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Thylakoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103409/zea-mays-fe-deficiency-related-4-zmfdr4-functions-as-an-iron-transporter-in-the-plastids-of-monocots
#1
Xiu-Yue Zhang, Xi Zhang, Qi Zhang, Xiao-Xi Pan, Luo-Chen Yan, Xiao-Juan Ma, Wei-Zhong Zhao, Xiao-Ting Qi, Li-Ping Yin
Iron (Fe)-homeostasis in the plastids is closely associated with Fe transport proteins that prevent Fe from occurring in its toxic free ionic forms. However, the number of known protein families related to Fe transport in the plastids (about 5) and the function of iron in non-green plastids is limited. In the present study, we report the functional characterization of Zea mays Fe deficiency-related 4 (ZmFDR4), which was isolated from a differentially expressed clone of a cDNA library of Fe deficiency-induced maize roots...
January 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103282/two-novel-vesicle-inducing-proteins-in-plastids-1-genes-cloned-and-characterized-in-triticum-urartu
#2
Fei Gao, Bo Chen, Juan Jiao, Lijia Jia, Cuimin Liu
Vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1 (Vipp1) is thought to play an important role both in thylakoid biogenesis and chloroplast envelope maintenance during stress. Vipp1 is conserved in photosynthetic organisms and forms a high homo-oligomer complex structure that may help sustain the membrane integrity of chloroplasts. This study cloned two novel VIPP1 genes from Triticum urartu and named them TuVipp1 and TuVipp2. Both proteins shared high identity with the homologous proteins AtVipp1 and CrVipp1. TuVipp1 and TuVipp2 were expressed in various organs of common wheat, and both genes were induced by light and various stress treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096887/thylakoids-reduce-body-fat-and-fat-cell-size-by-binding-to-dietary-fat-making-it-less-available-for-absorption-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#3
Karin G Stenkula, Eva-Lena Stenblom, Caroline Montelius, Emil Egecioglu, Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson
BACKGROUND: Dietary thylakoids derived from spinach have beneficial effects on body fat accumulation and blood lipids as demonstrated in humans and rodents. Important mechanisms established include delayed fat digestion in the intestine, without causing steatorrhea, and increased fatty acid oxidation in intestinal cells. The objective of our study was to elucidate if increased fecal fat excretion is an important mechanism to normalize adipose tissue metabolism during high-fat feeding in mice supplemented with thylakoids...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078486/two-nadph-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase-por-isoforms-play-distinct-roles-in-environmental-adaptation-in-rice
#4
Choon-Tak Kwon, Suk-Hwan Kim, Giha Song, Dami Kim, Nam-Chon Paek
BACKGROUND: NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two POR isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076289/from-bacteria-to-chloroplasts-evolution-of-the-chloroplast-srp-system
#5
Dominik Ziehe, Beatrix Dünschede, Danja Schünemann
Chloroplasts derive from a prokaryotic symbiont that lost most of its genes during evolution. As a result, the great majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded in the nucleus and are posttranslationally imported into the organelle. The chloroplast genome encodes only a few proteins. These include several multispan thylakoid membrane proteins which are synthesized on thylakoid-bound ribosomes and cotranslationally inserted into the membrane. During evolution, ancient prokaryotic targeting machineries were adapted and combined with novel targeting mechanisms to facilitate post- and cotranslational protein transport in chloroplasts...
January 10, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075225/plants-contain-small-families-of-upf0016-proteins-including-the-photosynthesis-affected-mutant71-transporter
#6
Natalie Hoecker, Dario Leister, Anja Schneider
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT71 (PAM71) is an integral thylakoid membrane protein that functions in manganese uptake into the lumen. Manganese is needed in the thylakoid lumen to build up the inorganic Mn4CaO5 cluster, the catalytic center for water oxidation, and is hence indispensable for oxygen evolution. A recent study revealed that PAM71 is well conserved in plants and shares homology to GCR1 DEPENDENT TRANSLATION FACTOR1 (GDT1) and TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEIN 165 (TMEM165) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072544/why-can-unnatural-electron-acceptors-protect-photosynthesizing-organisms-but-kill-the-others
#7
Stanislav Anatolievich Pshenichnyuk, Alexei S Komolov
The polychlorinated compounds captafol (CPL) and 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INI) are able to protect plants acting as a fungicide or an inductor of plant resistance, respectively. At the same time, CPL and INI are dangerous for the respiratory organisms, i.e. mammalians, bacteria and fungi. The high electron-withdrawing ability of these compounds enables them to serve as unnatural electron acceptors in the cellular ambient near to electron transport pathways located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts or in the mitochondrial respiratory chain...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066876/the-terrestrial-green-macroalga-prasiola-calophylla-trebouxiophyceae-chlorophyta-ecophysiological-performance-under-water-limiting-conditions
#8
Andreas Holzinger, Klaus Herburger, Kathrin Blaas, Louise A Lewis, Ulf Karsten
The phylogenetic placement of Prasiola calophylla, from an anthropogenic habitat previously shown to contain a novel UV sunscreen compound, was confirmed by analysis of its rbcL gene. This alga has the capacity to tolerate strong water-limiting conditions. The photosynthetic performance and ultrastructural changes under desiccation and osmotic stress were investigated. Freshly harvested thalli showed an effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II)] of 0.52 ± 0.06 that decreased to ∼60% of the initial value at 3000 mM sorbitol, and 4000 mM sorbitol led to a complete loss of Y(II)...
