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Jennifer Browne, Karen Adams, Petah Atkinson, Deborah Gleeson, Rick Hayes
Objective To provide an overview of previous reviews of programs that aimed to improve nutritional status or diet-related health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, in order to determine what programs are effective and why.Methods A systematic search of databases and relevant websites was undertaken to identify reviews of nutrition interventions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Pairs of reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction and performed quality assessment using a validated tool...
September 19, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Ashleigh Sushames, Terry Engelberg, Klaus Gebel
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher rates of chronic disease and a lower life expectancy than non-Indigenous Australians. In non-urban areas these health disparities are even larger. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore perceived barriers and enablers to attending an eight-week physical activity program in a rural and regional setting which aimed to improve health outcomes, but had a low attendance rate. METHODS: Thirty-four Indigenous Australians participated in the intervention from the rural (n = 12) and the regional (n = 22) community...
September 18, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Carol Davy, Elaine Kite, Leda Sivak, Alex Brown, Timena Ahmat, Gary Brahim, Anna Dowling, Shaun Jacobson, Tania Kelly, Kaylene Kemp, Fiona Mitchell, Tina Newman, Margaret O'Brien, Jason Pitt, Kesha Roesch, Christine Saddler, Maida Stewart, Tiana Thomas
BACKGROUND: Re-defining the way in which care is delivered, to reflect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' needs and values, is essential for improving the accessibility of primary healthcare. This study focused on developing a Framework to support the quality of care and quality of life of, as well as treatment for, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples living with chronic disease. METHODS: A team of researchers, including thirteen experienced Aboriginal healthcare professionals, came together to undertake this important work...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Megan K Strait, Victoria A Floerke, Wendy Ju, Keith Maddox, Jessica D Remedios, Malte F Jung, Heather L Urry
Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an "uncanny valley"-a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers-has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Sarah Whalan, Sara Farnbach, Lena Volk, Josephine Gwynn, Mark Lock, Kathy Trieu, Julie Brimblecombe, Jacqui Webster
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of published research on the dietary intake of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. METHODS: Peer-reviewed literature from 1990 to October 2016 was searched to identify studies that measured the dietary intake of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Study quality was assessed using a purposely devised quality appraisal tool. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity in dietary intake assessment methods...
September 12, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Leanne Pilkington, Margaret M Haigh, Angela Durey, Judith M Katzenellenbogen, Sandra C Thompson
BACKGROUND: Early detection of breast cancer using screening mammography provides an opportunity for treatment which can lead to significantly improved outcomes. Despite considerable efforts having been made, the rate at which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter respectfully referred to as Aboriginal) women in Western Australia participate in BreastScreen WA's screening mammogram program remains below that for the overall female population of Western Australia. This study aimed to examine perspectives on breast screening amongst Aboriginal women in Western Australia...
September 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
D Catarino, D Stanković, G Menezes, S Stefanni
A comparison of the genetic structure of Chimaera monstrosa populations from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea was carried out using mitochondrial DNA analysis. Results indicate high and significant pairwise ΦST values with no shared haplotypes between the two areas. Furthermore, migration rate estimates suggested absence of gene flow between the two basins. These findings, coupled with the species vertical distribution, suggest that the shallow depth of the Strait of Gibraltar may act as a barrier limiting the dispersal capabilities of these populations, which likely became separated at the end of the middle Pleistocene...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
Mitsuo Kira
Manufacturing high-purity element silicon and organic polysilicones are two major silicon industries, supporting the basis of the modern electronic industry and our daily lives [...].
September 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Gavin Cleland, Clare Leung, Jenny Wan Sai Cheong, Joshua Francis, Claire Heney, Clare Nourse
AIM: Haemophilus influenzae continues to cause invasive disease in children despite widespread Hib immunisation. The significance of non-B serotypes continues to be investigated, with evidence of increased invasive non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) world-wide. The aim of this study was to examine the current epidemiological and clinical features of invasive H. influenzae disease in children in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all cases of invasive H...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
David P Thomas, Maureen E Davey, Kathryn S Panaretto, Anke E van der Sterren
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is a concern that cannabis use is an important barrier to reducing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking. We investigate the associations of cannabis use and tobacco smoking and quitting in two large national samples. DESIGN AND METHODS: The 2012-2013 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey was a national stratified random household survey conducted between April 2012 and February 2013, and included 2580 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers...
September 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
José A Barrabés, Aakriti Gupta, Andreu Porta-Sánchez, Kelly M Strait, J Gabriel Acosta-Vélez, Gail D'Onofrio, Rosa-Maria Lidón, Mary Geda, Rachel P Dreyer, Nancy P Lorenze, Judith H Lichtman, John A Spertus, Héctor Bueno, Harlan M Krumholz
Young women with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have a worse prognosis than their male counterparts. We searched for differences in the electrocardiographic presentation of men and women in a large, contemporary registry of young adults with AMI that could help explain gender differences in outcomes. The qualifying electrocardiogram was blindly assessed by a central core lab in 3,354 patients (67% women) aged 18 to 55 years included in the Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients study...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
Vívian N Gonçalves, Gislaine A Vitoreli, Graciéle C A de Menezes, Carlos R B Mendes, Eduardo R Secchi, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
Thirty-six seawater samples collected at different depths of the Gerlache and Bransfield Straits in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula were analyzed, and the average of the total fungal counts ranged from 0.3 to >300 colony forming units per liter (CFU/L) in density. The fungal were purified and identified as 15 taxa belonged to the genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Cystobasidium, Exophiala, Glaciozyma, Graphium, Lecanicillium, Metschnikowia, Penicillium, Purpureocillium and Simplicillium. Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, and Graphium rubrum were found at high densities in at least two different sites and depths...
