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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823057/fusobacterium-nucleatum-as-a-prognostic-marker-of-colorectal-cancer-in-a-japanese-population
#1
Yuko Yamaoka, Yutaka Suehiro, Shinichi Hashimoto, Tomomi Hoshida, Michiyo Fujimoto, Michiya Watanabe, Daiki Imanaga, Kouhei Sakai, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Mitsuaki Nishioka, Taro Takami, Nobuaki Suzuki, Shoichi Hazama, Hiroaki Nagano, Isao Sakaida, Takahiro Yamasaki
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows an overabundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal tumor tissues. However, the correlation between the absolute copy number of F. nucleatum in colorectal cancer tissues and colorectal cancer progression is unclear from previous reports. Therefore, we performed a study to compare the abundance of F. nucleatum in colorectal tissues with clinicopathologic and molecular features of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We collected 100 colorectal cancer tissues and 72 matched normal-appearing mucosal tissues...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823056/exploiting-non-canonical-translation-to-identify-new-targets-for-t-cell-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Céline M Laumont, Claude Perreault
Cryptic MHC I-associated peptides (MAPs) are produced via two mechanisms: translation of protein-coding genes in non-canonical reading frames and translation of allegedly non-coding sequences. In general, cryptic MAPs are coded by relatively short open reading frames whose translation can be regulated at the level of initiation, elongation or termination. In contrast to conventional MAPs, the processing of cryptic MAPs is frequently proteasome independent. The existence of cryptic MAPs derived from allegedly non-coding regions enlarges the scope of CD8 T cell immunosurveillance from a mere ~2% to as much as ~75% of the human genome...
August 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822769/somatic-mutation-analysis-in-melanoma-using-targeted-next-generation-sequencing
#3
Allen P Miraflor, Francine B de Abreu, Jason D Peterson, Scott A Turner, Christopher I Amos, Gregory J Tsongalis, Shaofeng Yan
Advanced stage malignant melanoma often responds poorly to therapy with low survival rates. New therapeutic approaches are based upon a growing understanding of the underlying molecular abnormalities. We demonstrate the feasibility of a next generation sequencing (NGS) assay, which targets hotspots in 50 cancer genes, to assess genotypes that may influence therapeutic selection and response. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) melanoma specimens to create multiplexed libraries which were sequenced...
August 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822237/beyond-genomics-targeting-the-epigenome-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#4
REVIEW
Andrea Kühnl, David Cunningham, Ian Chau
After decades of intense research on genetic alterations in cancer and successful implementation of genetically-based targeted therapies, the field of cancer epigenetics is only beginning to be fully recognized. The discovery of frequent mutations in genes modifying the epigenome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has highlighted the outstanding role of epigenetic deregulation in this disease. Identification of epigenetically-driven DLBCL subgroups and development of novel epigenetic drugs have rapidly advanced...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822109/consumer-attitudes-towards-the-establishment-of-a-national-australian-familial-cancer-research-database-by-the-inherited-cancer-connect-iccon-partnership
#5
Laura Forrest, Gillian Mitchell, Letitia Thrupp, Lara Petelin, Kate Richardson, Lyon Mascarenhas, Mary-Anne Young
Clinical genetics units hold large amounts of information which could be utilised to benefit patients and their families. In Australia, a national research database, the Inherited Cancer Connect (ICCon) database, is being established that comprises clinical genetic data held for all carriers of mutations in cancer predisposition genes. Consumer input was sought to establish the acceptability of the inclusion of clinical genetic data into a research database. A qualitative approach using a modified nominal group technique was used to collect data through consumer forums conducted in three Australian states...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821810/extracting-intercellular-signaling-network-of-cancer-tissues-using-ligand-receptor-expression-patterns-from-whole-tumor-and-single-cell-transcriptomes
#6
Joseph X Zhou, Roberto Taramelli, Edoardo Pedrini, Theo Knijnenburg, Sui Huang
Many behaviors of cancer, such as progression, metastasis and drug resistance etc., cannot be fully understood by genetic mutations or intracellular signaling alone. Instead, they are emergent properties of the cell community which forms a tumor. Studies of tumor heterogeneity reveal that many cancer behaviors critically depend on intercellular communication between cancer cells themselves and between cancer-stromal cells by secreted signaling molecules (ligands) and their cognate receptors. We analyzed public cancer transcriptome database for changes in cell-cell interactions as the characteristic of malignancy...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821767/identification-of-candidate-genes-for-devil-facial-tumour-disease-tumourigenesis
#7
Robyn L Taylor, Yiru Zhang, Jennifer P Schöning, Janine E Deakin
Devil facial tumour (DFT) disease, a transmissible cancer where the infectious agent is the tumour itself, has caused a dramatic decrease in Tasmanian devil numbers in the wild. The purpose of this study was to take a candidate gene/pathway approach to identify potentially perturbed genes or pathways in DFT. A fusion of chromosome 1 and X is posited as the initial event leading to the development of DFT, with the rearranged chromosome 1 material now stably maintained as the tumour spreads through the population...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821612/syndecan-2-cytoplasmic-domain-upregulates-matrix-metalloproteinase-7-expression-via-protein-kinasec%C3%AE-mediated-fak-erk-signaling-pathway-in-colon-cancer
