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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093634/valproic-acid-induces-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-expression-during-cortical-development
#1
Ki Chan Kim, Chang Soon Choi, Edson Luck T Gonzales, Darine Froy N Mabunga, Sung Hoon Lee, Se Jin Jeon, Ram Hwangbo, Minha Hong, Jong Hoon Ryu, Seol-Heui Han, Geon Ho Bahn, Chan Young Shin
The valproic acid (VPA)-induced animal model is one of the most widely utilized environmental risk factor models of autism. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains an insurmountable challenge among neurodevelopmental disorders due to its heterogeneity, unresolved pathological pathways and lack of treatment. We previously reported that VPA-exposed rats and cultured rat primary neurons have increased Pax6 expression during post-midterm embryonic development which led to the sequential upregulation of glutamatergic neuronal markers...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016394/mir-20b-106a-modulate-ngn2-gene-expression-during-neural-differentiation-of-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Haoyu Wang, Wenrui Ban, Tao Wang, Zhuo Li, Xiaoqian Dang
The aim of this study was to perform neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord (HUMSCs) and explore the role of miR-20b and miR-106a, which may regulate Neurogenin-2 (Ngn2) expression during the neural differentiation. HUMSCs were cultured and induced in vitro. The cells were stained for nestin and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) by immunofluorescence. The interactional binding sites between the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Ngn2 mRNA and miR-20b or miR-106a were predicted by bioinformatics and identified by a dual-luciferase assay...
December 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871128/synergistic-effect-of-bdnf-and-fgf2-in-efficient-generation-of-functional-dopaminergic-neurons-from-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Manisha Singh, Anupama Kakkar, Rinkey Sharma, O P Kharbanda, Nitika Monga, Manish Kumar, Shantanu Chowdhary, Balram Airan, Sujata Mohanty
To understand the process of neurogenesis, generation of functional dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is important. BDNF has been reported to be responsible for inducing neuronal maturation and functionality. Previously, we have reported the efficient generation of neurons from human bone marrow derived MSCs using FGF2 alone. We hypothesize that hMSCs from various tissues [(bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AD) and dental pulp (DP)], if treated with BDNF on 9(th) day of induction, alongwith FGF2 will generate functional DAergic neurons...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798684/differential-roles-of-environmental-enrichment-in-alzheimer-s-type-of-neurodegeneration-and-physiological-aging
#4
Vladimir V Salmin, Yulia K Komleva, Natalia V Kuvacheva, Andrey V Morgun, Elena D Khilazheva, Olga L Lopatina, Elena A Pozhilenkova, Konstantin A Shapovalov, Yulia A Uspenskaya, Alla B Salmina
Impairment of hippocampal adult neurogenesis in aging or degenerating brain is a well-known phenomenon caused by the shortage of brain stem cell pool, alterations in the local microenvironment within the neurogenic niches, or deregulation of stem cell development. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been proposed as a potent tool to restore brain functions, to prevent aging-associated neurodegeneration, and to cure neuronal deficits seen in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report our data on the effects of environmental enrichment on hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and neurosphere-forming capacity of hippocampal stem/progenitor cells in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743044/electrophysiological-and-gene-expression-characterization-of-the-ontogeny-of-nestin-expressing-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#5
Anupama Dey, Parisa Farzanehfar, Elena V Gazina, Tim D Aumann
The birth of new neurons, or neurogenesis, in the adult midbrain is important for progressing dopamine cell-replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease. Most studies suggest newborn cells remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia within the adult midbrain. However, some studies suggest nestin+neural precursor cells (NPCs) have a propensity to generate new neurons here. We sought to confirm this by administering tamoxifen to adult NesCreER(T2)/R26eYFP transgenic mice, which permanently labelled adult nestin-expressing cells and their progeny with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP)...
