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sudden cardiac death risk factors

Claire E Raphael, Mandeep Singh, Malcolm Bell, Daniel Crusan, Ryan J Lennon, Amir Lerman, Abhiram Prasad, Charanjit S Rihal, Bernard J Gersh, Rajiv Gulati
BACKGROUND: Women have higher rates of all-cause mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention. Whether this is because of greater age and comorbidity burden or a sex-specific factor remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively assessed cause-specific long-term mortality after index percutaneous coronary intervention over 3 time periods (1991-1997, 1998-2005, and 2006-2012). Cause of death was determined using telephone interviews, medical records, and death certificates...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Ali J Marian, Yanli Tan, Lili Li, Jeffrey T Chang, Petros Syrris, Manouchehr Hessabi, Mohammad H Rahbar, James T Willerson, Benjamin Y Cheong, Chia-Ying Liu, Neal S Kleiman, David A Bluemke, Sherif F Nagueh
<u>Rationale:</u> Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic paradigm of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis are important risk factors for sudden death and morbidity in HCM. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Treatment with anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reverses cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in animal models of HCM. <u>Objective:</u> To determine effect sizes of NAC on indices of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in patients with established HCM...
March 14, 2018: Circulation Research
Babken Asatryan, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo
Inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes are genetically determined disorders of cardiac ion channels or ion channel macromolecular complexes usually associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. These conditions have a very broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from an asymptomatic course to syncope, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and conduction disturbances, but may produce sudden infant death syndrome and unexplained sudden cardiac death in apparently healthy individuals. During the last 20 years, the evolving knowledge on the genetic basis of inherited arrhythmia syndromes has dramatically reshaped our understanding of these conditions and, consequently, had a great impact on patient care...
March 8, 2018: Cardiology in Review
Kevin J Li, Aaron P Greenstein, Lynn E Delisi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the recent literature regarding sudden death in patients with schizophrenia and synthesize salient conclusions based on this evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the largest subset of sudden unexpected death (SUD), with up to 40% of SUD from cardiovascular causes. SCD has been associated with exposure to both first and second-generation antipsychotics. Clozapine [odds ratio (OR) 3.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Salma I Patel, Michael J Ackerman, Fadi E Shamoun, Jeffrey B Geske, Steve R Ommen, William T Love, Stephen S Cha, Johan M Bos, Steven J Lester
INTRODUCTION: Risk assessment for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains complex. The goal of this study was to assess electrocardiogram (ECG)-derived risk factors on SCD in a large HCM population Methods: Retrospective review of adults with HCM evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from 1 December 2002 to 31 December 2012 was performed. Data inclusive of ECG and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitor were assessed. SCD events were documented by ventricular fibrillation (VF) noted on implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), or appropriate VT or VF-terminating ICD shock...
March 7, 2018: Acta Cardiologica
Valentina Kutyifa, Usama Daimee, Scott McNitt, Bronislava Polonsky, Charles Lowenstein, Kris Cutter, Coeli Lopes, Wojciech Zareba, Arthur J Moss
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive report on the clinical course of the three major genotypes of the long QT syndrome (LQTS) in a large U.S. patient cohort is lacking. METHODS: Our study consisted of 1,923 U.S. subjects from the Rochester-based LQTS Registry with genotype-positive LQT1 (n = 879), LQT2 (n = 807), and LQT3 (n = 237). We evaluated the risk of a first cardiac event (syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death, whichever occurred first) from birth through age 50 years...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Lisa L Shah, Sandra Daack-Hirsch