#8
Bohee Jang, Hyejung Jung, Sojoong Choi, Young Hun Lee, Seung-Taek Lee, Eok-Soo Oh
The syndecan family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans contribute to cell adhesion and communication by serving as co-receptors for cell signaling and extracellular matrix molecules. Syndecan-2 is located at the cell surface, and we previously reported that it induces matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) expression in colon cancer cells. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that over-expression of syndecan-2 in HT-29 colon cancer cells increases the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in parallel with upregulated MMP-7 expression, but a syndecan-2 mutant lacking the cytoplasmic domain showed significant reductions in these effects...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821592/global-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-response-to-whole-chromosome-aneuploidy-in-hexaploid-wheat
#9
Ai Zhang, Ning Li, Lei Gong, Xiaowan Gou, Bin Wang, Xin Deng, Changping Li, Qianli Dong, Huakun Zhang, Bao Liu
Aneuploidy, a condition of unbalanced chromosome content, represents a large-effect mutation that bears significant relevancy to human health and microbe adaptation. As such, extensive studies of aneuploidy have been conducted in unicellular model organisms and cancer cells. Aneuploidy also frequently is associated with plant polyploidization, but its impact on gene expression and relevance to polyploid genome evolution/functional innovation remain largely unknown. Here, we used a panel of diverse types of whole-chromosome aneuploidy of hexaploid wheat, all under the common genetic background of cv...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821559/synergy-of-wee1-and-mtor-inhibition-in-mutant-kras-driven-lung-cancers
#10
Josephine Hai, Shengwu Liu, Lauren Bufe, Khanh Do, Ting Chen, Xiaoen Wang, Christine Ng, Shuai Li, Ming-Sound Tsao, Geoffrey I Shapiro, Kwok-Kin Wong
Purpose:KRAS-activating mutations are the most common oncogenic driver in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but efforts to directly target mutant KRAS have proved a formidable challenge. Therefore, multi-targeted therapy may offer a plausible strategy to effectively treat KRAS-driven NSCLCs. Here, we evaluate the efficacy and mechanistic rationale for combining mTOR and WEE1 inhibition as a potential therapy for lung cancers harboring KRAS mutations. <p>Experimental Design: We investigated the synergistic effect of combining mTOR and WEE1 inhibitors on cell viability, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair response using a panel of human KRAS-mutant and wild type NSCLC cell lines and patient-derived xenograft cell lines...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821557/selected-alkylating-agents-can-overcome-drug-tolerance-of-g0-like-tumor-cells-and-eradicate-brca1-deficient-mammary-tumors-in-mice
#11
Marina Pajic, Sohvi Blatter, Charlotte Guyader, Maaike Gonggrijp, Ariena Kersbergen, Aslı Küçükosmanoğlu, Wendy Sol, Rinske Drost, Jos Jonkers, Piet Borst, Sven Rottenberg
We aimed to characterize and target drug-tolerant BRCA1-deficient tumor cells that cause residual disease and subsequent tumor relapse.<br /><br />Experimental Design: We studied responses to various mono- and bifunctional alkylating agents in a genetically engineered mouse model for BRCA1/p53-mutant breast cancer. Due to the large intragenic deletion of the Brca1 gene, no restoration of BRCA1 function is possible, and therefore no BRCA1-dependent acquired resistance occurs. To characterize the cell cycle stage from which Brca1(-/-);p53(-/-) mammary tumors arise after cisplatin treatment, we introduced the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) construct into the tumor cells...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821472/surgical-findings-and-outcomes-in-premenopausal-breast-cancer-patients-undergoing-oophorectomy-a-multicenter-review-from-the-fellows-pelvic-research-network
#12
Lara F B Harvey, Vandana G Abramson, Jimena Alvarez, Christopher Destephano, Hye-Chun Hur, Katherine Lee, Patricia Mattingly, Beau Park, Carolyn Piszczek, Farinaz Seifi, Mallory Stuparich, Amanda Yunker
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Since publication of the Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial (SOFT) data, some women with premenopausal breast cancer have been recommended to undergo bilateral oophorectomy to facilitate breast cancer treatment with aromatase inhibitors. These women may be at higher risk of occult abdominal pathology than the general population. Our objective is to describe the procedures performed, intra-abdominal findings, and surgical pathology of this population. DESIGN: Multi-center retrospective chart review...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821015/extracting-replicable-associations-across-multiple-studies-empirical-bayes-algorithms-for-controlling-the-false-discovery-rate
#13
David Amar, Ron Shamir, Daniel Yekutieli
In almost every field in genomics, large-scale biomedical datasets are used to report associations. Extracting associations that recur across multiple studies while controlling the false discovery rate is a fundamental challenge. Here, we propose a new method to allow joint analysis of multiple studies. Given a set of p-values obtained from each study, the goal is to identify associations that recur in at least k > 1 studies while controlling the false discovery rate. We propose several new algorithms that differ in how the study dependencies are modeled, and compare them and extant methods under various simulated scenarios...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820917/whole-exome-sequencing-of-lacrimal-gland-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma
