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sudden cardiac death risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223004/sudden-cardiac-death-among-hemodialysis-patients
#1
Melissa S Makar, Patrick H Pun
Hemodialysis patients carry a large burden of cardiovascular disease; most onerous is the high risk for sudden cardiac death. Defining sudden cardiac death among hemodialysis patients and understanding its pathogenesis are challenging, but inferences from the existing literature reveal differences between sudden cardiac death among hemodialysis patients and the general population. Vascular calcifications and left ventricular hypertrophy may play a role in the pathophysiology of sudden cardiac death, whereas traditional cardiovascular risk factors seem to have a more muted effect...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222965/ventricular-arrhythmias-and-sudden-death-in-tetralogy-of-fallot
#2
REVIEW
Philippe Maury, Frederic Sacher, Anne Rollin, Pierre Mondoly, Alexandre Duparc, Katja Zeppenfeld, Sebastien Hascoet
Malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death may late happen in repaired tetralogy of Fallot, although probably less frequently than previously thought, especially with the advent of new surgical techniques/management. Ventricular tachycardias are caused by reentry around the surgical scars/patches and valves. Many predictive factors have been proposed, which suffer from poor accuracy. There is currently no recommended indication for prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation-except maybe in the case of multiple risk factors-while radiofrequncy ablation may be proposed in secondary prevention with or even without a back-up implantable cardioverter defibrillator in selected cases...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218213/surgical-treatment-of-double-outlet-right-ventricle-complicated-by-pulmonary-hypertension
#3
Qing-Yu Wu, Dong-Hai Li, Hong-Yin Li, Ming-Kui Zhang, Zhong-Hua Xu, Hui Xue
BACKGROUND: Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a group of complex congenital heart abnormalities. Preoperative pulmonary hypertension (PH) is considered an important risk factor for early death during the surgical treatment of DORV. The aim of this study was to report our experience on surgical treatment of DORV complicated by PH. METHODS: From June 2004 to November 2016, 61 patients (36 males and 25 females) aged 2 weeks to 26 years (median: 0.67 years and interquartile range: 0...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209387/associations-of-cardiovascular-and-all-cause-mortality-events-with-oxygen-uptake-at-ventilatory-threshold
#4
Setor K Kunutsor, Sudhir Kurl, Hassan Khan, Francesco Zaccardi, Jari A Laukkanen
BACKGROUND: Oxygen uptake (VO2) at ventilatory threshold (VT), is a cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameter which may be a proxy for peak VO2. We aimed to assess the associations of VO2 at VT with sudden cardiac death (SCD), fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: VO2 at VT was assessed during a submaximal exercise test using respiratory gas analyzers in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease cohort of 1639 middle-aged men...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205229/linking-myofilaments-to-sudden-cardiac-death-recent-advances
#5
Sabine Huke
The major goal of this focused review is to highlight some of the open questions and recent advances about how a mutation in a myofilament protein leads to an increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). The link between myofilaments and SCD is known for over 25 years, but identifying mutation carriers at risk for SCD is still a challenge and currently the only effective prevention is implantation of a defibrillator (ICD). In addition to recognized risk factors, other contributing factors need to be considered and assessed, e...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154006/sudden-cardiac-death-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-failure-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-results-from-the-surgical-treatment-for-ischemic-heart-failure-stich-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Meena P Rao, Sana M Al-Khatib, Sean Pokorney, Lilin She, Alexander Romanov, Jose C Nicolau, Kerry L Lee, Peter E Carson, Craig H Selzman, Janina Stepinska, John G F Cleland, Wiwun Tungsubutra, Patrice M Desvigne-Nickens, Carla Sueta, Matthias Siepe, Irene M Lang, Arthur M Feldman, Michael Yii, Jean L Rouleau, Eric J Velazquez
BACKGROUND: -The risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with heart failure following CABG has not been examined in a contemporary clinical trial of surgical revascularization. This analysis describes the incidence, timing and clinical predictors of SCD after CABG. METHODS: -Patients enrolled in the Surgical Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial who underwent CABG with or without surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) were included. We excluded patients with prior ICD and those randomized only to medical therapy...
