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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911318/generalized-information-theory-meets-human-cognition-introducing-a-unified-framework-to-model-uncertainty-and-information-search
#1
Vincenzo Crupi, Jonathan D Nelson, Björn Meder, Gustavo Cevolani, Katya Tentori
Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people's goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the reduction thereof...
June 17, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899281/integrative-approaches-in-pediatric-palliative-care
#2
Kate Shafto, Suzanne Gouda, Kris Catrine, Melanie L Brown
Pediatric palliative care is a field which focuses on caring for and treating the symptoms and distress typically associated with life-limiting illness. Integrative medicine is supported by evidence and aims to heal the whole person, including all aspects of one’s lifestyle. Therapies offered by integrative medicine often empower patients and families, allowing for a sense of control. This review addresses the merging of integrative medicine philosophy and modalities with the care given to children with life-limiting illness...
June 13, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895411/should-phenomenological-approaches-to-illness-be-wary-of-naturalism
#3
Juliette Ferry-Danini
In some quarters within philosophy of medicine, more particularly in the phenomenological approaches, naturalism is looked upon with suspicion. This paper argues, first, that it is necessary to distinguish between two expressions of this attitude towards naturalism: phenomenological approaches to illness disagree with naturalism regarding various theoretical claims and they disapprove of naturalism on an ethical level. Second, this paper argues that both the disagreement with and the disapproval of naturalism are to a large extent confused...
June 9, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890675/accreditation-standard-guideline-initiative-for-tai-chi-and-qigong-instructors-and-training-institutions
#4
Byeongsang Oh, Albert Yeung, Penelope Klein, Linda Larkey, Carolyn Ee, Chris Zaslawski, Tish Knobf, Peter Payne, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Richard Lee, Whanseok Choi, Mison Chun, Massimo Bonucci, Hanne-Doris Lang, Nick Pavlakis, Fran Boyle, Stephen Clarke, Michael Back, Peiying Yang, Yulong Wei, Xinfeng Guo, Chi-Hsiu D Weng, Michael R Irwin, Aymen A Elfiky, David Rosenthal
Evidence of the health and wellbeing benefits of Tai Chi and Qigong (TQ) have emerged in the past two decades, but TQ is underutilized in modern health care in Western countries due to lack of promotion and the availability of professionally qualified TQ instructors. To date, there are no government regulations for TQ instructors or for training institutions in China and Western countries, even though TQ is considered to be a part of Traditional Chinese medicine that has the potential to manage many chronic diseases...
June 8, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871680/leadership-in-palliative-medicine-moral-ethical-and-educational
#5
Nathan Emmerich
BACKGROUND: Making particular use of Shale's analysis, this paper discusses the notion of leadership in the context of palliative medicine. Whilst offering a critical perspective, I build on the philosophy of palliative care offered by Randall and Downie and suggest that the normative structure of this medical speciality has certain distinctive features, particularly when compared to that of medicine more generally. I discuss this in terms of palliative medicine's distinctive morality or ethos, albeit one that should still be seen in terms of medical morality or the ethos of medicine...
June 5, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29813045/-inadequacy-of-the-paradigms-of-special-education-to-subjects-with-severe-and-profound-grade-intellectual-disability-the-need-for-pragmatic-realism-in-psychiatry-and-special-pedagogy
#6
REVIEW
Kasper Sipowicz, Hanna Żuraw, Andrzej Witusik, Łukasz Mokros, Edyta Najbert, Tadeusz Pietras
People with severe and profound grade disabilities are the subject of interest in psychiatry, clinical psychology and special pedagogy. Unfortunately, the paradigmatic approach to special education based on postmodern philosophy is in contrast to the biomedical approach that is based on the positivist and Cartesian models. The paper is an attempt to systematize the similarities and differences between the humanistic approach and the modern biomedical model, which, despite the apparent differences, do not differ so much from each other...