August 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500132/the-zinc-finger-e-box-binding-homeobox-1-zeb1-promotes-the-conversion-of-mouse-fibroblasts-into-functional-neurons
#6
Long Yan, Yue Li, Zixiao Shi, Xiaoyin Lu, Jiao Ma, Baoyang Hu, Jianwei Jiao, Hongmei Wang
The zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor Zeb1 plays a pivotal role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Numerous studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms by which Zeb1 contributes to this process. However, the functions of Zeb1 beyond the epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain largely elusive. Using a transdifferentiation system to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional neurons via the neuronal transcription factors achaete-scute family bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor1 (Ascl1), POU class 3 homeobox 2 (POU3F2/Brn2), and neurogenin 2 (Neurog2, Ngn2) (ABN), we found that Zeb1 was up-regulated during the early stages of transdifferentiation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363755/an-investigation-of-gene-expression-in-single-cells-derived-from-nestin-expressing-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain-in-vivo
#7
Parisa Farzanehfar, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Generation of new dopamine (DA) neurons in the adult midbrain is a controversial issue in development of better treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous research suggests Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) have a propensity to differentiate into neurons here, including DA neurons. In the present study we sought confirmation of this by studying gene expression in single Nestin-expressing cells and their progeny/ontogeny within the adult mouse midbrain. Cells were identified by administering a pulse of Tamoxifen to adult Nestin-CreER(T2)×R26eYFP transgenic mice...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131232/enriched-environment-and-mash1-transfection-affect-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-after-transplantation-into-the-adult-somatosensory-cortex
#8
Mitsunori D Arai, Bo Zhan, Atsuko Maruyama, Akiko Matsui-Harada, Kazuhiro Horinouchi, Shoji Komai
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is a promising therapeutic modality for various nervous-system disorders; however, poor survival and differentiation of the transplanted NSCs limit their therapeutic efficacy. This study elucidated the effect of additive rehabilitative therapy with enriched environment (EE) and of achaete-scute homolog 1 (Mash1) and neurogenin2 (Ngn2) transduction on the fate of NSCs (P28-P35) transplanted into the primary somatosensory cortex (PSC) of mice. NSCs transplanted into the PSC differentiated into neurons and astrocytes and exhibited typical excitatory and synaptic response in mice housed in standard cages or in the EE...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124402/knock-in-strategy-at-3-end-of-crx-gene-by-crispr-cas9-system-shows-the-gene-expression-profiles-during-human-photoreceptor-differentiation
#9
Kohei Homma, Sumiko Usui, Makoto Kaneda
Fluorescent reporter gene knock-in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines have been used to evaluate the efficiency of differentiation into specific cell lineages. Here, we report a knock-in strategy for the generation of human iPSC reporter lines in which a 2A peptide sequence and a red fluorescent protein (E2-Crimson) gene were inserted at the termination codon of the cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene, a photoreceptor-specific transcriptional factor gene. The knock-in iPSC lines were differentiated into fluorescence-expressing cells in 3D retinal differentiation culture, and the fluorescent cells also expressed Crx specifically in the nucleus...
March 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939218/a-multi-step-transcriptional-and-chromatin-state-cascade-underlies-motor-neuron-programming-from-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Silvia Velasco, Mahmoud M Ibrahim, Akshay Kakumanu, Görkem Garipler, Begüm Aydin, Mohamed Ahmed Al-Sayegh, Antje Hirsekorn, Farah Abdul-Rahman, Rahul Satija, Uwe Ohler, Shaun Mahony, Esteban O Mazzoni
Direct cell programming via overexpression of transcription factors (TFs) aims to control cell fate with the degree of precision needed for clinical applications. However, the regulatory steps involved in successful terminal cell fate programming remain obscure. We have investigated the underlying mechanisms by looking at gene expression, chromatin states, and TF binding during the uniquely efficient Ngn2, Isl1, and Lhx3 motor neuron programming pathway. Our analysis reveals a highly dynamic process in which Ngn2 and the Isl1/Lhx3 pair initially engage distinct regulatory regions...
February 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752082/inhibition-of-step61-ameliorates-deficits-in-mouse-and-hipsc-based-schizophrenia-models
#11
J Xu, B J Hartley, P Kurup, A Phillips, A Topol, M Xu, C Ononenyi, E Foscue, S-M Ho, T D Baguley, N Carty, C S Barros, U Müller, S Gupta, P Gochman, J Rapoport, J A Ellman, C Pittenger, B Aronow, A C Nairn, M W Nestor, P J Lombroso, K J Brennand
The brain-specific tyrosine phosphatase, STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase) is an important regulator of synaptic function. STEP normally opposes synaptic strengthening by increasing N-methyl D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) internalization through dephosphorylation of GluN2B and inactivation of the kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Fyn. Here we show that STEP61 is elevated in the cortex in the Nrg1(+/-) knockout mouse model of schizophrenia (SZ). Genetic reduction or pharmacological inhibition of STEP prevents the loss of NMDARs from synaptic membranes and reverses behavioral deficits in Nrg1(+/-) mice...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694906/crispr-cas9-targets-chicken-embryonic-somatic-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-and-generates-phenotypic-abnormalities
#12
Kwaku Dad Abu-Bonsrah, Dongcheng Zhang, Donald F Newgreen
Chickens are an invaluable model for studying human diseases, physiology and especially development, but have lagged in genetic applications. With the advent of Programmable Engineered Nucleases, genetic manipulation has become efficient, specific and rapid. Here, we show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit the chicken genome. We generated HIRA, TYRP1, DICER, MBD3, EZH2, and 6 other gene knockouts in two chicken cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, with no off-target effects detected. We also showed that very large deletions (>75 kb) could be achieved...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665307/peripheral-nerve-injury-induces-adult-brain-neurogenesis-and-remodelling
#13
Gabriel Rusanescu, Jianren Mao
Unilateral peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) has been widely used as a research model of human neuropathic pain. Recently, CCI has been shown to induce spinal cord adult neurogenesis, which may contribute to the chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity. Here, we show that CCI also induces rapid and profound asymmetrical anatomical rearrangements in the adult rodent cerebellum and pons. This remodelling occurs throughout the hindbrain, and in addition to regions involved in pain processing, also affects other sensory modalities...