#14
David W Sant, Wensi Tao, Matthew G Field, Daniel Pelaez, Ke Jin, Anthony Capobianco, Sander R Dubovy, David T Tse, Gaofeng Wang
Purpose: To identify genomic mutations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (LGACC) samples from patients. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from LGACC specimens. Whole exome sequencing (exome-seq) was conducted to screen for mutations. Capillary sequencing was performed to verify mutations in genes shared by multiple samples. Luciferase assays were used to evaluate functional consequences of NOTCH1 mutations. Results: The mutation profile of LGACC was complicated...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820908/ribosomopathy-like-properties-of-murine-and-human-cancers
#15
Sucheta Kulkarni, James M Dolezal, Huabo Wang, Laura Jackson, Jie Lu, Brian P Frodey, Atinuke Dosunmu-Ogunbi, Youjun Li, Marc Fromherz, Audry Kang, Lucas Santana-Santos, Panayiotis V Benos, Edward V Prochownik
Ribosomopathies comprise a heterogeneous group of hematologic and developmental disorders, often characterized by bone marrow failure, skeletal and other developmental abnormalities and cancer predisposition. They are associated with mutations and/or haplo-insufficiencies of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and inefficient ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing. The resulting ribosomal stress induces the canonical p19ARF/Mdm2/p53 tumor suppressor pathway leading to proliferative arrest and/or apoptosis. It has been proposed that this pathway is then inactivated during subsequent neoplastic evolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820880/knock-out-of-a-mitochondrial-sirtuin-protects-neurons-from-degeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Rachele Sangaletti, Massimo D'Amico, Jeff Grant, David Della-Morte, Laura Bianchi
Sirtuins are NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases, lipoamidases, and ADP-ribosyltransferases that link cellular metabolism to multiple intracellular pathways that influence processes as diverse as cell survival, longevity, and cancer growth. Sirtuins influence the extent of neuronal death in stroke. However, different sirtuins appear to have opposite roles in neuronal protection. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that knock-out of mitochondrial sirtuin sir-2.3, homologous to mammalian SIRT4, is protective in both chemical ischemia and hyperactive channel induced necrosis...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820751/importance-of-pcr-based-tumor-testing-in-the-evaluation-of-lynch-syndrome-associated-endometrial-cancer
#17
Amanda S Bruegl, Annessa Kernberg, Russell R Broaddus
Lynch syndrome (LS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by a germline mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene, usually MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2. The most common cancers associated with LS are colorectal adenocarcinoma and endometrial carcinoma. Identification of women with LS-associated endometrial cancer is important, as these women and their affected siblings and children are at-risk of developing these same cancers. Germline testing of all endometrial cancer patients is not cost effective, and screening using young age of cancer diagnosis and/or presence of family history of syndrome-associated is underutilized and ineffective...
August 17, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820644/national-estimates-of-genetic-testing-in-women-with-a-history-of-breast-or-ovarian-cancer
#18
Christopher P Childers, Kimberly K Childers, Melinda Maggard-Gibbons, James Macinko
Purpose In the United States, 3.8 million women have a history of breast (BC) or ovarian cancer (OC). Up to 15% of cases are attributable to heritable mutations, which, if identified, provide critical knowledge for treatment and preventive care. It is unknown how many patients who are at high risk for these mutations have not been tested and how rates vary by risk criteria. Methods We used pooled cross-sectional data from three Cancer Control Modules (2005, 2010, 2015) of the National Health Interview Survey, a national in-person household interview survey...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820618/college-women-s-responses-to-a-celebrity-health-disclosure
#19
Julia H Drizin, Vanessa L Malcarne, Melody K Schiaffino, Kristen J Wells
Celebrities can have a powerful influence on people's health-related attitudes and behaviors, often by publicly disclosing their own personal health decisions. In May 2013, Angelina Jolie, an internationally recognized actress, director, and author, wrote an op-ed for the New York Times disclosing her decision to undergo a prophylactic double mastectomy to reduce her risk of breast cancer after learning that she carried the BRCA1 gene mutation. This cross-sectional study examined whether exposure to Angelina Jolie and her mastectomy disclosure and parasocial involvement (PSI) with Angelina Jolie were related to female college students' perceived risk of breast cancer and breast cancer screening intentions...
August 18, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820495/human-papillomavirus-and-the-dna-damage-response-exploiting-host-repair-pathways-for-viral-replication
#20
REVIEW
Chelsey C Spriggs, Laimonis A Laimins
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical and other genital cancers. In addition, HPV infections are associated with the development of many oropharyngeal cancers. HPVs activate and repress a number of host cellular pathways to promote their viral life cycles, including those of the DNA damage response. High-risk HPVs activate the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA damage repair pathways, which are essential for viral replication (particularly differentiation-dependent genome amplification)...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
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