May 25, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799154/what-is-the-guidelines-challenge-the-causehealth-perspective
#7
Rani Lill Anjum
This paper is an introduction to the conference, The Guidelines Challenge, held in Oxford in October 2017. My aim is to explain our motivation for organising this conference, as part of the research project Causation, Complexity, and Evidence in Health Sciences (CauseHealth). Depending on the professional starting point, the guidelines challenge can be interpreted in a number of ways. Our idea with this conference was to discuss guidelines from 3 overarching perspectives: practice, policy, and philosophy. In particular, we wanted to discuss some of the challenges that face anyone developing and implementing clinical guidelines in the evidence-based era of medicine...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775226/moxibustion-for-cephalic-version-of-breech-presentation
#9
REVIEW
Judith M Schlaeger, Cynthia L Stoffel, Jeanie L Bussell, Hui Yan Cai, Miho Takayama, Hiroyoshi Yajima, Nobuari Takakura
Moxibustion, a form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is the burning of the herb moxa (Folium Artemisiae argyi or mugwort) over acupuncture points. It is often used in China to facilitate cephalic version of breech presentation. This article reviews the history, philosophy, therapeutic use, possible mechanisms of action, and literature pertaining to its use for this indication. For moxibustion, moxa can be rolled into stick form, placed directly on the skin, or placed on an acupuncture needle and ignited to warm acupuncture points...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766035/using-the-teaching-perspectives-inventory-as-an-introduction-to-a-residents-as-teachers-curriculum
#10
Amy C Robertson, Leslie C Fowler, Amy Miller Juve
Objective: The Anesthesiology Milestone Project includes a milestone for assessing the teaching attributes of residents within the competency of Practice-based Learning and Improvement. We intend to develop a Residents-as-Teachers educational curriculum to assist our residents in successfully achieving this milestone. The goal of this study is to identify the specific teaching perspectives and intentions of our residents and to promote residents' comprehension of their own teaching philosophy...
October 2017: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765565/the-rediscovery-of-the-social-side-of-medicine-philosophy-and-value-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf
#11
EDITORIAL
Wolfgang Seger
Medicine is at risk of sliding into a sole repair service for the malfunction of organs. But the patients' hope and confidence towards doctors practicing this repair work go far beyond that: after acute medical treatment many patients suffer from chronic impairments due to the natural course of the disease or as a result of medical interventions. Despite resulting handicaps, patients aim at participating in family and social life, retaining a workplace and receiving support to remain a valued member of the family and the community...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726749/international-variation-in-programmes-for-assessment-of-children-s-neurodevelopment-in-the-community-understanding-disparate-approaches-to-evaluation-of-motor-social-emotional-behavioural-and-cognitive-function
#12
Philip Wilson, Rachael Wood, Kirsten Lykke, Anette Hauskov Graungaard, Ruth Kirk Ertmann, Merethe Kirstine Andersen, Ole Rikard Haavet, Per Lagerløv, Eirik Abildsnes, Mina P Dahli, Marjukka Mäkelä, Aleksi Varinen, Merja Hietanen
BACKGROUND: Few areas of medicine demonstrate such international divergence as child development screening and surveillance. Many countries have nationally mandated surveillance policies, but the content of programmes and mechanisms for delivery vary enormously. The cost of programmes is substantial but no economic evaluations have been carried out. We have critically examined the history, underlying philosophy, content and delivery of programmes for child development assessment in five countries with comprehensive publicly funded health services (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Scotland and Sweden)...
May 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693563/rationalism-empiricism-and-evidence-based-medicine-a-call-for-a-new-galenic-synthesis
#13
William M Webb
Thirty years after the rise of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement, formal training in philosophy remains poorly represented among medical students and their educators. In this paper, I argue that EBM’s reception in this context has resulted in a privileging of empiricism over rationalism in clinical reasoning with unintended consequences for medical practice. After a limited review of the history of medical epistemology, I argue that a solution to this problem can be found in the method of the 2nd-century Roman physician Galen, who brought empiricism and rationalism together in a synthesis anticipating the scientific method...
