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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920570/formation-of-tight-junctions-between-neighboring-podocytes-is-an-early-ultrastructural-feature-in-experimental-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#1
Lena Succar, Ross A Boadle, David C Harris, Gopala K Rangan
PURPOSE: In crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), the development of cellular bridges between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) triggers glomerular crescent formation. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) from day 1 to day 14...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903290/assessing-the-burden-of-intestinal-parasites-affecting-newly-arrived-immigrants-in-qatar
#2
Marawan A Abu-Madi, Jerzy M Behnke, Ahmed Ismail, Sonia Boughattas
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, the enormous influx of immigrants to industrialized countries has led to outbreaks of parasitic diseases, with enteric infections being amongst the most frequently encountered. In its strategy to control such infection, Qatar has established the Pre-Employment Certificate (PEC) program which requires medical inspection before arrival in Qatar and which is mandatory for immigrant workers travelling to the country. To assess the reliability of the PEC, we conducted a survey of intestinal parasites, based on examination of stool samples provided by immigrant workers (n = 2,486) recently arrived in Qatar...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903277/sequence-diversity-of-dengue-virus-type-2-in-brain-and-thymus-of-infected-interferon-receptor-ko-mice-implications-for-dengue-virulence
#3
Priya Dhole, Emi E Nakayama, Akatsuki Saito, Kriengsak Limkittikul, Supranee Phanthanawiboon, Tatsuo Shioda, Takeshi Kurosu
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that a clinical isolate of dengue virus (DENV) is capable of causing acute-phase systemic infection in mice harboring knockouts of the genes encoding type-I and -II interferon IFN receptors (IFN-α/β/γR KO mice); in contrast, other virulent DENV isolates exhibited slow disease progression in this mice, yielding lethal infection around 20 days post-infection (p.i.). In the present study, we sought to clarify the dynamics of slow disease progression by examining disease progression of a type-2 DENV clinical isolate (DV2P04/08) in mice...
November 30, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901546/poroelasticity-driven-lubrication-in-hydrogel-interfaces
#4
Erik R Reale, Alison C Dunn
It is widely accepted that hydrogel surfaces are slippery, and have low friction, but dynamic applied stresses alter the hydrogel composition at the interface as water is displaced. The induced osmotic imbalance of compressed hydrogel which cannot swell to equilibrium should drive the resistance to slip against it. This paper demonstrates the driving role of poroelasticity in the friction of hydrogel-glass interfaces, specifically how poroelastic relaxation of hydrogels increases adhesion. We translate the work of adhesion into an effective surface energy density that increases with the duration of applied pressure from 10 to 50 mJ m(-2), as measured by micro-indentation...
November 30, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871757/an-approach-to-the-environmental-prioritisation-of-volatile-methylsiloxanes-in-several-matrices
#5
Vera Homem, Daniela Capela, José Avelino Silva, Alessandra Cincinelli, Lúcia Santos, Arminda Alves, Nuno Ratola
Siloxane-based compounds are widely used in personal care, pharmaceutical and household products as well as in industrial applications. Among the wide variety of these chemicals, special attention has been given to volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs). These compounds have been extensively detected in several environmental compartments, as they are not effectively removed from wastewater and may migrate through different matrices and being lipophilic, bioaccumulate and biomagnify in living organisms. In this work, a prioritisation methodology for several VMSs in different environmental matrices was applied, estimating a hazard quotient by combining exposure evaluation through measured or predicted environmental concentrations (MEC or PEC) and effects using ecotoxicity data to establish no effect concentrations (PNEC)...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871558/combipecs-the-single-injection-technique-of-pectoral-nerve-blocks-1-and-2-a-case-series
#6
Arunangshu Chakraborty, Rakhi Khemka, Taniya Datta, Suparna Mitra
Ultrasound-guided Pecs block can provide perioperative analgesia for breast surgery. A single-injection technique (COMBIPECS) combines both Pecs 1 and Pecs 2 blocks in a single needle pass. This technique saves time and is equally effective as the modified Pecs block which uses 2 needle passes. We present a case series of 21 patients who received the COMBIPECS block as a part of multimodal analgesia for breast cancer surgery. The block was administered before the surgery after induction of general anesthesia...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865108/self-powered-sensing-platform-equipped-with-prussian-blue-electrochromic-display-driven-by-photoelectrochemical-cell
#7
Yanhu Wang, Chaomin Gao, Shenguang Ge, Lina Zhang, Jinghua Yu, Mei Yan
By incorporating the Prussian Blue (PB) electrochromic display as cathode, a solar-driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell was constructed through combining sandwich-structured graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-Au-branched-titanium dioxide (B-TiO2) nanorods as photoanode for self-powered hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensing, which exhibits both direct photoelectrochemical and electrochromic response. The gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) sandwiched between the B-TiO2 nanorods and the g-C3N4 layer served as electron relay as well as plasmonic photosensitizer to enhance the solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency...
