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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499043/bioethics-and-transhumanism
#1
Allen Porter
Transhumanism is a "technoprogressive" socio-political and intellectual movement that advocates for the use of technology in order to transform the human organism radically, with the ultimate goal of becoming "posthuman." To this end, transhumanists focus on and encourage the use of new and emerging technologies, such as genetic engineering and brain-machine interfaces. In support of their vision for humanity, and as a way of reassuring those "bioconservatives" who may balk at the radical nature of that vision, transhumanists claim common ground with a number of esteemed thinkers and traditions, from the ancient philosophy of Plato and Aristotle to the postmodern philosophy of Nietzsche...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475734/biological-criteria-of-disease-four-ways-of-going-wrong
#2
John Matthewson, Paul E Griffiths
We defend a view of the distinction between the normal and the pathological according to which that distinction has an objective, biological component. We accept that there is a normative component to the concept of disease, especially as applied to human beings. Nevertheless, an organism cannot be in a pathological state unless something has gone wrong for that organism from a purely biological point of view. Biology, we argue, recognises two sources of biological normativity, which jointly generate four "ways of going wrong" from a biological perspective...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468023/islamic-civilization-in-spain-a-magnificient-example-of-interaction-and-unity-of-religion-and-science
#3
Safvet Halilović
Islam and its followers had created a civilization that played very important role on the world stage for more than a thousand years. One of the most important specific qualities of the Islamic civilization is that it is a well-balanced civilization that brought together science and faith, struck a balance between spirit and matter and did not separate this world from the Hereafter. This is what distinguishes the Islamic civilization from other civilizations which attach primary importance to the material aspect of life, physical needs and human instincts, and attach greater attention to this world by striving to instantly satisfy desires of the flesh, without finding a proper place for God and the Hereafter in their philosophies and education systems...
April 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462124/the-quantum-universe-philosophical-foundations-and-oriental-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Menas C Kafatos, Keun-Hang Yang
The existence of universal principles in both science and medicine implies that one can explore their common applicability. Here we explore what we have learned from quantum mechanics, phenomena such as entanglement and nonlocality, the role of participation of the observer, and how these may apply to oriental medicine. The universal principles of integrated polarity, recursion, and creative interactivity apply to all levels of existence and all human activities, including healing and medicine. This review examines the possibility that what we have learned from quantum mechanics may provide clues to better understand the operational principles of oriental medicine in an integrated way...
December 2016: Integr Med Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458331/preliminary-thoughts-on-research-in-medical-humanities
#5
Xiaojing Yun, Jiawei Guo, Haihong Qian
Medical humanities (MH) is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history, and religion), social sciences (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, and health geography), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. Studies of MH should not be limited to theoretical discussions. Research results must be translated into use of methodologies to formulate medical policies, guide clinical practices, and help resolve physical or mental problems...
April 29, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440719/a-case-based-medical-curriculum-for-the-21st-century-the-use-of-innovative-approaches-in-designing-and-developing-a-case-on-mental-health
#6
Athanasios Hassoulas, Elizabeth Forty, Mathew Hoskins, James Walters, Stephen Riley
The introduction of case-based learning (CBL) by the School of Medicine at Cardiff University has encouraged innovation in medical teaching and learning. During years one and two of the modernized MBBCh program, students complete 17 cases as part of the newly developed C21 curriculum that emphasizes a patient-oriented and student-centered approach to learning. The mental health case, which is presented in year 2, incorporates a number of novel teaching resources that aim to enhance the students' learning experience and to further reinforce the patient-oriented and community-based philosophy of C21...