February 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528403/bradykinin-promotes-neuron-generating-division-of-neural-progenitor-cells-through-erk-activation
#14
Micheli M Pillat, Claudiana Lameu, Cleber A Trujillo, Talita Glaser, Angélica R Cappellari, Priscilla D Negraes, Ana M O Battastini, Telma T Schwindt, Alysson R Muotri, Henning Ulrich
During brain development, cells proliferate, migrate and differentiate in highly accurate patterns. In this context, published results indicate that bradykinin functions in neural fate determination, favoring neurogenesis and migration. However, mechanisms underlying bradykinin function are yet to be explored. Our findings indicate a previously unidentified role for bradykinin action in inducing neuron-generating division in vitro and in vivo, given that bradykinin lengthened the G1-phase of the neural progenitor cells (NPC) cycle and increased TIS21 (also known as PC3 and BTG2) expression in hippocampus from newborn mice...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513680/effects-of-simazine-exposure-on-neuronal-development-related-factors-in-mn9d-cells
#15
Jia Yu, Xueting Li, Junwei Yang, Yanping Wu, Baixiang Li
BACKGROUND Simazine is a triazine herbicide used worldwide in both agricultural and non-agricultural fields that is frequently detected in surface water and groundwater. Due to its widespread use, an increasing amount of research has focused on the potentially serious environmental and health risks. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used Western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR to analyze the effects of simazine on dopamine neuronal development-related factors in MN9D dopaminergic cells. RESULTS The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA was significantly increased after treatment with 300 and 600 μmol L-1 simazine after 24 and 48 h...
August 11, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27425621/iterative-role-of-notch-signaling-in-spinal-motor-neuron-diversification
#16
G Christopher Tan, Esteban O Mazzoni, Hynek Wichterle
The motor neuron progenitor domain in the ventral spinal cord gives rise to multiple subtypes of motor neurons and glial cells. Here, we examine whether progenitors found in this domain are multipotent and which signals contribute to their cell-type-specific differentiation. Using an in vitro neural differentiation model, we demonstrate that motor neuron progenitor differentiation is iteratively controlled by Notch signaling. First, Notch controls the timing of motor neuron genesis by repressing Neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) and maintaining Olig2-positive progenitors in a proliferative state...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186309/distribution-of-pancreatic-b-cell-imaging-agent-99m-tc-dtpa-ngn2-in-the-body-and-animal-experimental-research-on-pancreatic-b-cell-functional-imaging
#17
Zhi-Hua Liu, Ying Xie, Jun Tang, Chun-Feng Liu
PURPOSE: To explore the feasibility of the application of (99m)Tc-DTPA-Nateglinide as a nuclear medicine imaging agent for evaluating pancreatic B cell function. METHODS: (1) Distribution of the experiment: Forty-two mice were selected and divided into seven groups. Each mice was injected with 3.7 MBq (100 μCi) of (99m)Tc-DTPA-NGN2 from the vena caudalis and was sacrificed by bloodletting at five minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, two hours, four hours and six hours, respectively...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147976/dopaminergic-neuronal-differentiation-from-the-forebrain-derived-human-neural-stem-cells-induced-in-cultures-by-using-a-combination-of-bmp-7-and-pramipexole-with-growth-factors
#18
HongNa Yang, Jing Wang, Feng Wang, XiaoDun Liu, Heng Chen, WeiMing Duan, TingYu Qu
Transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is considered to be the most promising therapeutic strategy for replacing degenerated dopamine cells in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease (PD), thereby restoring normal neural circuit function and slow clinical progression of the disease. Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) derived from fetal forebrain are thought to be the important cell sources for producing DA neurons because of their multipotency for differentiation and long-term expansion property in cultures...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144663/brain-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-directs-the-transition-from-stem-cells-to-mature-neurons-during-postnatal-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#19
Vanesa Nieto-Estévez, Carlos O Oueslati-Morales, Lingling Li, James Pickel, Aixa V Morales, Carlos Vicario-Abejón
The specific actions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the role of brain-derived IGF-I during hippocampal neurogenesis have not been fully defined. To address the influence of IGF-I on the stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, we studied a postnatal/adult global Igf-I knockout (KO) mice (Igf-I(-/-) ) and a nervous system Igf-I conditional KO (Igf-I(Δ/Δ) ). In both KO mice we found an accumulation of Tbr2(+) -intermediate neuronal progenitors, some of which were displaced in the outer granule cell layer (GCL) and the molecular layer (ML) of the dentate gyrus (DG)...
August 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112428/the-chromatin-modifying-complex-corest-lsd1-negatively-regulates-notch-pathway-during-cerebral-cortex-development
#20
Cecilia I Lopez, Katherine E Saud, Rodrigo Aguilar, F Andrés Berndt, José Cánovas, Martín Montecino, Manuel Kukuljan
The development of the cerebral cortex is a dynamic and coordinated process in which cell division, cell death, migration, and differentiation must be highly regulated to acquire the final architecture and functional competence of the mature organ. Notch pathway is an important regulator of differentiation and it is essential to maintain neural stem cell (NSC) pool. Here, we studied the role of epigenetic modulators such as lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and its interactor CoREST in the regulation of the Notch pathway activity during the development of the cerebral cortex...
December 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
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