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Philosophy of medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730671/many-faces-of-rationality-implications-of-the-great-rationality-debate-for-clinical-decision-making
#1
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam
Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699416/interview-with-david-tauben-university-of-washington-chief-of-the-division-of-pain-medicine
#2
David Tauben
Dr Tauben is Clinical Professor jointly appointed in the Departments of Medicine and Anesthesia & Pain Medicine, and is the Hughes M & Katherine G Blake Endowed Professor, board certified in both Internal Medicine and Pain Medicine. He is also University of Washington (UW) Director of Medical Student and Resident Education in Pain Medicine, and Medical Director of UW TelePain, a tele-video-conferencing program intended to provide innovative pain education and consultative support to a five-state northwest regional primary care providers...
July 12, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691151/integrated-and-global-pseudotargeted-metabolomics-strategy-applied-to-screening-for-quality-control-markers-of-citrus-tcms
#3
Yisong Shu, Zhenli Liu, Siyu Zhao, Zhiqian Song, Dan He, Menglei Wang, Honglian Zeng, Cheng Lu, Aiping Lu, Yuanyan Liu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) exerts its therapeutic effect in a holistic fashion with the synergistic function of multiple characteristic constituents. The holism philosophy of TCM is coincident with global and systematic theories of metabolomics. The proposed pseudotargeted metabolomics methodologies were employed for the establishment of reliable quality control markers for use in the screening strategy of TCMs. Pseudotargeted metabolomics integrates the advantages of both targeted and untargeted methods...
July 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670279/innovating-chinese-herbal-medicine-from-traditional-health-practice-to-scientific-drug-discovery
#4
Shuo Gu, Jianfeng Pei
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669128/phenomenology-of-pregnancy-and-the-ethics-of-abortion
#5
Fredrik Svenaeus
In this article I investigate the ways in which phenomenology could guide our views on the rights and/or wrongs of abortion. To my knowledge very few phenomenologists have directed their attention toward this issue, although quite a few have strived to better understand and articulate the strongly related themes of pregnancy and birth, most often in the context of feminist philosophy. After introducing the ethical and political contemporary debate concerning abortion, I introduce phenomenology in the context of medicine and the way phenomenologists have understood the human body to be lived and experienced by its owner...
July 1, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660798/the-philosophy-of-unity-of-knowledge-and-action-in-interventional-neuroradiology-teaching
#6
Xianli Lv, Zhongxue Wu
Despite the continuing emphasis on the importance of clinical skills, these skills do not appear to be improving and may actually be declining. The 'unity of knowledge and action' is a medicine directed precisely at this disease. The 'unity of knowledge and action' helps to learn from failure and successes, learn from mistakes of predecessors and institute a behaviour that prevents repetition of these mistakes.
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660393/re-evaluating-concepts-of-biological-function-in-clinical-medicine-towards-a-new-naturalistic-theory-of-disease
#7
Benjamin Chin-Yee, Ross E G Upshur
Naturalistic theories of disease appeal to concepts of biological function, and use the notion of dysfunction as the basis of their definitions. Debates in the philosophy of biology demonstrate how attributing functions in organisms and establishing the function-dysfunction distinction is by no means straightforward. This problematization of functional ascription has undermined naturalistic theories and led some authors to abandon the concept of dysfunction, favoring instead definitions based in normative criteria or phenomenological approaches...
June 28, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642990/how-health-humanities-will-save-the-life-of-the-humanities
#8
Craig M Klugman
In the last decade, the humanities have been shrinking in number of students, percent of faculty, and in number of degrees awarded. Humanities students also earn lower salaries than their STEM-prepared peers. At the same time, the health humanities have been in ascendance over the last fifteen years. The number of majors, minors and certificates has increased 266% in that time frame, attracting large numbers of students and preparing future patients, lay caregivers, and health care providers to interact with a complicated and dehumanized medical system...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595441/healing-spirituality-and-integrative-medicine
#9
David M Steinhorn, Jana Din, Angela Johnson
Spirituality plays a prominent role in the lives of most palliative patients whether or not they formally adhere to a specific religion and belief. As a result, the palliative care team is frequently called upon to support families who are experiencing their "dark night of the soul" and struggling to make sense of their lives during a healthcare crisis. While conventional religious practices provide a source of comfort and guidance for many of our patients, a significant number of our patients do not have a strong religious community to which to turn...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580824/addressing-health-workforce-inequities-in-the-mindanao-regions-of-the-philippines-tracer-study-of-graduates-from-a-socially-accountable-community-engaged-medical-school-and-graduates-from-a-conventional-medical-school
#10
Servando 'Ben' Halili, Fortunato Cristobal, Torres Woolley, Simone J Ross, Carole Reeve, A-J Neusy
Developing and retaining a high-quality medical workforce in low-resource countries is a worldwide challenge. The Filipino Ateneo de Zamboanga University-School of Medicine (ADZU-SOM) has adopted a strong focus on socially accountable health professional education (SAHPE) in order to address the shortage of physicians across rural and urban communities in the Western Mindanao region. A cross-sectional survey of graduates from two Philippines medical schools: ADZU-SOM in the Mindanao region and a medical school with a more conventional curriculum, found ADZU-SOM graduates were more likely to have joined the medical profession due to a desire to help others (p = 0...
June 5, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580556/-the-application-of-body-mind-spirit-integrated-psychotherapy-in-nursing-practice
#11
Fei-Hsiu Hsiao
Body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy reflects the core value of nursing by emphasizing the inseparable concept of body, mind, and spirit and caring for the holistic needs of the patient. Body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy was developed based on Western psychotherapy (positive psychology and forgiveness therapy), traditional Chinese medicine, and the Eastern philosophies of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. The present paper describes the holistic concepts that underpin this therapeutic approach...