November 11, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863288/broad-ion-beam-serial-section-tomography
#8
B Winiarski, A Gholinia, K Mingard, M Gee, G E Thompson, P J Withers
Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar(+) ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices...
November 11, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862913/the-influence-of-particles-on-bioavailability-and-toxicity-of-pesticides-in-surface-water
#9
REVIEW
Katja Knauer, Nadzeya Homazava, Marion Junghans, Inge Werner
Environmental risk assessment is an essential part of the authorization and approval process for marketing of pesticides. To determine the risk of a substance or formulation for aquatic communities, exposure concentrations are calculated and compared to ecotoxicological data obtained from standardized OECD laboratory studies and, if available, from field studies. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) in surface waters are derived using e.g. the European FOCUS or the German Exposit models, which distinguish between exposure to dissolved and particle-associated pesticide concentrations, since the dissolved concentration is thought to be the best predictor of bioavailability and toxicity...
November 15, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862404/pristine-ta3-n5-nanotubes-trap-driven-high-external-biasing-perspective-in-semiconductor-electrolyte-interfaces
#10
Sherdil Khan, Marcos J L Santos, Célia F Malfatti, Jairton Dupont, Sérgio R Teixeira
Ta3 N5 is a promising photoelectrode for solar hydrogen production; however, to date pristine Ta3 N5 electrodes without loading co-catalysts have presented limited photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. In particular, large external biasing has been required to run water oxidation, the origin of which is investigated herein. Ta3 N5 nanotubes (NTs) prepared by nitridation were characterized by a wide range of techniques. The bandgap was confirmed by a novel PEC technique. Nondestructive synchrotron-excited XPS has shown the presence of reduced Ta species deeper in the Ta3 N5 surface...
November 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862343/human-anti-pig-nk-cell-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-the-presence-of-regulatory-dendritic-cells
#11
Natacha Madelon, Gisella L Puga Yung, Jörg D Seebach
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DC) play a major role in natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation leading to cell-mediated xenogeneic responses. In contrast, the use of in vitro differentiated regulatory DC may represent an attractive approach to protect porcine endothelial cells (pEC) from human cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the potential of human regulatory DC to reduce xenogeneic NK cell and CTL responses to pEC. METHODS: Human monocytes were differentiated into DC with GM-CSF and IL-4 in the absence or presence of rapamycin or IL-10...
November 13, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858025/new-insight-into-the-roles-of-oxygen-vacancies-in-hematite-for-solar-water-splitting
#12
Xin Zhao, Jianyong Feng, Shi Chen, Yizhong Huang, Tze Chien Sum, Zhong Chen
Oxygen vacancies play an important role in the performance improvement of oxide semiconductors as photoanodes for water splitting, such as TiO2, WO3, and Fe2O3. Conductivity improvement due to the presence of oxygen vacancies was reported to be the main reason for the enhanced performance. However, oxygen vacancies may also affect light absorption and charge transfer through the solid/electrolyte interface. The roles of oxygen vacancies have not been thoroughly discussed in the past. Herein, with hematite as an example, the effects of oxygen vacancies on bulk charge transport and surface catalysis are quantitatively analyzed by decoupling photon absorption, interfacial charge transfer and charge separation processes...
November 18, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854060/comparison-of-predicted-aquatic-risks-of-pesticides-used-under-different-rice-farming-strategies-in-the-mekong-delta-vietnam
#13
Nadja Stadlinger, Håkan Berg, Paul J Van den Brink, Nguyen T Tam, Jonas S Gunnarsson
This study evaluates the risks of pesticides applied in rice-fish and rice farming, with and without integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, to non-target aquatic organisms in two provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Pesticide inventories and application patterns were collected from 120 Vietnamese farmers through interviews. Risks were assessed using (1) Pesticide RIsks in the Tropics to Man, Environment, and Trade (PRIMET), a first-tier model, which calculates predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pesticides in the rice field, based on the compound's physico-chemical properties and the application pattern, and then compares the PECs to safe concentrations based on literature data, and (2) species sensitivity distribution (SSD), a second-tier assessment model using species sensitivity distributions to calculate potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species based on the PECs from PRIMET...
