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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694979/promotion-of-tumor-growth-by-adamts4-in-colorectal-cancer-focused-on-macrophages
#1
Jianjun Chen, Yang Luo, Yong Zhou, Shaolan Qin, Yier Qiu, Ran Cui, Minhao Yu, Jun Qin, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: ADAMTSs (A disintegrin and metalloprotease domains with thrombospondins motifs) are a family of extracellular proteases that have been related to both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate: 1) the mutation, copy-number alterations, and expression profile of ADAMTSs in colorectal cancer and 2) whether ADAMTSs participate in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and invasion. METHODS: The mutation, copy-number alterations, and expression profile of ADAMTSs in CRC were analyzed in the TCGA cohort using cBioportal...
April 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694444/one-carbon-metabolism-biomarkers-and-genetic-variants-in-relation-to-colorectal-cancer-risk-by-kras-and-braf-mutation-status
#2
Robin Myte, Björn Gylling, Jenny Häggström, Jörn Schneede, Anna Löfgren-Burström, Jeroen R Huyghe, Göran Hallmans, Klaus Meyer, Ingegerd Johansson, Per Magne Ueland, Richard Palmqvist, Bethany Van Guelpen
Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, intracellular reactions involved in nucleotide synthesis and methylation, likely increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, results have been inconsistent. To explore whether this inconsistency could be explained by intertumoral heterogeneity, we evaluated a comprehensive panel of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to the risk of molecular subtypes of CRC defined by mutations in the KRAS and BRAF oncogenes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694413/proline-oxidase-controls-proline-glutamate-and-glutamine-cellular-concentrations-in-a-u87-glioblastoma-cell-line
#3
Pamela Cappelletti, Elena Tallarita, Valentina Rabattoni, Paola Campomenosi, Silvia Sacchi, Loredano Pollegioni
L-Proline is a multifunctional amino acid that plays an essential role in primary metabolism and physiological functions. Proline is oxidized to glutamate in the mitochondria and the FAD-containing enzyme proline oxidase (PO) catalyzes the first step in L-proline degradation pathway. Alterations in proline metabolism have been described in various human diseases, such as hyperprolinemia type I, velo-cardio-facial syndrome/Di George syndrome, schizophrenia and cancer. In particular, the mutation giving rise to the substitution Leu441Pro was identified in patients suffering of schizophrenia and hyperprolinemia type I...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693745/human-apobec3b-interacts-with-the-heterogenous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-a3-in-cancer-cells
#4
Nawneet Mishra, K Sony Reddy, Uddhav Timilsina, Deepak Gaur, Ritu Gaur
Human APOBEC3B (A3B), like other APOBEC3 members, is a cytosine deaminase which causes hypermutation of single stranded genome. Recent studies have shown that A3B is predominantly elevated in multiple cancer tissues and cell lines such as the bladder, cervix, lung, head and neck, and breast. Upregulation and activation of A3B in developing tumors can cause an unexpected cluster of mutations which promote cancer development and progression. The cellular proteins which facilitate A3B function through direct or indirect interactions remain largely unknown...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693319/alternative-splicing-defects-in-cancer-splicing-regulators-and-their-downstream-targets-guiding-the-way-to-novel-cancer-therapeutics
#5
REVIEW
Laura M Urbanski, Nathan Leclair, Olga Anczuków
Defects in alternative splicing are frequently found in human tumors and result either from mutations in splicing-regulatory elements of specific cancer genes or from changes in the regulatory splicing machinery. RNA splicing regulators have emerged as a new class of oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, and contribute to disease progression by modulating RNA isoforms involved in the hallmark cancer pathways. Thus, dysregulation of alternative RNA splicing is fundamental to cancer and provides a potentially rich source of novel therapeutic targets...