Screening for hereditary cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias (HCA) may enable early detection, treatment, targeted surveillance, and result in effective prevention of debilitating complications and sudden cardiac death. Screening at-risk family members for HCA is conducted through cascade screening. Only half of at-risk family members are screened for HCA. To participate in screening, at-risk family members must be aware of their risk. This often relies on communication from diagnosed individuals to their relatives...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Jari A Laukkanen, Claudio Gil S Araújo, Sudhir Kurl, Hassan Khan, Sae Y Jae, Marco Guazzi, Setor K Kunutsor
Background Preliminary evidence suggests that peak exercise oxygen pulse - peak oxygen uptake/heart rate-, a variable obtained during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing and a surrogate of stroke volume, is a predictor of mortality. We aimed to assess the associations of peak exercise oxygen pulse with sudden cardiac death, fatal coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Design A prospective study. Methods Peak exercise oxygen pulse was assessed in a maximal cycling test at baseline in 2227 middle-aged men of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease cohort study using expired gas variables and electrocardiograms...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Mirjam Simoons, Adrie Seldenrijk, Hans Mulder, Tom Birkenhäger, Mascha Groothedde-Kuyvenhoven, Rob Kok, Cornelis Kramers, Wim Verbeeck, Mirjam Westra, Eric van Roon, Roberto Bakker, Henricus Ruhé
Currently, there is a lack of international and national guidelines or consensus documents with specific recommendations for electrocardiogram (ECG) screening and monitoring during antidepressant treatment. To make a proper estimation of the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden (cardiac) death during antidepressant use, both the drug and patient-specific factors should be taken into account; however, solid evidence on how this should be done in clinical practice is lacking. Available recommendations on the management of QT(c) prolongation (with antidepressant treatment) emphasize that special attention should be given to high-risk patients; however, clinicians are in need of more concrete suggestions about how to select patients for ECG screening and monitoring...
February 26, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Francesco Sessa, Valenzano Anna, Giovanni Messina, Giuseppe Cibelli, Vincenzo Monda, Gabriella Marsala, Maria Ruberto, Antonio Biondi, Orazio Cascio, Giuseppe Bertozzi, Daniela Pisanelli, Francesca Maglietta, Antonietta Messina, Maria P Mollica, Monica Salerno
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) represents about 25% of deaths in clinical cardiology. The identification of risk factors for SCD is the philosopher's stone of cardiology and the identification of non-invasive markers of risk of SCD remains one of the most important goals for the scientific community.The aim of this review is to analyze the state of the art around the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as a predictor factor for SCD.HRV is probably the most analyzed index in cardiovascular risk stratification technical literature, therefore an important number of models and methods have been developed...
February 23, 2018: Aging
Jerónimo Auzmendi, Bruno Buchholz, Jimena Salguero, Carlos Cañellas, Jazmín Kelly, Paula Men, Marcela Zubillaga, Alicia Rossi, Amalia Merelli, Ricardo J Gelpi, Alberto J Ramos, Alberto Lazarowski
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the major cause of death in those patients suffering from refractory epilepsy (RE), with a 24-fold higher risk relative to the normal population. SUDEP risk increases with seizure frequency and/or seizure-duration as in RE and Status Epilepticus (SE). P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of the multidrug resistant ABCB1-MDR-1 gene, is a detoxifying pump that extrudes drugs out of the cells and can confer pharmacoresistance to the expressing cells. Neurons and cardiomyocytes normally do not express P-gp, however, it is overexpressed in the brain of patients or in experimental models of RE and SE...
February 16, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Menso J Nubé, Tiny Hoekstra, Volkan Doganer, Michiel L Bots, Peter J Blankestijn, Marinus van den Dorpel, Otto Kamp, Piet M Ter Wee, Camiel L M de Roij van Zuijdewijn, Muriel P C Grooteman
INTRODUCTION: While concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (cLVH) predominates in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD), eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (eLVH) is most prevalent in dialysis-dependent CKD stage 5 (CKD5D). In these patients, the risk of sudden death is 5× higher than in individuals with cLVH. Currently, it is unknown which factors determine left ventricular (LV) geometry and how it changes over time in CKD5D. METHODS: Data from participants of the CONvective TRAnsport Study who underwent serial transthoracic echocardiography were used...