November 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851263/1628-pecs-i-ii-blocks-as-rescue-analgesia-in-a-patient-undergoing-port-access-cardiac-surgery
#14
Suraj Yalamuri, Rebecca Klinger, William Bullock, Donald Glower, Jeffrey Gadsden, Brandi Bottiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847276/polyelectrolyte-complexes-as-prospective-carriers-for-the-oral-delivery-of-protein-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Vassilis Bourganis, Theodora Karamanidou, Olga Kammona, Costas Kiparissides
The oral administration of protein therapeutics is hindered by the multitude of barriers confronted by these molecules along the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., acidic environment, proteolytic degradation, mucosal barrier, etc.). Their unique properties (e.g., high molecular weight, hydrophilicity, charge, etc.) and labile structure are mainly responsible for their instability in the harsh conditions along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and dictate the employment of alternative routes for their administration (e...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836614/high-visible-light-sensitive-mos2-ultrathin-nanosheets-for-photoelectrochemical-biosensing
#16
Siyuan Wu, Hao Huang, Mengxiang Shang, Cuicui Du, Yue Wu, Wenbo Song
For the purpose of effectively utilizing the visible light, photoelectrochemical (PEC) detection represents a unique detection signal and different energy form of the excitation source. In this work, ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets with narrow band gap were successfully fabricated by a facile C3N4 sacrificial template assisted thermolytical approach. Upon immobilizing glucose oxidase, excellent photocatalytic activity towards glucose is achieved in neutral buffer solution. As a novel visible light sensitive photocatalytic material, ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets present a detection limit of ~0...
October 19, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836594/photoelectrochemical-enzymatic-biosensors
#17
REVIEW
Wei-Wei Zhao, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
Enzymatic biosensors have been valuable bioanalytical devices for analysis of diverse targets in disease diagnosis, biological and biomedical research, etc. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis is a recently emerged method that promptly becoming a subject of new research interests due to its attractive potential for future bioanalysis with high sensitivity and specificity. PEC enzymatic biosensors integrate the inherent sensitivities of PEC bioanalysis and the selectivity of enzymes and thus share their both advantages...
November 7, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830831/patterned-microstructure-fabrication-polyelectrolyte-complexes-vs-polyelectrolyte-multilayers
#18
Meiyu Gai, Johannes Frueh, Valeriya L Kudryavtseva, Rui Mao, Maxim V Kiryukhin, Gleb B Sukhorukov
Polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) are formed by mixing the solutions of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, which were hitherto deemed "impossible" to process, since they are infusible and brittle when dry. Here, we describe the process of fabricating free-standing micro-patterned PEC films containing array of hollow or filled microchambers by one-step casting with small applied pressure and a PDMS mould. These structures are compared with polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) thin films having array of hollow microchambers produced from a layer-by-layer self-assembly of the same polyelectrolytes on the same PDMS moulds...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829018/paravertebral-block-plus-thoracic-wall-block-versus-paravertebral-block-alone-for-analgesia-of-modified-radical-mastectomy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Nai-Liang Li, Ben-Long Yu, Chen-Fang Hung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Paravertebral block placement was the main anesthetic technique for modified radical mastectomy in our hospital until February 2014, when its combination with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature was initiated. We compared the analgesic effects of paravertebral blocks with or without blocks targeting the pectoral musculature for modified radical mastectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from a single surgeon and anesthesiologist from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828354/photoelectrochemical-liftoff-of-leds-grown-on-freestanding-c-plane-gan-substrates
#20
David Hwang, Benjamin P Yonkee, Burhan Saif Addin, Robert M Farrell, Shuji Nakamura, James S Speck, Steven DenBaars
We demonstrate a thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) process for LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates. LEDs are transferred from a bulk GaN substrate to a sapphire submount via a photoelectrochemical (PEC) undercut etch. This PEC liftoff method allows for substrate reuse and exposes the N-face of the LEDs for additional roughening. The LEDs emitted at a wavelength of 432 nm with a turn on voltage of ~3 V. Etching the LEDs in heated KOH after transferring them to a sapphire submount increased the peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) by 42...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
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