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Progesterone and fetal evolution

Yves Morel, Florence Roucher, Ingrid Plotton, Claire Goursaud, Véronique Tardy, Delphine Mallet
Progesterone, estrogens, androgens and glucocorticoids are involved in pregnancy from implantation to parturition. Their biosynthesis and their metabolism result from complex pathways involving the fetus, the placenta and the mother. The absence of expression of some steroïdogenic enzymes as CYP17 in placenta and in adrenal fetal zone and the better determination of the onset and variation of others especially HSD3B2 during the pregnancy explain the production of the steroid hormones. Moreover the consequences of some disorders of steroidogenesis (especially aromatase, POR, CYP11A1 and 21-hydroxylase deficiencies) in fetus and mother during the pregnancy have permit to elucidate these complex pathways...
June 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
Peter J Hansen
Farm animals have been important models for the development of reproductive immunology. Two of the major concepts underpinning reproductive immunology, the idea of the fetal allograft and progesterone's role in regulation of uterine immunity, were developed using the bovine as a model. This volume of the American Journal of Reproductive Immunology is composed of review articles that highlight the continued relevance of farm animals as models for research in mammalian biology. It is important that a diverse array of genotypes are used to elucidate biological principles relevant to mammalian biology and human health because the nature of mammalian evolution has resulted in a situation where the genome of the most commonly used animal model, the laboratory mouse, is less similar to the human than other species like the cow...
October 2010: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Maria B Padua, Peter J Hansen
Uterine serpins (recently designated as SERPINA14) are hormonally induced proteins secreted in large quantities by the endometrial epithelium during pregnancy. The SERPINA14 proteins belong to the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily, but their apparent lack of inhibitory activity toward serine proteinases suggests that these proteins evolved a different function from the anti-proteinase activity typically found in most members of the serpin superfamily. The gene is present in a limited group of mammals in the Laurasiatheria superorder (ruminants, horses, pigs, dolphins and some carnivores) while being absent in primates, rodents, lagomorphs and marsupials...
October 2010: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
L A Cole
Hyperglycosylated hCG (hCG-H) is a glycoprotein with the same polypeptide structure as hCG, and much larger N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides increase the molecular weight of hCG from 36,000 - 37,000 u to 40,000 - 41,000 u, depending on the extent of hyperglycosylation. hCG-H has triantennary N-linked oligosaccharides and double molecular size O-linked oligosaccharides (hexasaccharide compared with predominantly trisaccharide structures). hCG is produced by syncytiotrophoblast cells while hCG-H is made by extravillous cytotrophoblast cells...
August 2010: Placenta
Jean Guibourdenche, Thierry Fournier, André Malassiné, Daniele Evain-Brion
The human placenta is characterized by the intensity of the trophoblast invasion into the uterus wall and the specificity of its hormonal functions. Placental hormones are required for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, adaptation of the maternal organism to pregnancy and fetal growth. In the early placenta at the maternofetal interface, the human trophoblast differentiates along two pathways: 1/ the villous trophoblast pathway including the cytotrophoblastic cells which differentiate by fusion to form the syncytiotrophoblast that covers the entire surface of the villi; 2/ the extravillous trophoblast pathway...
2009: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Laurence A Cole
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone comprising 2 subunits, alpha and beta joined non covalently. While similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH), hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents, rather than as a single molecule like LH and the other glycoprotein hormones. These are regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG. For 88 years regular hCG has been known as a promoter of corpus luteal progesterone production, even though this function only explains 3 weeks of a full gestations production of regular hCG...
2009: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
P Gellé, G Crépin, G Delahousse, J Decocq, C Lottin-Marin
The authors followed 187 pregnancies in which metrorrhagia had occurred in the first trimester, but which had not resulted in abortion. In these patients, the authors studied particularly changes in hormone levels in the urine and the relation between these levels and fetal prognosis. If hormonal deficit is related to fetal prognosis, the relationship does not appear to be a direct one: estrogen deficiency is discovered more often than luteal deficiency; the more serious the estrogen deficiency the more often is it associated with severe progesterone deficiency; The number of fetal malformations did not seem to be any higher in patients who had presented metrorrhagia in first trimester than in patients whose pregnancy was normal...
May 1974: Revue Française de Gynécologie et D'obstétrique
J R Pasqualini
Human fetal and placental compartments have all the enzymatic systems necessary to produce steroid hormones. However, their activities are different and complementary: the fetus is very active in converting acetate into cholesterol, in transforming pregnanes to androstanes, various hydroxylases, sulfotransferases, whilst all these transformations are absent or very limited in the placenta. This compartment can transform cholesterol to C21-steroids, convert 5-ene to 4-ene steroids, and has a high capacity to aromatize C19 precursors and to hydrolyse sulfates...
December 2005: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Danika L Painter, Michael C Moore
The placenta provides a maternal-fetal exchange interface that maximizes the diffusion of gases, nutrients, and wastes. However, the placenta also may permit diffusion of lipid-soluble steroid hormones that influence processes such as sex-specific fetal development and maternal pregnancy maintenance. In mammals, placental steroid metabolism contributes to regulation of maternal and fetal hormone levels. Such mechanisms may be less highly developed in species that have recently evolved placentation, such as many reptiles...
May 2005: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Claudia Freyer, Ulrich Zeller, Marilyn B Renfree
The structure, physiology, and endocrinology of the yolk sac placenta of different marsupial groups is compared and phylogenetically analyzed to provide information on placental characters in the marsupial stem species. We conclude that the marsupial stem species possessed a functional yolk sac placenta. Histotrophic nutrition by uterine secretion decreased during late pregnancy and at least half of the yolk sac was vascularized at the time of shell coat rupture. Due to yolk sac fusion, the larger part of the avascular, bilaminar yolk sac could not serve as a placenta at late gestation in the polyovular marsupial stem species...
