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Komi Afassinou, Faraimunashe Chirove, Keshlan S Govinder
We introduce a model for HIV/AIDS which can be utilized to assess the impact of combining pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) use interventions (incorporating drug resistance). Mathematical and numerical analyses are carried out to investigate the effects of the combined controls in the presence of PrEP drug resistance. Our results predict a significant decrease in the number of new HIV infections when PrEP and ARVs are concurrently implemented at high levels. The results also reveal that PrEP drug resistance has the potential to slow down or reverse the effects of PrEP, especially at low efficacy levels...
January 14, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Daniel Elieh-Ali-Komi, Yonghao Cao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammatory demyelination and consequent axonal deterioration. The hallmark of the disease is the demyelinated plaque, a hypocellular area characterized by formation of astrocytic scars and infiltration of mononuclear cells. Recent studies have revealed that both innate and adaptive immune cells contribute to the pathogenesis of MS and its experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Mohamed El-Komy, Suzan Shalaby, Rehab Hegazy, Rania Abdel Hay, Saly Sherif, Ehab Bendas
BACKGROUND: A poloxamer solution acting as a vehicle for the lipid base particulate system (cubosome dispersions) containing alpha lipoic acid (ALA) has achieved encouraging results in skin aging. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficacy of 5% Cubosomal ALA as an anti-aging formulation. METHODS: This single-blinded, placebo-controlled, comparative study was conducted on 20 females. Patients were instructed to apply a gel formulation containing the active ingredient over the right half of their face and a placebo gel on the left half twice daily for 6 months...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Prashant Purohit, Mohammed El-Komy, Adam Frymoyer, Scott Sutherland, David Drover, Gregory Hammer, Felice Su
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Mireille Prince-David, Mounerou Salou, Corinne Marois-Créhan, Komi Assogba, Céline Plainvert, Koffi A Balogou, Claire Poyart, Asmaa Tazi
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen which represents the leading cause of meningitis in Southeast Asia and an emerging pathogen in the Western world, the main risk factor for infection being contact with pigs. In Africa, the prevalence of S. suis infections in swine and humans is largely unrecognized, with only one recent report of a limited case series. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a human case of meningitis due to S. suis in a 32-year-old man living in Togo...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Daniel Elieh-Ali-Komi, Michael R Hamblin
Chitin is the most abundant aminopolysaccharide polymer occurring in nature, and is the building material that gives strength to the exoskeletons of crustaceans, insects, and the cell walls of fungi. Through enzymatic or chemical deacetylation, chitin can be converted to its most well-known derivative, chitosan. The main natural sources of chitin are shrimp and crab shells, which are an abundant byproduct of the food-processing industry, that provides large quantities of this biopolymer to be used in biomedical applications...
March 2016: International Journal of Advanced Research
Kei Mizuno, Junko Kawatani, Kanako Tajima, Akihiro T Sasaki, Tetsuya Yoneda, Masanori Komi, Toshinori Hirai, Akemi Tomoda, Takako Joudoi, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Motivational signals influence a wide variety of cognitive processes and components of behavioral performance. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS) may be closely associated with a low motivation to learn induced by impaired neural reward processing. However, the extent to which reward processing is impaired in CCFS patients is unclear. The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to determine whether brain activity in regions related to reward sensitivity is impaired in CCFS patients...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yuko Hakamata, Eisuke Sato, Shotaro Komi, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Shuhei Izawa, Norio Murayama, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
The pulvinar is important in selective attention, particularly to visual stimuli under the focus of attention. However, the pulvinar is assumed to process emotional stimuli even outside the focus of attention, because of its tight connection with the amygdala. We therefore investigated how unattended emotional stimuli affect the pulvinar and its effective connectivity (EC) while considering individual differences in selective attention. fMRI in 41 healthy human subjects revealed that the amygdala, but not the pulvinar, more strongly responded to unattended fearful faces than to unattended neutral faces (UF > UN), although we observed greater EC from the pulvinar to the amygdala...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hiroyuki Oda, Kanae Sano, Yoko Kunimasa, Paavo V Komi, Masaki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Patients who have had an Achilles tendon (AT) rupture repaired are potentially at higher risk for re-rupture than those without previous rupture. Little attention has been given to the neuromechanical modulation of muscle-tendon interaction and muscle activation profiles during human dynamic movements after AT rupture repair. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine muscle-tendon behavior and muscle activation during bilateral hopping. METHODS: We enrolled nine subjects who had undergone surgical repair of unilateral AT rupture within the past 1-2 years...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
Vonor Kokou, Maneh Nidain, Nononsaa Batomguela Kassoula, Fiaty-Amenouvor Kwassi, Banla Meba, Balo Komi Patrice
INTRODUCTION: Describe the epidemiology of neonatal conjunctivitis in the Canton of Glidji in southern Togo. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 4 Satellite Health Care Units in the Canton of Glidji from 19 March to 13 May 2009 (8 weeks). All newborns were included in the study and neonatal conjunctivitis was defined by the presence in a newborn of at least two of the following signs: conjunctival hyperemia, eyelid swelling, chemosis, purulent discharges, lacrimation...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Motoyuki Nakamura, Fumitaka Tanaka, Ryousuke Komi, Kentarou Tanaka, Masayuki Onodera, Mikio Kawakami, Yorihiko Koeda, Toshiaki Sakai, Kozo Tanno, Toshiyuki Onoda, Yuki Matsura, Takashi Komatsu
This study investigated the long-term impact of the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami on the incidence of acute decompensated heart failure (HF) in the disaster area. This was a population-based study using comprehensive registration for all hospitals within the study area. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for new onset of HF during the disaster year (2011) and postdisaster years (2012 to 2014) were determined. When SIR were compared between the low- and high-impact areas, as defined by the extent of tsunami inundation in residential areas, SIR showed a significant increase in high-impact areas in 2011 (1...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
M Riga, A Komis, P Maragkoudakis, G Korres, V Danielides
OBJECTIVE: Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. DESIGN: Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded...