May 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439821/epigenesis-and-the-rationality-of-nature-in-william-harvey-and-margaret-cavendish
#7
Benjamin Goldberg
The generation of animals was a difficult phenomenon to explain in the seventeenth century, having long been a problem in natural philosophy, theology, and medicine. In this paper, I explore how generation, understood as epigenesis, was directly related to an idea of rational nature. I examine epigenesis-the idea that the embryo was constructed part-by-part, over time-in the work of two seemingly dissimilar English philosophers: William Harvey, an eclectic Aristotelian, and Margaret Cavendish, a radical materialist...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438278/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-cam-among-australian-hospital-based-nurses-knowledge-attitude-personal-and-professional-use-reasons-for-use-cam-referrals-and-socio-demographic-predictors-of-cam-users
#8
Seyed Afshin Shorofi, Paul Arbon
OBJECTIVE: This study was intended to examine CAM among Australian hospital-based nurses, identifying their knowledge, attitude, personal and professional use, reasons for use, CAM referrals, and socio-demographic predictors of CAM users. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nurses holding a qualification in nursing and working in surgical wards were included using a convenience sampling technique. A self-complete questionnaire was developed to achieve the aims of the study. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were calculated to describe and analyse data...
May 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426839/medical-history-in-the-hellenic-journal-of-nuclear-medicine
#9
EDITORIAL
Andreas Otte
The Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine is about to celebrate its 20th anniversary end of 2017. On board of the editorial team since 2003, this journal has influenced me like a good friend over the many past years. From time to time, the journal has published interesting and valuable historical notes. They show that nuclear medicine has a history and that medicine is its basis. They also teach us today, and some of the ancient perspectives and approaches are still valid. The reader of HJNM may be interested in these historical contributions, as they are timeless...
January 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424805/cruising-through-the-journey-without-getting-drowned-the-saga-of-a-phd-student-in-the-netherlands
#10
Louise van Galen, Joyce Wachelder
Young medical trainees all over the world are encouraged to investigate unknown areas of medicine that need clarification. This often leads them to undertake a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy). Being curious, critical, and creative are necessary competences which enable us to engender scientific research within acute (internal) medicine. Worldwide, huge numbers of professionals are pursuing a PhD, with the aim of receiving a 'Doctor'-title. These PhD trajectories vary distinctly between countries. Since the distances in the scientific world are getting smaller and it is becoming more easy to work with each other across borders, it might be interesting to know what it requires to become an academic 'doctor' overseas...
2017: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421331/two-troubling-trends-in-the-conversation-over-whether-clinical-ethics-consultants-have-ethics-expertise
#11
Abram Brummett, Christopher J Ostertag
In a recent issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, several scholars wrote on the topic of ethics expertise in clinical ethics consultation. The articles in this issue exemplified what we consider to be two troubling trends in the quest to articulate a unique expertise for clinical ethicists. The first trend, exemplified in the work of Lisa Rasmussen, is an attempt to define a role for clinical ethicists that denies they have ethics expertise. Rasmussen cites the dependence of ethical expertise on irresolvable meta-ethical debates as the reason for this move...
April 18, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419307/truth-or-spin-disease-definition-in-cancer-screening
#12
Lynette Reid
Are the small and indolent cancers found in abundance in cancer screening normal variations, risk factors, or disease? Naturalists in philosophy of medicine turn to pathophysiological findings to decide such questions objectively. To understand the role of pathophysiological findings in disease definition, we must understand how they mislead in diagnostic reasoning. Participants on all sides of the definition of disease debate attempt to secure objectivity via reductionism. These reductivist routes to objectivity are inconsistent with the Bayesian nature of clinical reasoning; when they appeal to the sciences, they are inconsistent with what philosophy of biology tells us about its natural kinds...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408071/error-contradiction-and-reversal-in-science-and-medicine
#13
Sergio Coccheri
Error and contradictions are not "per se" detrimental in science and medicine. Going back to the history of philosophy, Sir Francis Bacon stated that "truth emerges more readily from error than from confusion", and recently Popper introduced the concept of an approximate temporary truth that constitutes the engine of scientific progress. In biomedical research and in clinical practice we assisted during the last decades to many overturnings or reversals of concepts and practices. This phenomenon may discourage patients from accepting ordinary medical care and may favour the choice of alternative medicine...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392720/the-logic-of-equivalence-testing-and-its-use-in-laboratory-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Cristiano Ialongo
Hypothesis testing is a methodological paradigm widely popularized outside the field of pure statistics, and nowadays more or less familiar to the largest part of biomedical researchers. Conversely, the equivalence testing is still somehow obscure and misunderstood, although it represents a conceptual mainstay for some biomedical fields like pharmacology. In order to appreciate the way it could suit laboratory medicine, it is necessary to understand the philosophy behind it, and in turn how it stemmed and differentiated along the history of classical hypothesis testing...