August 30, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Xiaowei Fu, Hongqiang Feng, Zhongfang Liu, Kongming Wu
The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious polyphagous insect pest worldwide. This species is known as a long-distance migrant, and previous studies on its migration have been mostly carried out in regions where it can overwinter. However, what pattern of seasonal migration this species exhibits in regions where it cannot overwinter (i.e., the 'summer breeding region') remains unknown. Here, we present data from 14-years of monitoring on a small remote island located in the center of the Bohai Strait, in northern China, by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection...
2017: PloS One
Tatyana N Chernikova, James Dallimore, Heinrich Lünsdorf, Hermann J Heipieper, Peter N Golyshin
The novel Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short-rod bacterium, strain C7T, was isolated from a seawater sample from Menai Straits (Wales, UK) and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this strain represented a distinct lineage within the Roseobacterclade of family Rhodobacteracea within Alphaproteobacteria. The members of the genera Pontivivens (Pontivivensinsulae GYSW-23T), Celeribacter (Celeribactermanganoxidans DY2-5T), Donghicola (Donghicola eburneus SW-277T), Roseovarius (Roseovariushalotolerans HJ50T and Roseovariuspacificus 81-2T), Cribrihabitans (Cribrihabitansmarinus CZ-AM5T) and Aestuariihabitans (Aestuariihabitansbeolgyonensis BB-MW15T) were the closest relatives with 16S rRNA gene sequence identities between 93...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Marc G W Rémond, Simon Stewart, Melinda J Carrington, Thomas H Marwick, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Peter Meikle, Darren O'Brien, Nathaniel S Marshall, Graeme P Maguire
BACKGROUND: Of the estimated 10-11 year life expectancy gap between Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people) and non-Indigenous Australians, approximately one quarter is attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Risk prediction of CVD is imperfect, but particularly limited for Indigenous Australians. The BIRCH (Better Indigenous Risk stratification for Cardiac Health) project aims to identify and assess existing and novel markers of early disease and risk in Indigenous Australians to optimise health outcomes in this disadvantaged population...
August 23, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
J T Hughes, F Barzi, W E Hoy, G R D Jones, G Rathnayake, S W Majoni, M A B Thomas, A Sinha, A Cass, R J MacIsaac, K O'Dea, L J Maple-Brown
Low serum bilirubin concentrations are reported to be strongly associated with cardio-metabolic disease, but this relationship has not been reported among Indigenous Australian people who are known to be at high risk for diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). HYPOTHESIS: serum bilirubin will be negatively associated with markers of chronic disease, including CKD and anaemia among Indigenous Australians. METHOD: A cross-sectional analysis of 594 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (TSI) people in good health or with diabetes and markers of CKD...
August 20, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
Daniel McAullay, Kimberley McAuley, Ross Bailie, Veronica Mathews, Peter Jacoby, Karen Gardner, Beverly Sibthorpe, Natalie Strobel, Karen Edmond
AIM: To determine whether participation in the continuous quality improvement (CQI) Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease programme improved care and outcomes for Indigenous children. METHODS: Data were collected from 59 Australian primary health-care centres providing services to Indigenous people and participating in the programme (February 2008 and December 2013). Indigenous children aged less than 2 years and centres that completed three or more consecutive annual audits within the 6-year study period were included...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Audra de Witt, Frances C Cunningham, Ross Bailie, Christina M Bernardes, Veronica Matthews, Brian Arley, Judith A Meiklejohn, Gail Garvey, Jon Adams, Jennifer H Martin, Euan T Walpole, Daniel Williamson, Patricia C Valery
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have poorer cancer outcomes and experience 30% higher mortality rates compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Primary health care (PHC) services are increasingly being recognized as pivotal in improving Indigenous cancer patient outcomes. It is currently unknown whether patient information systems and practices in PHC settings accurately record Indigenous and cancer status. Being able to identify Indigenous cancer patients accessing services in PHC settings is the first step in improving outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Gregory Armstrong, Natalie Ironfield, Claire M Kelly, Katrina Dart, Kerry Arabena, Kathy Bond, Anthony F Jorm
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disproportionally affects Indigenous Australians. Friends, family and frontline workers (for example, teachers, youth workers) are often best positioned to provide initial assistance if someone is engaging in NSSI. Culturally appropriate expert consensus guidelines on how to provide mental health first aid to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in NSSI were developed in 2009. This study describes the re-development of these guidelines to ensure they contain the most current recommended helping actions...
August 22, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Joon Hai Lim, Choon Weng Lee
Diatom abundance, biovolume and diversity were measured over a 2-year period along the Straits of Malacca at two stations with upper (Klang) and lower (Port Dickson) states of eutrophication. Diatom abundance, which ranged from 0.2 × 10(4) to 21.7 × 10(4) cells L(-1) at Klang and 0.9 × 10(3)- 41.3 × 10(3) cells L(-1) at Port Dickson, was influenced partly by nutrient concentrations. At Klang, the diatoms were generally smaller and less diverse (H' = 0.77 ± 0.48) and predominated by Skeletonema spp...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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