April 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693015/elevated-tert-expression-in-tert-wildtype-adult-diffuse-gliomas-histological-evaluation-with-a-novel-tert-specific-antibody
#6
Kenta Masui, Takashi Komori, Yukinari Kato, Kenkichi Masutomi, Koichi Ichimura, Satoshi Ogasawara, Mika K Kaneko, Hiroharu Oki, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Masayuki Nitta, Takashi Maruyama, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takakazu Kawamata, Tatsuo Sawada, Noriyuki Shibata
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is important for the biology of diffuse gliomas. TERT promoter mutations are selectively observed among 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendrogliomas and isocitrate dehydrogenase gene- (IDH-) wildtype glioblastoma (GBM). However, TERT transcripts range widely in various cancers including gliomas, and TERT protein expression has been rarely investigated thus far. It would be thus critical to examine the expression level of TERT in tumors in addition to its mutational status, and sensitive and specific methods are urgently needed to examine TERT protein expression for the assessment of TERT biology in gliomas...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693007/modelling-cooperative-tumorigenesis-in-drosophila
#7
REVIEW
Helena E Richardson, Marta Portela
The development of human metastatic cancer is a multistep process, involving the acquisition of several genetic mutations, tumour heterogeneity, and interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. Due to the complexity of cancer development in mammals, simpler model organisms, such as the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster , are being utilized to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modelling tumorigenesis using the Drosophila model, focusing on the cooperation of oncogenes or tumour suppressors, and the interaction of mutant cells with the surrounding tissue in epithelial tumour initiation and progression...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692760/the-road-to-infection-host-microbe-interactions-defining-the-pathogenicity-of-streptococcus-bovis-streptococcus-equinus-complex-members
#8
REVIEW
Christoph Jans, Annemarie Boleij
The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) comprises several species inhabiting the animal and human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). They match the pathobiont description, are potential zoonotic agents and technological organisms in fermented foods. SBSEC members are associated with multiple diseases in humans and animals including ruminal acidosis, infective endocarditis (IE) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, this review aims to re-evaluate adhesion and colonization abilities of SBSEC members of animal, human and food origin paired with genomic and functional host-microbe interaction data on their road from colonization to infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692406/structural-basis-for-the-activation-of-acid-ceramidase
#9
Ahmad Gebai, Alexei Gorelik, Zixian Li, Katalin Illes, Bhushan Nagar
Acid ceramidase (aCDase, ASAH1) hydrolyzes lysosomal membrane ceramide into sphingosine, the backbone of all sphingolipids, to regulate many cellular processes. Abnormal function of aCDase leads to Farber disease, spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, and is associated with Alzheimer's, diabetes, and cancer. Here, we present crystal structures of mammalian aCDases in both proenzyme and autocleaved forms. In the proenzyme, the catalytic center is buried and protected from solvent. Autocleavage triggers a conformational change exposing a hydrophobic channel leading to the active site...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692346/-tert-aberrancies-a-screening-tool-for-malignancy-in-follicular-thyroid-tumours
#10
Johan Owe Paulsson, Ninni Mu, Ivan Shabo, Na Wang, Jan Zedenius, Catharina Larsson, C Christofer Juhlin
TERT promoter mutations have been linked to adverse clinical parameters in thyroid cancer, but TERT expressing tumours are not always mutated. Little is known regarding other TERT -related genetic aberrations. To delineate the role of TERT gene aberrancies in follicular thyroid tumours, 95 follicular carcinomas (FTC), 43 follicular adenomas (FTA) and 33 follicular tumours of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP) were collected. The tumours were assayed for TERT expression, TERT promoter mutations, TERT promoter hypermethylation and TERT gene copy number alterations, and the results were compared to clinical parameters...
April 24, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692343/clonal-interference-of-signaling-mutations-holds-prognostic-relevance-in-core-binding-factor-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#11
Raphael Itzykson, Nicolas Duployez, Annette Fasan, Gauthier Decool, Alice Marceau-Renaut, Manja Meggendorfer, Eric Jourdan, Arnaud Petit, Hélène Lapillonne, Jean-Baptiste Micol, Pascale Cornillet-Lefebvre, Norbert Ifrah, Guy Leverger, Hervé Dombret, Nicolas Boissel, Torsten Haferlach, Claude Preudhomme
Mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase/RAS signaling pathway genes are frequent in Core Binding Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemias (CBF AML), but their prognostic relevance is debated. A subset of CBF AML patients harbors several signaling gene mutations. Genotyping of colonies and of relapse samples indicates that these arise in independent clones, thus defining a process of clonal interference (or parallel evolution). Clonal interference is pervasive in cancers but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear, and its prognostic impact unknown...
