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Christopher L Camp, Andrea M Spiker, John M Zajac, Dave Pearson, Alec M Sinatro, Joshua S Dines, Anil S Ranawat, Struan H Coleman
INTRODUCTION: The relationship of hip range of motion (ROM) to shoulder, elbow, abdominal, and back injuries remains undefined. METHODS: We assessed hip ROM on players reporting to Major League Spring Training for an organization over six seasons (2010 to 2015). Hip ROM was correlated with player abdominal, back, shoulder, and elbow injury status for those seasons using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 258 player-seasons (129 pitchers and 129 position players) resulted in 20 back and 35 abdominal injuries across all players and 28 elbow and 25 shoulder injuries in pitchers...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Raed M Almannie, Waleed H Alkhamis
Rectus sheath hematoma is a collection of blood in the sheath of rectus abdominis muscle due to an injury of one of the epigastric vessels or the muscle itself. It is a rare condition that could be caused by the use of anticoagulant injections. We report a 60-year-old lady who received enoxaparin injection on the lower abdomen. Subsequently, she developed bladder perforation secondary to rectus sheath hematoma and was diagnosed using CT angiography scan. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and bleeding was controlled with bladder wall repair...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
M A Akulov, O R Orlova, T V Tabashnikova, V V Karnaukhov, A S Orlova
Surgical treatment of posterior cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle tumors is associated with a risk of facial nerve dysfunction. The causes for facial muscle paresis include nerve compression by the tumor, destruction of the nerve structure by the tumor growing from nerve fibers, nerve injury during surgical removal of the tumor, etc. The first 3 months after facial nerve injury are a potential therapeutic window for the use of botulinum toxin type A (BTA). During this period, the drug is introduced both in the healthy side to improve the facial symmetry at rest and during mimetic movements and in the affected side to induce drug-induced ptosis...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Alexandra DeJong, L Colby Mangum, Jacob Resch, Susan A Saliba
CONTEXT: Medial knee displacement (MKD) is a common risk factor for lower extremity injury and is related to altered gluteal muscle activity. Ultrasound imaging (USI) is a reliable means to explore mechanical muscle activity, however no information exists regarding USI of the gluteals during gait in a MKD population. OBJECTIVE: To determine differences in USI gluteal muscle activity during gait in individuals with and without MKD. DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Yoshihiko Satake, Yuji Tomori, Takuya Sawaizumi, Mitsuhiko Nanno, Norie Kodera, Shinro Takai
Medial epicondyle fractures of the humerus account for 11%-20% of all elbow injuries in children. Although intra-articular incarceration of the medial epicondyle occurs in 5%-18% of medial epicondyle fractures associated with an elbow dislocation, the mechanism of intrusion of the fracture fragment is unknown. We report a case of an irreducible elbow fracture and dislocation due to incarceration of the medial epicondyle fragment of the humerus, classified as a Watson-Jones type 3 fracture of the medial epicondyle, and present the mechanism of the intra-articular incarceration of the medial epicondyle fragment...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
JongEun Yim, Jerrold Petrofsky, Haneul Lee
Ankle and foot injuries are common among athletes and physically active individuals. The most common residual disability, ankle sprain, is characterized by instability along with postural sway. If the supporting structures around a joint become lax, posture stability and balance are also affected. Previous studies have examined muscle stiffness and elasticity and postural sway separately; however, the relationship between these factors is yet unknown. It is well known that the levels of sex hormones, especially estrogen, change in women over the phase of the menstrual cycle...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Molly K Lewis, Omar Ramos-Williams, Hasan M Syed, Theodore K Gregorius
CASE: A 9-year-old boy sustained intrasubstance tears of the rotator cuff and periscapular muscles due to a fall, resulting in scapular winging and severely decreased shoulder range of motion. Treatment consisted of a modified thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) with a shoulder immobilizer attachment (to reduce the scapula to the thoracic wall and hold the arm in 10° of abduction). The brace was worn for 8 weeks. The patient recovered full, pain-free shoulder function and range of motion, and returned to high-level athletics...
March 14, 2018: JBJS Case Connector
(no author information available yet)
Tetanus is an acute specific infection caused by obligate anaerobes, which is still a serious public health problem. Tetanus bacterium is an obligate anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in nature, which can exist in dust, soil, human or animal excrement. The bacteria invade the body primarily through the skin or mucosal wounds, and most commonly in trauma and burn patients, unclean newborns, and unsafe surgical instruments. Exotoxin produced by tetanus bacteria can cause temporary changes in the central nervous system, manifested as systemic skeletal muscle persistence and paroxysmal spasm, severe cases of laryngospasm, asphyxia, lung infections and organ failure, which is a very serious and potentially fatal disease...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Roger Fielding, Linda Riede, James P Lugo, Aouatef Bellamine
Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness...
March 13, 2018: Nutrients
Charlotte A Hall, Robert P Chilcott
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) describes the constriction and subsequent dilation of the pupil in response to light as a result of the antagonistic actions of the iris sphincter and dilator muscles. Since these muscles are innervated by the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, respectively, different parameters of the PLR can be used as indicators for either sympathetic or parasympathetic modulation. Thus, the PLR provides an important metric of autonomic nervous system function that has been exploited for a wide range of clinical applications...