February 20, 2018: Hemodialysis International
Jessica Morand, Claire Arnaud, Jean-Louis Pepin, Diane Godin-Ribuot
We investigated the effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH), such as that encountered in severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, on the development and severity of myocardial ischemia-related ventricular arrhythmias. Rats were exposed to 14 days of IH (30 s at 5%O 2 and 30 s at 21%O 2 , 8 h·day -1 ) or normoxia (N, similar air-air cycles) and submitted to a 30-min coronary ligature. Arterial blood pressure (BP) and ECG were recorded for power spectral analysis, ECG interval measurement and arrhythmia quantification...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Hermansson, J Hallqvist, B Karlsson, A Knutsson, K Gillander Gådin
Background: Shift work has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is a need for more studies to determine whether there is an interaction between shift work and other risk factors of CVD, thereby increasing the risk of CVD in shift workers. Aims: To discern whether shift work and parental mortality from myocardial infarction (MI) or sudden cardiac death (SCD) interact to increase the risk of MI in men. Methods: A case-control dataset was used to assess interaction between shift work and parental history of CVD, using death from MI or SCD, or death before age 65, on an additive scale...
February 10, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Josep Marí-Alexandre, Moises Barceló-Molina, Jorge Sanz-Sánchez, Pilar Molina, Jennifer Sancho, Yolanda Abellán, María Luisa Santaolaria-Ayora, Juan Giner, Luis Martínez-Dolz, Amparo Estelles, Aitana Braza-Boïls, Esther Zorio
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: An increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness has become a new risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). We aimed to study the role of EAT dysfunction as a CHD marker by focusing on its thickness and microRNA (miRNA) expression profile, and the potential factors possibly influencing them. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-five CHD sudden cardiac death victims and 84 non-CHD-sudden death controls were prospectively enrolled at autopsy...
February 10, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
Nath Zungsontiporn, Michael Loguidice, James Daniels
The efficacy of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death has been well established by several clinical trials. Several factors relating to device characteristics, patient attributes, and comorbidities should be considered when selecting the appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillators for each patient. This review examines some of these issues.
March 2018: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
Takashi Noda, Takashi Kurita, Takashi Nitta, Yasutaka Chiba, Hiroshi Furushima, Naoki Matsumoto, Takeshi Toyoshima, Akihiko Shimizu, Hideo Mitamura, Ken Okumura, Tohru Ohe, Yoshifusa Aizawa
BACKGROUND: Electrical storm (E-Storm), defined as multiple episodes of ventricular arrhythmias within a short period of time, is an important clinical problem in patients with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) including cardiac resynchronization therapy devices capable of defibrillation. The detailed clinical aspects of E-Storm in large populations especially for non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), however, remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to elucidate the detailed clinical aspects of E-Storm, such as its predictors and prevalence among patients with structural heart disease including DCM...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Jingjing Fan, Lin Qiu, Hongyang Shu, Ben Ma, Marco Hagenmueller, Johannes H Riffel, Soeren Meryer, Min Zhang, Stefan E Hardt, Lin Wang, Dao Wen Wang, Hongyu Qiu, Ning Zhou
Postinfarct cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for heart failure and sudden death. Regression of cardiac hypertrophy has emerged as a promising strategy in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). Here we hypothesized that frizzled1 (FZD1), a receptor of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is a novel mediator of ischemia-associated cardiac hypertrophy. MI was induced in mice by left anterior descending (LAD) coronary occlusion. One week after MI, the expression of FZD1 was found to be notably increased in the left ventricles (LVs) of the MI-mice compared to shams...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Dagfinn Aune, Sabrina Schlesinger, Teresa Norat, Elio Riboli
Smoking is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and stroke, however, data regarding smoking and sudden cardiac death have not been summarized in a meta-analysis previously. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify this association. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies of smoking and sudden cardiac death up to July 20th 2017. Prospective studies were included if they reported adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for smoking and sudden cardiac death...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Dagfinn Aune, Sabrina Schlesinger, Teresa Norat, Elio Riboli
Although overweight and obesity are established risk factors for some types of heart disease including ischemic heart disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation, less is known about the association between adiposity and sudden cardiac death. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify the association between adiposity and risk of sudden cardiac death. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to July 20th 2017. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
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