February 2, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153995/atrial-fibrillation-and-ventricular-arrhythmias-sex-differences-in-electrophysiology-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-and-clinical-outcomes
#7
Anne M Gillis
Sex-specific differences in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, clinical treatment, and clinical outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF), sustained ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death are recognized. Sex hormones cause differences in cardiac electrophysiological parameters between men and women that may affect the risk for arrhythmias. The incidence and prevalence of AF is lower in women than in men. However, because women live longer and AF prevalence increases with age, the absolute number of women with AF exceeds that of men...
February 7, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146053/cardiac-channelopathies-and-sudden-death-recent-clinical-and-genetic-advances
#8
REVIEW
Anna Fernández-Falgueras, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Josep Brugada, Ramon Brugada, Oscar Campuzano
Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia)...
January 29, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139454/brugada-syndrome-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#9
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Gourraud, Julien Barc, Aurélie Thollet, Hervé Le Marec, Vincent Probst
Brugada syndrome is a rare inherited arrhythmia syndrome leading to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, despite a structurally normal heart. Diagnosis is based on a specific electrocardiogram pattern, observed either spontaneously or during a sodium channel blocker test. Among affected patients, risk stratification remains a challenge, despite recent insights from large population cohorts. As implantable cardiac defibrillators - the main therapy in Brugada syndrome - are associated with a high rate of complications in this population, the main challenge is risk stratification of patients with Brugada syndrome...
January 27, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138202/treating-an-adolescent-with-long-qt-syndrome-for-bipolar-disorder-a-case-presentation
#10
Özlem Önen, Ayşe Kutlu, Handan Özek Erkuran
OBJECTIVES: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is described as the development of sudden syncope attacks or death as a result of ventricular tachycardia (VT) episodes that might be observed as elongated QT interval in electrocardiography (ECG). Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) is recommended as first-line treatment for the condition in guidelines. We aimed to present an adolescent recently diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) who had LQTS that was treated with ICD, discussing her follow up and treatment along with relevant literature...
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131609/geriatric-syncope-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-the-emergency-department
#11
Nissa J Ali, Shamai A Grossman
BACKGROUND: Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness that is caused by a brief loss in generalized cerebral blood flow. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the background, epidemiology, etiologies, evaluation, and disposition considerations of geriatric patients with syncope, with a focus on cardiovascular risk. DISCUSSION: Although syncope is one of the most common symptoms in elderly patients presenting to the emergency department, syncope causes in geriatric patients can present differently than in younger populations, and the underlying etiology is often challenging to discern...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110698/heart-rate-variability-regression-and-risk-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy
#12
Alessio Galli, Federico Lombardi
The exact mechanisms of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy remain elusive, despite there is consensus that SUDEP is associated with severe derangements in the autonomic control to vital functions as breathing and heart rate regulation. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been advocated as biomarker of autonomic control to the heart. Cardiac dysautonomia has been found in diseases where other branches of the autonomous nervous system are damaged, as Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy. In this perspective, an impaired HRV not only is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death mediated by arrhythmias, but also a potential biomarker for monitoring a progressive decline of the autonomous nervous system...
February 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106161/cold-spells-and-ischaemic-sudden-cardiac-death-effect-modification-by-prior-diagnosis-of-ischaemic-heart-disease-and-cardioprotective-medication
#13
Niilo R I Ryti, Elina M S Mäkikyrö, Harri Antikainen, M Juhani Junttila, Eeva Hookana, Tiina M Ikäheimo, Marja-Leena Kortelainen, Heikki V Huikuri, Jouni J K Jaakkola
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death. The current paradigm in SCD requires the presence of an abnormal myocardial substrate and an internal or external transient factor that triggers cardiac arrest. Based on prior mechanistic evidence, we hypothesized that an unusually cold weather event (a cold spell) could act as an external factor triggering SCD. We tested potential effect modification of prior diagnoses and select pharmacological agents disrupting pathological pathways between cold exposure and death...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072689/an-observational-study-on-the-effect-of-premature-ventricular-complex-burden-on-long-term-outcome
#14
Chin-Yu Lin, Shih-Lin Chang, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Yun-Yu Chen, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Feng Hu, Ta-Chuan Tuan, Tze-Fan Chao, Fa-Po Chung, Jo-Nan Liao, Yao-Ting Chang, Chung-Hsing Lin, Rohit Walia, Abigail Louise D Te, Shinya Yamada, Chuen-Wang Chiou, Hsuan-Ming Tsao, Shih-Ann Chen
The long-term clinical impact of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) on mortality and morbidity has not been fully studied. This study aimed to investigate the association between the burden of PVCs and adverse clinical outcome.A total of 5778 subjects, who were pacemaker-free and ventricular tachycardia-free at baseline, received 24-hour electrocardiography monitoring between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004. Clinical event data were retrieved from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062938/mineral-metabolism-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-ckd
#15
REVIEW
Hideki Fujii, Nobuhiko Joki
The mineral bone disorder of CKD, called Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD), has a major role in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. Since the main emphasis in CKD-MBD is on three categories (bone abnormalities, laboratory abnormalities, and vascular calcifications), we have routinely accepted ectopic cardiovascular calcifications as a central risk factor in the pathophysiology of CKD-MBD for cardiac events. However, recent compelling evidence suggests that some CKD-MBD-specific factors other than vascular calcification might contribute to the onset of cardiovascular disease...