September 1, 2003: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Comparative Experimental Biology
Danika Painter, David H Jennings, Michael C Moore
We investigated maternal-fetal hormone transfer in the mountain spiny lizard, Sceloporus jarrovi, a viviparous species with a simple chorioallantoic placenta. In one experiment, we examined the effect of elevated maternal progesterone on fetal and yolk hormone levels. Progesterone implants increased maternal progesterone nearly 100-fold; however, the resulting increase in fetal and yolk progesterone was only about 2% of that seen in mothers, providing evidence that the placenta buffers hormone diffusion. In addition, some effects of progesterone treatment differed between male and female fetuses, suggesting that this buffering may differ between the sexes...
June 15, 2002: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Y Heyman, P Chavatte-Palmer, D LeBourhis, S Camous, X Vignon, J P Renard
Nuclear transfer from somatic cells still has limited efficiency in terms of live calves born due to high fetal loss after transfer. In this study, we addressed the type of donor cells used for cloning in in vivo development. We used a combination of repeated ultrasonography and maternal pregnancy serum protein (PSP60) assays to monitor the evolution of pregnancy after somatic cloning in order to detect the occurrence of late-gestation losses and their frequency, compared with embryo cloning or in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
January 2002: Biology of Reproduction
M R Peltier, P J Hansen
PROBLEM: During pregnancy, the endometrium of the ewe secretes a progesterone-induced member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors called ovine uterine serpin (OvUS) that has immunosuppressive properties. METHOD: Review of the literature. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: OvUS inhibits a wide variety of immune responses, including mixed lymphocyte reaction, mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, and T cell-dependent antibody production...
May 2001: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
N V Adsay, J N Eble, J R Srigley, E C Jones, D J Grignon
We describe the clinicopathologic features of 12 patients with a distinctive tumor of the kidney characterized by a mixture of epithelial and stromal elements that form solid and cystic growth patterns. Similar tumors were reported previously in the literature under various names, including adult mesoblastic nephroma. All but one of the patients were women. The only man had a long history of treatment with lupron and diethylstilbesterol. Seven of the women had histories of long-term oral estrogen use of whom six had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy several years prior, and the seventh patient had been using oral contraceptives for many years...
July 2000: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
J L Martal, N M Chêne, L P Huynh, R M L'Haridon, P B Reinaud, M W Guillomot, M A Charlier, S Y Charpigny
IFN-tau (IFN-tau) constitutes a new class of type I IFN which is not virus-inducible, unlike IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, but is constitutively produced by the trophectoderm of the ruminant conceptus during a very short period in early pregnancy. It plays a pivotal role in the mechanisms of maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants and it displays high antiviral and antiproliferative activities across species with a prominent lack of cytotoxicity at high concentrations in vitro in cell culture and possibly in vivo...
August 1998: Biochimie
C A Finn
Although adaptive explanations for menstruation go back at least twenty-five hundred years, in the last decade two new hypotheses have been advanced. The first suggests that menstruation evolved to cleanse the uterus of pathogens introduced by sperm, and the second argues that the function of endometrial regression (with the associated menstruation in humans) is to save energy by getting rid of tissue, rather than maintaining it in the absence of an available blastocyst. Both these suggestions may be questioned on the grounds that they do not take into account the physiology of the reproductive processes involved...
June 1998: Quarterly Review of Biology
D Ghosh, P G Kumar, J Sengupta
It is generally believed that progesterone is essential for inducing the changes in oviduct and uterus necessary for embryo viability and implantation in a number of mammalian species. The aim of this study was, in the rhesus monkey, to examine in conception cycles with and without early luteal phase antiprogestin (mifepristone; RU 486) treatment: (i) the growth status of preimplantation embryos and (ii) the implantation ability of the preimplantation embryo after transfer to a synchronous-cycle surrogate recipient...
March 1997: Human Reproduction
A E Heufelder, R S Bahn
PURPOSE: Paracrine/autocrine interactions between orbital fibroblasts (OF) and infiltrating lymphocytes/macrophages are thought to play a central role in the evolution of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Compounds capable of stimulating the proliferation and synthetic capacities of OF may be of particular importance to these processes, because fibroblasts are known to both produce and respond to certain paracrine factors. METHODS: The effects of interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor I, transforming growth factor beta, and platelet-derived growth factor on OF monolayers derived from orbital fatty connective tissue and extraocular muscle endomysium of patients with severe GO undergoing orbital decompression (n = 3), and from connective tissue of normal persons (n = 3) were investigated...
January 1994: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
I A Forsyth
Removal of the pituitary from pregnant rats provided early evidence that the placenta was the source of prolactin-like bioactivity. After mid-pregnancy the placenta was able to support progesterone production by the corpus luteum (luteotrophic activity) and continued development of the mammary gland (mammotrophic activity). Three groups of mammals, the rodents, the ruminant artiodactyls and the primates are now known to produce from fetal placenta a remarkable variety of proteins which are related in structure to pituitary prolactin and growth hormone...
1994: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology
S B Cigorraga, H Chemes, E Pellizzari
We have explored the morphogenic and functional characteristics of human peritubular cells originating from seminiferous tubule (ST) fragments isolated from the testes of two prepubertal patients with the androgen insensitivity syndrome. These ST were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium-Ham's F-12 supplemented with antibiotics, transferrin, hydrocortisone, vitamin E, and 3% fetal bovine serum. A centrifugal growth of elongated fibroblast-like cells peripheral to the ST explants was observed. Muscle-specific actin and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were evident in the peritubular area and in the elongated cells growing from the tubules...
December 1994: Biology of Reproduction
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