March 13, 2018: Diagnostics
F Andrea Sass, Michael Fuchs, Matthias Pumberger, Sven Geissler, Georg N Duda, Carsten Perka, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek
Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Arnhild Bakken, Stephen Targett, Tone Bere, Cristiano Eirale, Abdulaziz Farooq, Andrea B Mosler, Johannes L Tol, Rod Whiteley, Karim M Khan, Roald Bahr
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity muscle strength tests are commonly used to screen for injury risk in professional soccer. However, there is limited evidence on the ability of such tests in predicting future injuries. PURPOSE: To examine the association between hip and thigh muscle strength and the risk of lower extremity injuries in professional male soccer players. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Professional male soccer players from 14 teams in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment at the beginning of the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Guan Yun Frances Wang, Xiang Qun Shi, Wenjia Wu, Maria Gueorguieva, Mu Yang, Ji Zhang
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a set of heterogeneous musculoskeletal conditions involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and/or the masticatory muscles. Up to 33% of the population has had at least one symptom of TMD with 5-10% of them requiring treatment. Common symptoms include limited jaw movement, joint sound, and pain in the orofacial area. Once TMD becomes chronic, it can be debilitating with comorbidities that greatly reduce one's overall quality of life. However, the underlying mechanism of TMD is unclear due to the multicausative nature of the disease...
March 12, 2018: Pain
Phillip M Mitchell, Cory A Collinge, David E O'Neill, Jesse E Bible, Hassan R Mir
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether sarcopenia is an independent predictor of mortality in geriatric acetabular fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: ACS Level I trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and forty-six patients over the age 60 with acetabular fractures treated at our institution over a 12-year period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was 1-year mortality, collected using the Social Security Death Index...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Patrick D Ganzer, Michael J Darrow, Eric C Meyers, Bleyda R Solorzano, Andrea D Ruiz, Nicole M Robertson, Katherine S Adcock, Justin T James, Han S Jeong, April M Becker, Mark P Goldberg, David T Pruitt, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Robert L Rennaker
Recovery from serious neurological injury requires substantial rewiring of neural circuits. Precisely-timed electrical stimulation could be used to restore corrective feedback mechanisms and promote adaptive plasticity after neurological insult, such as spinal cord injury (SCI) or stroke. This study provides the first evidence that closed-loop vagus nerve stimulation (CLV) based on the synaptic eligibility trace leads to dramatic recovery from the most common forms of SCI. The addition of CLV to rehabilitation promoted substantially more recovery of forelimb function compared to rehabilitation alone following chronic unilateral or bilateral cervical SCI in a rat model...
March 13, 2018: ELife
Ze-Wu Dong, Yu-Fang Yuan
Acute lung injury in children is a complication showing devastating disorders linked to fibrosis progression and inflammation response. Fibrosis and inflammation response are two markers for acute lung injury. Juglanin is a natural product mainly isolated from green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica, which isconsidered as the functional composition among a series of compounds. It exhibited effective role in various diseases by inhibiting inflammation response. In our study, the protective effects and anti-inflammatory activity of juglanin were investigated in mice and lung cells treated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to reveal the possible mechanism by which juglanin attenuates acute lung injury...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Carlos A Aguilar, Sarah M Greising, Alain Watts, Stephen M Goldman, Chelsea Peragallo, Christina Zook, Jacqueline Larouche, Benjamin T Corona
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable capacity to regenerate when injured, but when confronted with major traumatic injury resulting in volumetric muscle loss (VML), the regenerative process consistently fails. The loss of muscle tissue and function from VML injury has prompted development of a suite of therapeutic approaches but these strategies have proceeded without a comprehensive understanding of the molecular landscape that drives the injury response. Herein, we administered a VML injury in an established rodent model and monitored the evolution of the healing phenomenology over multiple time points using muscle function testing, histology, and expression profiling by RNA sequencing...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Deana Haralampieva, Souzan Salemi, Thomas Betzel, Ivana Dinulovic, Stefanie D Krämer, Roger Schibli, Tullio Sulser, Christoph Handschin, Simon M Ametamey, Daniel Eberli
While many groups demonstrated new muscle tissue formation after muscle precursor cell (MPC) injection, the capacity of these cells to heal muscle damage, for example, sphincter in stress urinary incontinence, in long-term is still limited. Therefore, the first goal of our project was to optimize the functional regenerative potential of hMPC by genetic modification to overexpress human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (hPGC-1 α ), key regulator of exercise-mediated adaptation...
2018: Stem Cells International
Kiley L Armstrong, Lisa M Lombardo, Kevin M Foglyano, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
BACKGROUND: The leading cause of injury for manual wheelchair users are tips and falls caused by unexpected destabilizing events encountered during everyday activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of automatically restoring seated stability to manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) via a threshold-based system to activate the hip and trunk muscles with electrical stimulation during potentially destabilizing events. METHODS: We detected and classified potentially destabilizing sudden stops and turns with a wheelchair-mounted wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU), and then applied neural stimulation to activate the appropriate muscles to resist trunk movement and restore seated stability...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Patrick J Buchanan, John A I Grossman, Andrew E Price, Chandan Reddy, Mustafa Chopan, Harvey Chim
BACKGROUND: Most brachial plexus birth injuries (BPBI) are caused by traction on the brachial plexus during a difficult delivery. Fortunately, the possibility of complete recovery from such an incident is relatively high, with only 10% to 30% of patients having prolonged and persistent disability. These patients have muscle imbalances and co-contractions typically localized around the shoulder and elbow. These imbalances and co-contractures cause abnormal motor performances and bone/joint deformities...
March 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
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