April 24, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691848/children-sustain-high-levels-of-skin-dna-photodamage-with-a-modest-increase-of-serum-25-oh-d-3-after-a-summer-holiday-in-northern-europe
#12
J Narbutt, P A Philipsen, A Lesiak, T Sandberg Liljendahl, D Segerbäck, J Heydenreich, D Chlebna-Sokol, P Olsen, G I Harrison, A Pearson, K Baczynska, M Rogowski-Tylman, H C Wulf, A R Young
BACKGROUND: Childhood solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure increases the risk of skin cancer in adulthood, which is associated with mutations caused by UVR-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Solar UVR is also the main source of vitamin D, essential for healthy bone development in children. OBJECTIVES: The impact of a 12-day Baltic Sea (54o N) beach holiday on serum 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3 ) and CPD was assessed in 32 healthy Polish children (skin types I-IV)...
April 24, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691844/genetic-and-morphological-evaluation-game-score-for-patients-with-colorectal-liver-metastases
#13
G A Margonis, K Sasaki, S Gholami, Y Kim, N Andreatos, N Rezaee, A Deshwar, S Buettner, P J Allen, T P Kingham, T M Pawlik, J He, J L Cameron, W R Jarnagin, C L Wolfgang, M I D'Angelica, M J Weiss
BACKGROUND: This study sought to develop a clinical risk score for resectable colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) by combining clinicopathological and clinically available biological indicators, including KRAS. METHODS: A cohort of patients who underwent resection for CRLM at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) was analysed to identify independent predictors of overall survival (OS) that can be assessed before operation; these factors were combined into the Genetic And Morphological Evaluation (GAME) score...
April 25, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691434/global-similarity-method-based-on-a-two-tier-random-walk-for-the-prediction-of-microrna-disease-association
#14
Min Chen, Bo Liao, Zejun Li
microRNAs (miRNAs) mutation and maladjustment are related to the occurrence and development of human diseases. Studies on disease-associated miRNA have contributed to disease diagnosis and treatment. To address the problems, such as low prediction accuracy and failure to predict the relationship between new miRNAs and diseases and so on, we design a Laplacian score of graphs to calculate the global similarity of networks and propose a Global Similarity method based on a Two-tier Random Walk for the prediction of miRNA-disease association (GSTRW) to reveal the correlation between miRNAs and diseases...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691395/epigenetic-landscape-influences-the-liver-cancer-genome-architecture
#15
Natsuko Hama, Yasushi Totoki, Fumihito Miura, Kenji Tatsuno, Mihoko Saito-Adachi, Hiromi Nakamura, Yasuhito Arai, Fumie Hosoda, Tomoko Urushidate, Shoko Ohashi, Wakako Mukai, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Takashi Ito, Tatsuhiro Shibata
The accumulations of different types of genetic alterations such as nucleotide substitutions, structural rearrangements and viral genome integrations and epigenetic alterations contribute to carcinogenesis. Here, we report correlation between the occurrence of epigenetic features and genetic aberrations by whole-genome bisulfite, whole-genome shotgun, long-read, and virus capture sequencing of 373 liver cancers. Somatic substitutions and rearrangement breakpoints are enriched in tumor-specific hypo-methylated regions with inactive chromatin marks and actively transcribed highly methylated regions in the cancer genome...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691367/upregulation-of-sall4-by-egfr-activation-regulates-the-stemness-of-cd44-positive-lung-cancer
#16
Wenjing Du, Lan Ni, Baojun Liu, Ying Wei, Yubao Lv, Sujing Qiang, Jingcheng Dong, Xijun Liu
The transcriptional factor SALL4, an important stem cell regulator, is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and various malignancies, but its role in EGFR-mutated NSCLCs has not been studied yet. Here, we report that the expression of Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), was significantly higher in EGFR mutated lung tumors than in non-tumor tissue. SALL4-high lung cancer patients had poorer prognosis after surgery than SALL4-low patients. The expression of SALL4 could be induced by the activation of EGFR through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway...
