology International
Sabine Sonnentag, Alexander Pundt, Laura Venz
This study aimed at examining predictors of healthy and unhealthy snacking at work. As proximal predictors we looked at food-choice motives (health motive, affect-regulation motive); as distal predictors we included organizational eating climate, emotional eating, and self-control demands at work. We collected daily survey data from 247 employees, over a period of 2 workweeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling showed that organizational eating climate predicted health as food-choice motive, whereas emotional eating and self-control demands predicted affect regulation as food-choice motive...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Victoria L Mayer, Candace R Young, Carolyn C Cannuscio, Allison Karpyn, Sarah Kounaves, Emily Strupp, Kevin McDonough, Judy A Shea
INTRODUCTION: Urban corner store interventions have been implemented to improve access to and promote purchase of healthy foods. However, the perspectives of store owners and managers, who deliver and shape these interventions in collaboration with nonprofit, government, and academic partners, have been largely overlooked. We sought to explore the views of store owners and managers on the role of their stores in the community and their beliefs about health problems and solutions in the community...
October 13, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Cigdem Donmez, Ece Konac, Batuhan T Aydogan, Cenk Y Bilen
PURPOSE: To study whether -160 C > A (rs16260) and -347 G > GA (rs5030625) single nucleotide polymorphisms of the regulatory region (rSNPs) of CDH1 gene modulate the risk of nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Genomic DNA of 101 patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and 114 healthy controls were screened for both polymorphisms, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism method (PCR-RLFP). Haplotype frequencies were also analyzed...
2016: SpringerPlus
Joseph A Ladapo, Udo Hoffmann, Kerry L Lee, Adrian Coles, Megan Huang, Daniel B Mark, Rowena J Dolor, Robert A Pelberg, Matthew Budoff, Gardar Sigurdsson, Harry W Severance, Pamela S Douglas
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic testing in the care of patients newly presenting with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease may influence risk factor management, independent of test type or test results. However, little is known about changes in medications and lifestyle after anatomical or functional testing. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined what factors influenced preventive medical therapy and lifestyle practices at 60 days among 10 003 symptomatic patients (53% women; mean age 61 years) randomly assigned to anatomical testing with coronary computed tomographic angiography or functional testing (NCT01174550)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Rachel Nicholls, Lin Perry, Christine Duffield, Robyn Gallagher, Heather Pierce
BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition of the influence of the workplace environment on the eating habits of the workforce, which in turn may contribute to increased overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity exact enormous costs in terms of reduced well-being, worker productivity and increased risk of non-communicable diseases. The workplace is an ideal place to intervene and support healthy behaviours. This review aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' healthy eating in the workplace...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Nawel Zammit, Jihene Maatoug, Rim Ghammam, Kebaili Raoudha, Boughammoura Lamia, Al'Absi Mustafa, Lando Harry, Hassen Ghannem
INTRODUCTION: Implementation of a healthy lifestyle at an early age is described as a successful intervention to prevent non communicable diseases. However, successful programs are not necessarily sustainable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a 1-year sustainability of a 3-year comprehensive intervention conducted to promote a healthy lifestyle among schoolchildren. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort study of 204 schoolchildren enrolled in middle schools was conducted after a quasi-experimental study in the region of Sousse, Tunisia...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
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