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061924/asymptomatic-wolff-parkinson-white-pattern-ecg-in-usaf-aviators
#16
Eddie D Davenport, Karen A N Rupp, Edwin Palileo, Jared Haynes
INTRODUCTION: Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern is occasionally found in asymptomatic aviators during routine ECGs. Aeromedical concerns regarding WPW pattern include risk of dysrhythmia or sudden cardiac death (SCD), thus affecting the safety of flight. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and outcomes of aviators with asymptomatic WPW pattern and assess for risk factors that contribute to progression to dysrhythmia or symptoms. METHODS: The U...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060255/a-model-of-cardiac-remodeling-through-constriction-of-the-abdominal-aorta-in-rats
#17
Hui-Chun Ku, Shih-Yi Lee, Yuan-Kun Aden Wu, Kai-Chien Yang, Ming-Jai Su
Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is a complex clinical syndromethat includes fatigue, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and fluid retention. Changes in myocardial structure, electrical conduction, and energy metabolism develop with heart failure, leading to contractile dysfunction, increased risk of arrhythmias, and sudden death. Hypertensive heart disease is one of the key contributing factors of cardiac remodeling associated with heart failure. The most commonly-used animal model mimicking hypertensive heart disease is created via surgical interventions, such as by narrowing the aorta...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043059/determining-factors-of-electrocardiographic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-case-control-study
#18
Jorge Murilo Barbosa de Sousa, Guilherme Loureiro Fialho, Peter Wolf, Roger Walz, Katia Lin
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major cause of mortality in young patients with epilepsy (PWE). Although its mechanisms are still poorly understood, they may include cardiorespiratory dysfunction. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained from 62 consecutive patients (aged 18-66y) with a definite diagnosis of epilepsy, without seizures at the day of ECG, and 57 healthy controls matched for sex, age and body mass index (BMI). All ECGs were evaluated by a blinded board-certified cardiologist...
December 20, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039169/long-term-prognosis-associated-with-early-repolarisation-pattern-in-chinese-population-with-atherosclerotic-risk-factors
#19
Yun-Jiu Cheng, Wei-Yi Mei, Xu-Miao Chen, Li-Juan Liu, Dong-Dan Zheng, Cheng-Cheng Ji, Kai Tang, Su-Hua Wu
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has linked early repolarisation pattern (ERP) to sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients without structural heart disease. However, no studies have clarified the prognostic value of ERP in people at high risk for atherosclerotic heart disease. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the prognostic significance of ERP on ECGs in a community-based population of 18 231 subjects with atherosclerotic risk factors (49.3% men, mean age 64.0 years)...
December 30, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033290/sudden-death-due-to-ventricular-double-rupture-as-a-complication-of-inferior-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-case-report
#20
Shi-Jian Chen, Chen Zhang, Qing-Tao Meng, Yong Peng, Mao Chen
RATIONALE: Ventricular double rupture (VDR) is a rare but lethal mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The early identification and timely treatment of VDR remain challenging problems. We present a case of AMI with VDR and briefly review the characteristics and prognosis of this life-threatening disease. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: A 77-year-old male presented to our hospital with a 4-day history of severe dizziness, mild chest tightness, and dyspnea...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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