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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429526/sll1783-a-monooxygenase-associated-with-polysaccharide-processing-in-the-unicellular-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-pcc-6803
#1
Hélder Miranda, Peter Immerzeel, Lorenz Gerber, Katarina Hörnaeus, Sara Bergström Lind, Bagmi Pattanaik, Pia Lindberg, Fikret Mamedov, Peter Lindblad
Cyanobacteria play a pivotal role as the primary producer in many aquatic ecosystems. The knowledge on the interacting processes of cyanobacteria with its environment - abiotic and biotic factors - is still very limited. Many potential exocytoplasmic proteins in the model unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 have unknown functions and their study is essential to improve our understanding of this photosynthetic organism and its potential for biotechnology use. Here we characterize a deletion mutant of Synechocystis PCC 6803, ∆sll1783, a strain that showed a remarkably high light resistance which is related with its lower thylakoid membrane formation...
April 21, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429323/protein-targeting-to-the-plastid-of-euglena
#2
Dion G Durnford, Steven D Schwartzbach
The lateral transfer of photosynthesis between kingdoms through endosymbiosis is among the most spectacular examples of evolutionary innovation. Euglena, which acquired a chloroplast indirectly through an endosymbiosis with a green alga, represents such an example. As with other endosymbiont-derived plastids from eukaryotes, there are additional membranes that surround the organelle, of which Euglena has three. Thus, photosynthetic genes that were transferred from the endosymbiont to the host nucleus and whose proteins are required in the new plastid, are now faced with targeting and plastid import challenges...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426975/the-regulation-of-the-chloroplast-proton-motive-force-plays-a-key-role-for-photosynthesis-in-fluctuating-light
#3
REVIEW
Ute Armbruster, Viviana Correa Galvis, Hans-Henning Kunz, Deserah D Strand
Plants use sunlight as their primary energy source. During photosynthesis, absorbed light energy generates reducing power by driving electron transfer reactions. These are coupled to the transfer of protons into the thylakoid lumen, generating a proton motive force (pmf) required for ATP synthesis. Sudden alterations in light availability have to be met by regulatory mechanisms to avoid the over-accumulation of reactive intermediates and maximize energy efficiency. Here, the acidification of the lumen, as an intermediate product of photosynthesis, plays an important role by regulating photosynthesis in response to excitation energy levels...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405745/lethal-albinic-seedling-encoding-a-threonyl-trna-synthetase-is-involved-in-development-of-plastid-protein-synthesis-system-in-rice
#4
Yuan-Yan Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Hao, Yi-Hua Wang, Chun-Ming Wang, Yun-Long Wang, Wu-Hua Long, Di Wang, Xi Liu, Ling Jiang, Jian-Min Wan
An albinic rice is caused by mutation of threonyl-tRNA synthetase, which is essential for plant development by stabilizing of NEP and PEP gene expressions and chloroplast protein synthesis. Chloroplast biogenesis and development depend on complex genetic mechanisms. Apart from their function in translation, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play additional role in gene expression regulation, RNA splicing, and cytokine activity. However, their detailed functions in plant development are still poorly understood...