February 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359768/on-the-science-of-consciousness-epistemological-reflections-and-clinical-implications
#15
Enrico Facco, Daniela Lucangeli, Patrizio Tressoldi
Consciousness has been one of the most important and tantalizing issues ever since the origin of philosophy and medicine. The concept of consciousness and the so-called "hard problem" (i.e., the mind-brain relationship) are highly complex topics that have yet to be elucidated, involving the realms of both science and philosophy with profound epistemological implications. In the lively debate on the foundations of the science of consciousness there are several potential biases of an essentially philosophical nature, such as those related to the paradigm and axioms adopted, and the ostensible logical contradiction between monism and dualism...
February 24, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353404/different-shades-of-newton-herman-boerhaave-on-newton-mathematicus-philosophus-and-optico-chemicus
#16
Steffen Ducheyne
In this paper I will probe into Herman Boerhaave's (1668-1738) appropriation of Isaac Newton's natural philosophy. It will be shown that Newton's work served multiple purposes in Boerhaave's oeuvre, for he appropriated Newton's work differently in different contexts and in different episodes in his career. Three important episodes in, and contexts of, Boerhaave's appropriation of Newton's natural philosophical ideas and methods will be considered: 1710-11, the time of his often neglected lectures on the place of physics in medicine; 1715, when he delivered his most famous rectorial address; and, finally, 1731/2, in publishing his Elementa chemiae...
March 29, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346035/one-needle-is-better-than-two-the-philosophy-surrounding-use-of-local-anesthesia-in-northern-india
#17
Maria Story
The author, an internal medicine resident in the United States, participated in an international elective through her postgraduate training program in a rural hospital in northern India. While performing a thoracentesis, she notes that local anesthesia has not been administered, which is seemingly the standard of care at this hospital. Several questionnaire studies about pain services and pain management in India are reviewed, and they reveal insights and severe limitations to effective management of hospitalized patients' pain...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333515/a-philosophy-for-behavioral-health-integration-in-primary-care
#18
Thomas R Egnew
In response to a call for a philosophy that transcends the professional boundaries that threaten behavioral health integration in primary care, this essay explores the thesis that such a philosophy exists in medicine's core purpose. Drawing on the work of Eric Cassell, a philosophy may be determined that melds the values, themes, and constructs of individual models for behavioral health integration in primary care toward a single, overriding purpose. Effecting such integration challenges current trends in medicine by refocusing medicine on its ethical core...
March 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316635/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-integrative-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Riya R Kanherkar, Susan E Stair, Naina Bhatia-Dey, Paul J Mills, Deepak Chopra, Antonei B Csoka
Since time immemorial humans have utilized natural products and therapies for their healing properties. Even now, in the age of genomics and on the cusp of regenerative medicine, the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches represents a popular branch of health care. Furthermore, there is a trend towards a unified medical philosophy referred to as Integrative Medicine (IM) that represents the convergence of CAM and conventional medicine. The IM model not only considers the holistic perspective of the physiological components of the individual, but also includes psychological and mind-body aspects...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292291/traditional-arabic-islamic-medicine-validation-and-empirical-assessment-of-a-conceptual-model-in-qatar
#20
Sara N AlRawi, Amal Khidir, Maha S Elnashar, Huda A Abdelrahim, Amal K Killawi, Maya M Hammoud, Michael D Fetters
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates traditional medicine is no longer only used for the healthcare of the poor, its prevalence is also increasing in countries where allopathic medicine is predominant in the healthcare system. While these healing practices have been utilized for thousands of years in the Arabian Gulf, only recently has a theoretical model been developed illustrating the linkages and components of such practices articulated as Traditional Arabic & Islamic Medicine (TAIM). Despite previous theoretical work presenting development of the TAIM model, empirical support has been lacking...
March 14, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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