June 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553610/diabetes-destiny-in-our-hands-achieving-metabolic-karma
#12
Sanjay Kalra, Jignesh Ved, Manash P Baruah
Karma is the ancient Indian philosophy of cause and effect, which implies that an individual's intentions, and actions, both have consequences. None can escape the consequences of one's actions. Applying the principle of karma to medicine and healthcare, the significance of optimal and timely interventions at various stages of disease, may be realized. A holistic approach to metabolic control in diabetes translates into improved clinical outcomes, as evident from the result of STENO-2, EMPA-REG OUTCOME, or LEADER trials...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499043/bioethics-and-transhumanism
#13
Allen Porter
Transhumanism is a "technoprogressive" socio-political and intellectual movement that advocates for the use of technology in order to transform the human organism radically, with the ultimate goal of becoming "posthuman." To this end, transhumanists focus on and encourage the use of new and emerging technologies, such as genetic engineering and brain-machine interfaces. In support of their vision for humanity, and as a way of reassuring those "bioconservatives" who may balk at the radical nature of that vision, transhumanists claim common ground with a number of esteemed thinkers and traditions, from the ancient philosophy of Plato and Aristotle to the postmodern philosophy of Nietzsche...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475734/biological-criteria-of-disease-four-ways-of-going-wrong
#14
John Matthewson, Paul E Griffiths
We defend a view of the distinction between the normal and the pathological according to which that distinction has an objective, biological component. We accept that there is a normative component to the concept of disease, especially as applied to human beings. Nevertheless, an organism cannot be in a pathological state unless something has gone wrong for that organism from a purely biological point of view. Biology, we argue, recognises two sources of biological normativity, which jointly generate four "ways of going wrong" from a biological perspective...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468023/islamic-civilization-in-spain-a-magnificient-example-of-interaction-and-unity-of-religion-and-science
#15
Safvet Halilović
Islam and its followers had created a civilization that played very important role on the world stage for more than a thousand years. One of the most important specific qualities of the Islamic civilization is that it is a well-balanced civilization that brought together science and faith, struck a balance between spirit and matter and did not separate this world from the Hereafter. This is what distinguishes the Islamic civilization from other civilizations which attach primary importance to the material aspect of life, physical needs and human instincts, and attach greater attention to this world by striving to instantly satisfy desires of the flesh, without finding a proper place for God and the Hereafter in their philosophies and education systems...
April 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462124/the-quantum-universe-philosophical-foundations-and-oriental-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Menas C Kafatos, Keun-Hang Yang
The existence of universal principles in both science and medicine implies that one can explore their common applicability. Here we explore what we have learned from quantum mechanics, phenomena such as entanglement and nonlocality, the role of participation of the observer, and how these may apply to oriental medicine. The universal principles of integrated polarity, recursion, and creative interactivity apply to all levels of existence and all human activities, including healing and medicine. This review examines the possibility that what we have learned from quantum mechanics may provide clues to better understand the operational principles of oriental medicine in an integrated way...
December 2016: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458331/preliminary-thoughts-on-research-in-medical-humanities
#17
Xiaojing Yun, Jiawei Guo, Haihong Qian
Medical humanities (MH) is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history, and religion), social sciences (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, and health geography), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. Studies of MH should not be limited to theoretical discussions. Research results must be translated into use of methodologies to formulate medical policies, guide clinical practices, and help resolve physical or mental problems...
April 29, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440719/a-case-based-medical-curriculum-for-the-21st-century-the-use-of-innovative-approaches-in-designing-and-developing-a-case-on-mental-health
#18
Athanasios Hassoulas, Elizabeth Forty, Mathew Hoskins, James Walters, Stephen Riley
The introduction of case-based learning (CBL) by the School of Medicine at Cardiff University has encouraged innovation in medical teaching and learning. During years one and two of the modernized MBBCh program, students complete 17 cases as part of the newly developed C21 curriculum that emphasizes a patient-oriented and student-centered approach to learning. The mental health case, which is presented in year 2, incorporates a number of novel teaching resources that aim to enhance the students' learning experience and to further reinforce the patient-oriented and community-based philosophy of C21...
May 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439821/epigenesis-and-the-rationality-of-nature-in-william-harvey-and-margaret-cavendish
#19
Benjamin Goldberg
The generation of animals was a difficult phenomenon to explain in the seventeenth century, having long been a problem in natural philosophy, theology, and medicine. In this paper, I explore how generation, understood as epigenesis, was directly related to an idea of rational nature. I examine epigenesis-the idea that the embryo was constructed part-by-part, over time-in the work of two seemingly dissimilar English philosophers: William Harvey, an eclectic Aristotelian, and Margaret Cavendish, a radical materialist...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438278/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-cam-among-australian-hospital-based-nurses-knowledge-attitude-personal-and-professional-use-reasons-for-use-cam-referrals-and-socio-demographic-predictors-of-cam-users
#20
Seyed Afshin Shorofi, Paul Arbon
OBJECTIVE: This study was intended to examine CAM among Australian hospital-based nurses, identifying their knowledge, attitude, personal and professional use, reasons for use, CAM referrals, and socio-demographic predictors of CAM users. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nurses holding a qualification in nursing and working in surgical wards were included using a convenience sampling technique. A self-complete questionnaire was developed to achieve the aims of the study. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were calculated to describe and analyse data...
May 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
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