April 12, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400776/translation-and-co-translational-membrane-engagement-of-plastid-encoded-chlorophyll-binding-proteins-are-not-influenced-by-chlorophyll-availability-in-maize
#5
Reimo Zoschke, Prakitchai Chotewutmontri, Alice Barkan
Chlorophyll is an indispensable constituent of the photosynthetic machinery in green organisms. Bound by apoproteins of photosystems I and II, chlorophyll performs light-harvesting and charge separation. Due to the phototoxic nature of free chlorophyll and its precursors, chlorophyll synthesis is regulated to comply with the availability of nascent chlorophyll-binding apoproteins. Conversely, the synthesis and co-translational insertion of such proteins into the thylakoid membrane have been suggested to be influenced by chlorophyll availability...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388040/a-noncrystallization-approach-toward-uniform-thylakoids-like-2d-nano-coins-and-their-grana-like-3d-suprastructures
#6
Zhiwei Lin, Jian Sun, Yangbin Zhou, Yu Wang, Hui Xu, Xing Yang, Hao Su, Honggang Cui, Takuzo Aida, Wei Zhang, Stephen Z D Cheng
Two-dimensional (2D) circular shape nanostructures (e.g., "nano-coins") are ubiquitously present in thylakoids and grana within chloroplasts of plant cells in nature. The design and fabrication of 2D nano-coins with controlled sizes and thicknesses yet remain challenging tasks. Herein, we present a noncrystallization approach to achieve 2D nano-coins from assemblies of a set of zwitterionic giant surfactants. Distinguished from traditional crystallization approaches where the 2D nanostructures with specific crystallographic symmetries are fabricated, the noncrystallization assembly of giant surfactants results in 2D nano-coins that are derived from the separation of assembled 3D multiple lamellar cylindrical colloids with uniform diameters...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382592/the-absence-of-chlorophyll-b-affects-lateral-mobility-of-photosynthetic-complexes-and-lipids-in-grana-membranes-of-arabidopsis-and-barley-chlorina-mutants
#7
Elena V Tyutereva, Anastasiia I Evkaikina, Alexandra N Ivanova, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja
The lateral mobility of integral components of thylakoid membranes, such as plastoquinone, xanthophylls, and pigment-protein complexes, is critical for the maintenance of efficient light harvesting, high rates of linear electron transport, and successful repair of damaged photosystem II (PSII). The packaging of the photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in the membrane depends on their size and stereometric parameters which in turn depend on the composition of the complexes. Chlorophyll b (Chlb) is an important regulator of antenna size and composition...
April 5, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380278/chloroplastic-atp-synthase-builds-up-proton-motive-force-for-preventing-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-photosystem-i
#8
Daisuke Takagi, Katsumi Amako, Masaki Hashiguchi, Hidehiro Fukaki, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Goh Tatsuaki, Yoichiro Fukao, Ryosuke Sano, Tetsuya Kurata, Taku Demura, Shinichiro Sawa, Chikahiro Miyake
Over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) chain should be avoided because the accumulation of reducing electron carriers produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) within photosystem I (PSI) in thylakoid membranes and causes oxidative damage to chloroplasts. For preventing ROS production in thylakoid membranes, H(+) gradient across the thylakoid membranes (ΔpH) needs to be built up to suppress the over-reduction state of the PET chain. In this study, we aimed to identify the critical component that stimulates ΔpH formation under illumination in higher plants...
April 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369912/multiparticle-brownian-dynamics-simulation-of-experimental-kinetics-of-cytochrome-bf-oxidation-and-photosystem-1-reduction-by-plastocyanin
#9
Ilya B Kovalenko, Olga S Knyazeva, Taras K Antal, Vladimir Yu Ponomarev, Galina Yu Riznichenko, Andrei B Rubin
A model of electron transport from cytochrome f to photosystem I mediated by plastocyanin was designed on the basis of the multiparticle Brownian dynamics method. The model combines events which occur over a wide time range, including protein diffusion along the thylakoid membrane, long-distance interactions between proteins, formation of a multiprotein complex, electron transfer within a complex, and complex dissociation. Results of the modeling were compared with the experimental kinetics measured in chloroplast thylakoids...