April 25, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535997/a-discussion-of-virtual-reality-as-a-new-tool-for-training-healthcare-professionals
#14
Caroline Fertleman, Phoebe Aubugeau-Williams, Carmel Sher, Ai-Nee Lim, Sophie Lumley, Sylvie Delacroix, Xueni Pan
Background: Virtual reality technology is an exciting and emerging field with vast applications. Our study sets out the viewpoint that virtual reality software could be a new focus of direction in the development of training tools in medical education. We carried out a panel discussion at the Center for Behavior Change 3rd Annual Conference, prompted by the study, "The Responses of Medical General Practitioners to Unreasonable Patient Demand for Antibiotics--A Study of Medical Ethics Using Immersive Virtual Reality" (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502787/suffering-the-darker-side-of-ageing
#15
Chris Gilleard
Much of the literature on ageing is presaged upon a model of advocacy that seeks to combat what is seen as the negative stereotyping of old age and old people. One consequence is that ageing studies has difficulty in confronting the darker side of ageing except in so far as age associated disability and distress can be attributed to extrinsic disadvantage, such as low income, poor housing and inadequate services. The pain and suffering associated with age itself tend to be neglected as subject experiences. This paper seeks to shed some light on these topics, considered under the general heading of 'suffering'...
March 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482298/the-application-of-philosophy-and-history-of-medicine-in-current-medical-practice-the-nephrotic-syndrome-example
#16
Maria Kalientzidou, Athanasios A Diamandopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473367/-the-relationship-between-acupuncture-moxibustion-theory-of-dou-hanqing-and-neo-confucianism
#17
Baojin Li, Longxiang Huang
For the construction factors of acupuncture-moxibustion theory of DOU Hanqing , a doctor in Jin-Yuan Dynasty, we studied his life, acupuncture-moxibustion theory and culture background in the History of Medicine and Philosophy of Science & Technology. It was found that the major source of DOU Hanqing ' s Confucianism was the CHENG - ZHU Neo-Confucianism. The data show that Neo-Confucianism played an important role in the enrichment of his human nature, spirit, moral cultivation and political talent, making him a scholar in the Jin - Yuan dynasty, also shaping his medical ethics, medical skill and acupuncture-moxibustion theory...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429022/a-new-path-for-humanistic-medicine
#18
Juliette Ferry-Danini
According to recent approaches in the philosophy of medicine, biomedicine should be replaced or complemented by a humanistic medical model. Two humanistic approaches, narrative medicine and the phenomenology of medicine, have grown particularly popular in recent decades. This paper first suggests that these humanistic criticisms of biomedicine are insufficient. A central problem is that both approaches seem to offer a straw man definition of biomedicine. It then argues that the subsequent definition of humanism found in these approaches is problematically reduced to a compassionate or psychological understanding...
February 2018: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416207/contribution-of-arabic-medicine-and-pharmacy-to-the-development-of-health-care-protection-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina-the-second-part
#19
Izet Masic
After the collapse of the Arab rule, the Arab territorial expanses and cultural heritage were taken over by the Turks. Although scientific progress in the Turkish period slowed down due to numerous unfavorable political-economic and other circumstances. Thanks to the Turks, Arabic culture and useful Islamic principles expanded to the territory of our homeland of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Significant role in the transfer of Arabic pharmaceutical knowledge was also attributed to the Sephardic Jews who, with their arrival, continued to perform their attar activities, which were largely based on Arab achievements...
December 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408799/the-case-for-a-distinctive-philosophy-of-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#20
Hutan Ashrafian
What is an organ and what is an organ system? According to the 'standard' hierarchical model of physiology, each living organism comprises of organ systems including those that offer sensory and control functions (nervous system), energy accumulation (gastrointestinal system), internal dissipation (circulatory system) and mobility (musculoskeletal system). Each organ system in turn is comprised of individual organs. This taxonomy has conceptual flaws as not every organ has a single organ system function but may participate in a myriad of physiological functions...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
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