April 25, 2018: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690969/molecular-pathogenesis-of-chewable-tobacco
#17
Saeeda Baig, Zile Rubab, Wasfa Farooq
In Pakistan, extensive use of several precarious chewable tobacco formulations has made oral cancer the second leading malignancy. Selection of literature was done by a survey of studies published from 1990 to 2017 mainly, from PUBMED and few from other search engines, on naswar, gutka, areca nut and betel quid, which included published reviews, original articles and other data sources on chewable tobacco, its epidemiology, pathological implications, and psychological effects. These studies have revealed that the chemicals in these formulations bind and mutate DNA of oral mucosa through down regulating cellular repair pathways and upregulating genetic networks associated with pathogenesis...
May 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690800/characterization-of-a-rare-variant-c-2635-2a-g-of-the-msh2-gene-in-a-family-with-lynch-syndrome
#18
Filomena Cariola, Vittoria Disciglio, Anna M Valentini, Claudio Lotesoriere, Candida Fasano, Giovanna Forte, Luciana Russo, Antonio Di Carlo, Floranna Guglielmi, Andrea Manghisi, Ivan Lolli, Maria L Caruso, Cristiano Simone
INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair genes ( MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) or in the EPCAM gene. Lynch syndrome is defined on the basis of clinical, pathological, and genetic findings. Accordingly, the identification of predisposing genes allows for accurate risk assessment and tailored screening protocols. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we report a family case with three family members manifesting the Lynch syndrome phenotype, all of which harbor the rare variant c...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690797/atezolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#19
Debora Basile, Giacomo Pelizzari, Maria Grazia Vitale, Camilla Lisanti, Marika Cinausero, Donatella Iacono, Fabio Puglisi
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer diagnosed among women. The development of new personalized therapeutic strategies has reshaped the landscape in this field. However, BC is still the first cause of death among women. Interestingly, several preclinical studies and some clinical evidences are focused their attention on the role of immune system and immunotherapy on cancer control, also in BC. Areas covered: Usually, BC has been considered a not immunogenic tumor for its low mutational load. However, recent studies have evidenced that some subtypes, triple negative and HER-2 positive BC, are "hot" tumors, thus more immunogenic...
April 24, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690749/landscape-of-actionable-genetic-alterations-profiled-from-1-071-tumor-samples-in-korean-cancer-patients
#20
Se-Hoon Lee, Boram Lee, Joon Ho Shim, Kwang Woo Lee, Jae Won Yun, Sook-Young Kim, Tae-You Kim, Yeul Hong Kim, Young Hyeh Ko, Hyun Cheol Chung, Chang Sik Yu, Jeeyun Lee, Sun Young Rha, Tae Won Kim, Kyung Hae Jung, Seock-Ah Im, Hyeong-Gon Moon, Sukki Cho, Jin Hyoung Kang, Jihun Kim, Sang Kyum Kim, Han Suk Ryu, Sang Yun Ha, Jong Il Kim, Yeun-Jun Chung, Cheolmin Kim, Hyung-Lae Kim, Woong-Yang Park, Dong-Young Noh, Keunchil Park
Purpose: With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, profiling a wide range of genomic alterations has become a possibility resulting in improved implementation of targeted cancer therapy. In Asian populations, the prevalence and spectrum of clinically actionable genetic alterations has not yet been determined because of a lack of studies examining high-throughput cancer genomic data. Materials and Methods: To address this issue, 1,071 tumor samples were collected from five major cancer institutes in Korea and analyzed using targeted NGS at a centralized laboratory...
April 23, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
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