December 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Roland Csépányi-Kömi, Éva Wisniewski, Balázs Bartos, Petra Lévai, Tamás Németh, Bernadett Balázs, Angela R M Kurz, Susanne Bierschenk, Markus Sperandio, Erzsébet Ligeti
ARHGAP25 is a Rac-specific GTPase-activating protein that is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. The involvement of ARHGAP25 in regulating the recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites was investigated in genetically modified mice. Using intravital microscopy, we show that Arhgap25 deficiency affects all steps of leukocyte recruitment with a predominant enhancement of transendothelial migration of neutrophilic granulocytes. Increased transmigration of Arhgap25-deficient leukocytes is demonstrated in inflamed cremaster muscle venules, in a peritonitis model, and in an in vitro chemotaxis assay...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Alexander Markov, Iuriy Solonin, Evgeniy Bojko
OBJECTIVES: It is known that professional occupation affects the heart rate variability (HRV). However, most studies have not taken into account seasonal features of the HRV. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the HRV differences in winter and in summer in the case of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM) workers and scientific workers from the Komi Science Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences...
2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Shotaro Komi, Yusuke Inoue, Hirofumi Hata, Ai Nakajima, Hiroki Miyatake
BACKGROUND: We investigated a practical method to measure peak filling rate (PFR) as an indicator of diastolic function of the left ventricle. Ten adult volunteers underwent cine MR imaging using steady-state free precession (SSFP) and phase contrast (PC) sequences to measure PFR. Two PC image sets were acquired at the mitral valve orifice, and PFR was determined from the set with high true temporal resolution (temporal PC method) or with high spatial resolution (spatial PC method). SSFP images covering the left ventricle were acquired, and a time-volume curve was generated around the peak filling phase...
2016: SpringerPlus
Komi Mati, Korede K Adegoke, Hamisu M Salihu
BACKGROUND: Despite the protective effect of male circumcision (MC) against HIV in men, the acceptance of voluntary MC in priority countries for MC scale-up such as Uganda remains limited. This study examined the role of women's sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of HIV and sexual bargaining power as determinants of women's support of male circumcision (MC). METHODS: Data from the Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, 2011 were analyzed (n = 4,874). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with random intercept were conducted to identify factors that influence women's support of MC...
2016: BMC Public Health
Emerson Franchini, Ursula F Julio, Valéria L G Panissa, Fábio S Lira, José Gerosa-Neto, Braulio H M Branco
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. METHODS: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk(-1)): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Tohid Kazemi, Anton Pieter Bussink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: CHI3L1 (also known as YKL-40), a member of "mammalian chitinase-like proteins," is a serum protein lacking enzymatic activity. Although the protein is highly conserved in mammals, a consensus regarding its role in human pathologies is currently lacking. In an attempt to shed light on the many physiological functions of the protein, specifically with regard to asthma, a comprehensive overview of recent studies is provided. RECENT FINDINGS: In asthma, CHI3L1 is secreted from macrophages and airway epithelial cells through an IL-13 related mechanism...
August 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Anat Yaskolka Meir, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Yftach Gepner, Lilac Tene, Hila Zelicha, Gal Tsaban, Avital Bilitzky, Oded Komy, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Yoash Chassidim, Lior Zeller, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Iris Shai
It remains unclear whether intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) has any metabolic influence or whether it is merely a marker of abnormalities, as well as what are the effects of specific lifestyle strategies for weight loss on the dynamics of both IMAT and thigh muscle area (TMA). We followed the trajectory of IMAT and TMA during 18-mo lifestyle intervention among 278 sedentary participants with abdominal obesity, using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR) by an indirect calorimeter...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Tatiana M Tiunova, Nikita Kluge
The taxon Paraleptophlebia Lestage 1917 is accepted here in generic rank, so rank of Neoleptophlebia Kluge 1997 is also raised from subgenus to genus, and the following new combinations are proposed: Neoleptophlebia adoptiva (McDunnough 1929) comb. n., N. assimilis (Banks 1914) comb. n., N. erratica (Kang & Yang 1994) comb. n., N. heteronea (McDunnough 1924) comb. n., N. japonica (Matsumura 1931) comb. n. (= Paraleptophlebia chocolata Imanishi 1937), N. mollis (Eaton 1871) comb. n., N. memorialis (Eaton 1884) comb...
April 6, 2016: Zootaxa
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