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Claudia Kathe, Thomas Haynes Hutson, Stephen Brendan McMahon, Lawrence David Falcon Moon
Brain and spinal injury reduce mobility and often impair sensorimotor processing in the spinal cord leading to spasticity. Here, we establish that complete transection of corticospinal pathways in the pyramids impairs locomotion and leads to increased spasms and excessive mono- and polysynaptic low threshold spinal reflexes in rats. Treatment of affected forelimb muscles with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding human Neurotrophin-3 at a clinically-feasible time-point after injury reduced spasticity...
October 19, 2016: ELife
Mona Alilet, Julien Behr, Jean-Philippe Nueffer, Benoit Barbier-Brion, Sébastien Aubry
: The subscapularis (SSC) muscle is the most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles, and plays an important role in shoulder motion and stabilization. SSC tendon tear is quite uncommon, compared to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, and, most of the time, part of a large rupture of the rotator cuff. Various complementary imaging techniques can be used to obtain an accurate diagnosis of SSC tendon lesions, as well as their extension and muscular impact. Pre-operative diagnosis by imaging is a key issue, since a lesion of the SSC tendon impacts on treatment, surgical approach, and post-operative functional prognosis of rotator cuff injuries...
October 17, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Shiromani Janki, Evalyn E A P Mulder, Jan N M IJzermans, T C Khe Tran
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, surgeons appear to be experiencing more occupational musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study is to investigate the current frequency and effects of occupational musculoskeletal injuries on work absence. METHODS: An online questionnaire was conducted among all surgeons affiliated to the Dutch Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery, and Surgical Oncology. In addition, this survey was conducted among surgeons, gynaecologists, and urologists of one cluster of training hospitals in the Netherlands...
October 17, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Y M Zheng, W Z Li, Z X Wang, W Zhang, H Lv, J X Xiao, Y Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To report thigh muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests of four Chinese patients with dystrophinopathy with edema changes in adductor longus muscles that mimics adductor enthesopathy. METHODS: Four boys, who were from four unrelated families and aged from 5 to 11 years, were investigated because of the clinical manifestations including myalgia or muscle weakness or the incidental findings of elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and were diagnosed with dystrophinopathy by gene test of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Hung-Yen Chin, Li-Hsuan Chiu, Kuan-Cheng Lin, Chi-Hsin Chiang, Chin-Jung Wang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the alteration in the cellular dynamics of the urethral tissue after a simulated birth trauma in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 B6 mice received vaginal distention treatment, and four untreated mice were used as controls. Specimens were collected every 24 hours after the injury for 9 consecutive days and examined using immunofluorescent staining for cell markers including c-kit, smooth muscle actin (SMA), and vimentin...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Angelina Freitas Siqueira, Amilton Vieira, Gracielle Vieira Ramos, Rita de Cássia Marqueti, Tania de Fátima Salvini, Gustavo Orione Puntel, Joao Luiz Quagliotti Durigan
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of multiple cryotherapy applications after muscle injury on markers of oxidative stress. METHODS: Following cryolesion-induced skeletal muscle injury in rats, ice was applied at the injured site for 30 minutes, three times per day, on the day of injury, and for 2 days after injury. To determine the effect of the cryotherapy treatment on markers of oxidative stress, biochemical analyses were performed 3, 7, and 14 days after injury...
October 18, 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Merritt D Kinon, Rani Nasser, Jonathan Nakhla, Rupen Desai, Jessica R Moreno, Reza Yassari, Carlos A Bagley
Pediatric emergency physicians must have a high clinical suspicion for atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS), particularly when a child presents with neck pain and an abnormal head posture without the ability to return to a neutral position. As shown in the neurosurgical literature, timely diagnosis and swift initiation of treatment have a greater chance of treatment success for the patient. However, timely treatment is complicated because torticollis can result from a variety of maladies, including: congenital abnormalities involving the C1-C2 joint or the surrounding supporting muscles and ligaments, central nervous system abnormalities, obstetric palsies from brachial plexus injuries, clavicle fractures, head and neck surgery, and infection...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Paulo Domingos Ribeiro-Junior, Ricardo Alexandre Galdioli Senko, Gabriel Cury Batista Mendes, Fernando Gianzanti Peres
Facial nerve has great functional and aesthetic importance to the face, and damage to its structure can lead to major complications. This article reports a clinical case of neuroanastomosis of the facial nerve after facial trauma, describing surgical procedure and postoperative follow-up. A trauma patient with extensive injury cut in right mandibular body causing neurotmesis of the VIIth cranial nerve and mandibular angle fracture right side was treated. During surgical exploration, the nerve segments were identified and a neuroanastomosis was performed using nylon 10-0, after reduction and internal fixation of the mandibular fracture...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Ling Xin, Li Qian Jun, Xu Li Hua, Zhu Hong, Chen Tian Bao, Tang Jin Hai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Complications are important determining factors for safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for gastric heterotopic pancreas (HP). This study investigated whether endoscopic color Doppler ultrasonography (ECDUS) could be used to predict the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of ESD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 52 patients with heterotopic pancreas of the gastric antrum who underwent ECDUS before ESD. ECDUS was used to evaluate the submucosal vascular structure and the location of HP in gastric wall...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
E K Greska, N Cortes, S I Ringleb, J A Onate, B L Van Lunen