March 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369575/chloroplast-function-revealed-through-analysis-of-greencut2-genes
#10
Rikard Fristedt
Chloroplasts are the green plastids responsible for light-powered photosynthetic reactions and carbon assimilation in the plant cell. Our knowledge of chloroplast functions is constantly increasing and we now know this plastid is predicted to house around 3000 proteins. However, even with generous estimates, we do not know the function of more than 10-15% of these proteins. The next frontier in chloroplast research is to identify and characterize the function of the whole chloroplast proteome, a challenging task due to the inherent complexity a proteome possesses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369470/generation-and-characterization-of-a-collection-of-knock-down-lines-for-the-chloroplast-clp-protease-complex-in-tobacco
#11
Juan C Moreno, Nadine Tiller, Mercedes Diez, Daniel Karcher, Michael Tillich, Mark A Schöttler, Ralph Bock
Protein degradation in chloroplasts is carried out by a set of proteases that eliminate misfolded, damaged, or superfluous proteins. The ATP-dependent caseinolytic protease (Clp) is the most complex protease in plastids and has been implicated mainly in stromal protein degradation. In contrast, FtsH, a thylakoid membrane-associated metalloprotease, is believed to participate mainly in the degradation of thylakoidal proteins. To determine the role of specific Clp and FtsH subunits in plant growth and development, RNAi lines targeting at least one subunit of each Clp ring and FtsH were generated in tobacco...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364021/lateral-segregation-of-photosystem-i-in-cyanobacterial-thylakoids
#12
Craig MacGregor-Chatwin, Melih Sener, Samuel F H Barnett, Andrew Hitchcock, Meghan C Barnhart-Dailey, Karim Maghlaoui, James Barber, Jerilyn A Timlin, Klaus Schulten, Christopher Neil Hunter
Photosystem I (PSI) is the dominant photosystem in cyanobacteria and it plays a pivotal role in cyanobacterial metabolism. Despite its biological importance, the native organisation of PSI in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes is poorly understood. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show that ordered, extensive macromolecular arrays of PSI complexes are present in thylakoids from Thermosynechococcus (T.) elongatus, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. Hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy (HCFM) and three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) of Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 cells visualise PSI domains within the context of the complete thylakoid system...
March 31, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357791/role-of-brassinosteroids-in-alleviating-toxin-induced-stress-of-verticillium-dahliae-on-cotton-callus-growth
#13
Noreen Bibi, Imrul Mosaddek Ahmed, Kai Fan, Muhammad Dawood, Feng Li, Shuna Yuan, Xuede Wang
Brassinosteroids are well known to mitigate biotic stresses; however, their role to induce tolerance against Verticillium dahliae is unknown. The current study employed V. dahliae (Vd) toxin as pathogen-free model system to induce stress on cotton callus growth, and its amelioration was investigated using 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). Results revealed that EBR has ameliorative effects against Vd toxin with greater seen effect when callus was treated with EBR prior to its exposure to Vd toxin (pre-EBR treatment) than EBR applied along with Vd toxin simultaneously (co-EBR treatment)...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346704/the-chloroplast-rna-helicase-ise2-is-required-for-multiple-chloroplast-rna-processing-steps-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Krzysztof Bobik, Tyra N McCray, Ben Ernest, Jessica C Fernandez, Katharine A Howell, Thomas Lane, Margaret Staton, Tessa M Burch-Smith
INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT2 (ISE2) is a chloroplast-localized RNA helicase that is indispensable for proper plant development. Chloroplasts in leaves with reduced ISE2 expression have previously been shown to exhibit reduced thylakoid contents and increased stromal volume, indicative of defective development. It has recently been reported that ISE2 is required for the splicing of group II introns from chloroplast transcripts. The current study extends these findings, and presents evidence for ISE2's role in multiple aspects of chloroplast RNA processing beyond group II intron splicing...