Previous studies have shown conflicting information regarding leg dominance as an etiological factor for the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. It remains unclear if lower extremity neuromechanical limb asymmetries exist in experienced athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower extremity neuromechanical effects of leg dominance in female collegiate soccer athletes during an unanticipated side-step cutting task. Twenty female collegiate soccer players completed an unanticipated side-step cutting task, using their dominant and non-dominant legs...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Naruto Yoshida, Shun Kunugi, Sonoko Mashimo, Yoshihiro Okuma, Akihiko Masunari, Shogo Miyazaki, Tatsuya Hisajima, Shumpei Miyakawa
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity. METHODS: Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity in individuals performing cutting manoeuvres involving either rearfoot strikes (RFS) or forefoot strikes (FFS). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to calculate changes in knee angles, during cutting, and to determine the relationship between muscle activity and knee joint angle...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Weifeng Luo, Christy M Guth, Olukemi Jolayemi, Craig L Duvall, Colleen Marie Brophy, Joyce Cheung-Flynn
Vascular stretch injury is associated with blunt trauma, vascular surgical procedures, and harvest of human saphenous vein for use in vascular bypass grafting. A model of subfailure overstretch in rat abdominal aorta was developed to characterize surgical vascular stretch injury. Longitudinal stretch of rat aorta was characterized ex vivo. Stretch to the haptic endpoint, where the tissues would no longer lengthen, occurred at twice the resting length. The stress produced at this length was greater than physiologic mechanical forces but well below the level of mechanical disruption...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Aris Koryllos, Astrid Althaus, Marcel Poels, Robin Joppich, Rolf Lefering, Frank Wappler, Wolfram Windisch, Corinna Ludwig, Erich Stoelben
BACKGROUND: Thoracotomy leads to chronic neuropathic pain in up to 50% of patients and is responsible for an impaired quality of life. Intercostal nerve injury has been suggested to be responsible for this pain. In the present study the impact of paravertebral intercostal neurectomy on post thoracotomy pain was assessed. METHODS: In this single center parallel-group randomized controlled trial patients underwent muscle sparing anterolateral thoracotomy and anatomical lung resection for lung cancer...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Abdurrahman Emir, Yıldıray Kalkan, Habib Bostan
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the histopathological effects of metamizole sodium (MS) on the sciatic nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed using 48 adult male Wistar albino rats. Ten groups were constituted with 6 rats in each group. MS injection into the sciatic nerve (group 1), MS injection into the muscle [group 3 (50 mg/kg, 0.4 ml) and group 5 (50 mg/kg, 0.8 ml)], MS injection into the muscle cavity in the vicinity of the sciatic nerve [group 2 (50 mg/kg, 0...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Kristen Jijelava, Hongvan Le, Jack Parker, Jeffrey Yee
BACKGROUND: Ocular chemical injuries due to accidental exposure or application of cyanoacrylate, commonly known as "superglue," have increased over the past 30 years. However, current treatment options to relieve eyelid adhesions due to cyanoacrylate applications are difficult to successfully execute and can require sedation or general anesthesia. Here we describe a simple technique to release eyelid adhesions due to cyanoacrylate, or other adhesive agents, that can be successfully performed at bedside without sedation...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Athanasios Raikos, Thomas English, Omar Khalid Yousif, Mandeep Sandhu, Allan Stirling
PURPOSE: The great auricular point (GAP) marks the exit of the great auricular nerve at the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It is a key landmark for the identification of the spinal accessory nerve, and its intraoperative localization is vital to avoid neurological sequelae. This study delineates the topography and surface anatomy landmarks that used to localize the GAP. METHODS: Thirty cadaveric heminecks were dissected on a layer-by-layer approach...
October 15, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Alice Sabatino, Giuseppe Regolisti, Laura Bozzoli, Filippo Fani, Riccardo Antoniotti, Umberto Maggiore, Enrico Fiaccadori
MAIN PROBLEM: In patients with Acute Kidney Injury there is a lack of nutritional variables that can assess nutritional status, more specifically lean body mass (LBM) and skeletal muscle mass, at the individual level. In this clinical setting, ultrasound (US)) of the quadriceps femoris could represent a widely available, non-invasive, affordable, and reliable tool to evaluate skeletal muscle. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional observational study in adult critically ill patients with KDIGO stage 3 AKI on dialysis...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Shinichiro Hayashi, Ichiro Manabe, Yumi Suzuki, Frédéric Relaix, Yumiko Oishi
Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls various biological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. We show that Klf5 is also an essential mediator of skeletal muscle regeneration and myogenic differentiation. During muscle regeneration after injury (cardiotoxin injection), Klf5 was induced in the nuclei of differentiating myoblasts and newly formed myofibers expressing myogenin in vivo. Satellite cell-specific Klf5 deletion severely impaired muscle regeneration, and myotube formation was suppressed in Klf5-deleted cultured C2C12 myoblasts and satellite cells...
October 15, 2016: ELife
Kamol Wattanakrai, Nattawut Chiemchaisri, Penpun Wattanakrai
BACKGROUND: Blepharoplasty is a common aesthetic surgery performed worldwide. In Asians, too high eyelid folds after blepharoplasty cause an unsatisfactory aesthetic outcome that is difficult to correct. In this article, the authors propose surgical techniques to correct the high eyelid fold after blepharoplasty. METHODS: During a 4-year period, 213 secondary blepharoplasties were performed to correct high folds. Postoperative results were reviewed, graded, and analyzed...
October 14, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Brady K Huang, Eric Y Chang
OBJECTIVE: To describe infraspinatus tendon injuries with associated intramuscular edema in light of more recently elucidated anatomical knowledge. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed to identify MRI cases with infraspinatus tendon injury accompanied by muscle edema. MR images were reviewed to evaluate the location of the injury, to assess the degree of tendon retraction, and to assess for muscular changes. Clinical and surgical data were reviewed when available...
October 14, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
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