March 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338755/red-blotch-disease-alters-grape-berry-development-and-metabolism-by-interfering-with-the-transcriptional-and-hormonal-regulation-of-ripening
#15
Barbara Blanco-Ulate, Helene Hopfer, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Zirou Ye, Rosa M Rivero, Alfonso Albacete, Francisco Pérez-Alfocea, Renata Koyama, Michael M Anderson, Rhonda J Smith, Susan E Ebeler, Dario Cantu
Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a major threat to the wine industry in the USA. GRBaV infections (aka red blotch disease) compromise crop yield and berry chemical composition, affecting the flavor and aroma properties of must and wine. In this study, we combined genome-wide transcriptional profiling with targeted metabolite analyses and biochemical assays to characterize the impact of the disease on red-skinned berry ripening and metabolism. Using naturally infected berries collected from two vineyards, we were able to identify consistent berry responses to GRBaV across different environmental and cultural conditions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332210/an-update-on-the-regulation-of-photosynthesis-by-thylakoid-ion-channels-and-transporters-in-arabidopsis
#16
Cornelia Spetea, Andrei Herdean, Guillaume Allorent, Luca Carraretto, Giovanni Finazzi, Ildikò Szabo
In natural variable environments, plants rapidly adjust photosynthesis for optimal balance between light absorption and utilization. There is increasing evidence suggesting that ion fluxes across the chloroplast thylakoid membrane play an important role in this regulation, by affecting the proton motive force, and consequently photosynthesis and thylakoid membrane ultrastructure. This minireview presents an update on the thylakoid ion channels and transporters characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana as being involved in these processes, as well as an outlook at the evolutionary conservation of their functions in other photosynthetic organisms...
March 23, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323554/selective-nitration-of-psbo1-inhibits-oxygen-evolution-from-isolated-arabidopsis-thylakoid-membranes
#17
Misa Takahashi, Jun Shigeto, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiromichi Morikawa
Treatment of isolated Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membranes with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) induces selective nitration of the tyrosine residue at the ninth amino acid ((9)Tyr) of PsbO1. This selective nitration is triggered by light and is inhibited by photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors. Therefore, we postulated that, similar to (161)Tyr of D1 (Yz), (9)Tyr of PsbO1 is redox active and is selectively oxidized by photosynthetic electron transport in response to illumination to a tyrosyl radical that is highly susceptible to nitration...
March 21, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318016/the-transporter-synpam71-is-located-in-the-plasma-membrane-and-thylakoids-and-mediates-manganese-tolerance-in-synechocystis-pcc6803
#18
Chiara Gandini, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Søren Husted, Anja Schneider, Dario Leister
Manganese (Mn) is an essential constituent of photosystem II (PSII) and therefore indispensable for oxygenic photosynthesis. Very little is known about how Mn is transported, delivered and retained in photosynthetic cells. Recently, the thylakoid-localized transporter PAM71 has been linked to chloroplast Mn homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we characterize the function of its homolog in Synechocystis (SynPAM71). We used a loss-of-function line (ΔSynPAM71), wild-type (WT) cells exposed to Mn stress and strains expressing a tagged variant of SynPAM71 to characterize the role of SynPAM71 in cyanobacterial Mn homeostasis...
March 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317130/influence-of-thylakoid-membrane-lipids-on-the-structure-of-aggregated-light-harvesting-complexes-of-the-diatom-thalassiosira-pseudonana-and-the-green-alga-mantoniella-squamata
#19
Susann Schaller-Laudel, Dariusz Latowski, Małgorzata Jemioła-Rzemińska, Kazimierz Strzałka, Sebastian Daum, Kirsten Bacia, Christian Wilhelm, Reimund Goss
The study investigated the effect of the thylakoid membrane lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) on the structure of two algal light-harvesting complexes (LHC). In contrast to higher plants whose thylakoid membranes are characterized by an enrichment of the neutral galactolipids MGDG and DGDG, both the green alga Mantoniella squamata and the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contain membranes with a high content of the negatively charged lipids SQDG and PG...
March 20, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303390/the-hydroperoxide-lyase-branch-of-the-oxylipin-pathway-protects-against-photoinhibition-of-photosynthesis
#20
Tatyana Savchenko, Denis Yanykin, Andrew Khorobrykh, Vasily Terentyev, Vyacheslav Klimov, Katayoon Dehesh
This study describes a new role for hydroperoxide lyase branch of oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in protecting photosynthetic apparatus under high light conditions. Lipid-derived signaling molecules, oxylipins, produced by a multi-branch pathway are central in regulation of a wide range of functions. The two most known branches, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and 13-hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) pathways, are best recognized as producers of defense compounds against biotic challenges. In the present work, we examine the role of these two oxylipin branches in plant tolerance to the abiotic stress, namely excessive light...
March 16, 2017: Planta
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