January 9, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051843/enzyme-triggered-defined-protein-nanoarrays-efficient-light-harvesting-systems-to-mimic-chloroplasts
#9
Linlu Zhao, Haoyang Zou, Hao Zhang, Hongcheng Sun, Tingting Wang, Tiezheng Pan, Xiumei Li, Yushi Bai, Shanpeng Qiao, Quan Luo, Jiayun Xu, Chunxi Hou, Junqiu Liu
The elegance and efficiency by which chloroplasts harvest solar energy and conduct energy transfer have been a source of inspiration for chemists to mimic such process. However, precise manipulation to obtain orderly arranged antenna chromophores in constructing artificial chloroplast mimics was a great challenge, especially from the structural similarity and bioaffinity standpoints. Here we reported a design strategy that combined covalent and noncovalent interactions to prepare a protein-based light-harvesting system to mimic chloroplasts...
January 6, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032986/thylakoid-inspired-multishell-g-c3n4-nanocapsules-with-enhanced-visible-light-harvesting-and-electron-transfer-properties-for-high-efficiency-photocatalysis
#10
Zhenwei Tong, Dong Yang, Zhen Li, Yanhu Nan, Fei Ding, Yichun Shen, Zhongyi Jiang
Inspired by the orderly stacked nanostructure and highly integrated function of thylakoids in a natural photosynthesis system, multishell g-C3N4 (MSCN) nanocapsule photocatalysts have been prepared by SiO2 hard template with different shell layers. The resultant triple-shell g-C3N4 (TSCN) nanocapsules display superior photocatalysis performance to single-shell and double-shell counterparts owing to excellent visible-light harvesting and electron transfer properties. Specially, with the increase of the shell layer number, light harvesting is greatly enhanced...
January 3, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030779/nitric-oxide-improves-s-assimilation-and-gsh-production-to-prevent-inhibitory-effects-of-cadmium-stress-on-photosynthesis-in-mustard-brassica-juncea-l
#11
Tasir S Per, Asim Masood, Nafees A Khan
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gaseous signalling molecule that participates in many developmental and physiological processes, including defense responses against toxic metals in plants. The role of NO in cadmium (Cd)-induced toxic effects on photosynthesis was examined in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants. Exposure of plants to 50 μM Cd significantly enhanced oxidative stress (H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation) and impaired plant growth and photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and reduced chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance...
December 25, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027878/modeling-the-light-induced-electric-potential-difference-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-across-the-thylakoid-membrane-based-on-the-transition-state-rate-theory
#12
Hui Lyu, Dušan Lazár
In photosynthesis, electron transport-coupled proton movement initiates the formation of the light-induced electric potential difference, ΔΨ, across the thylakoid membrane (TM). Ions are transported across the TM to counterbalance the charge of protons accumulated in the lumen. The objective of this work is to construct range of mathematical models for simulation of ΔΨ, using the transition state rate theory (TSRT) for description of movement of ions through the channels. The TSRT considers either single-ion (TSRT-SI) or multi-ion occupancy (TSRT-MI) in the channels...
December 24, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026176/the-synthesis-of-certain-phomentrioloxin-a-analogues-and-their-evaluation-as-herbicidal-agents
#13
Ehab S Taher, Prue Guest, Amanda Benton, Xinghua Ma, Martin G Banwell, Anthony C Willis, Tobias Seiser, Trevor W Newton, Johannes Hutzler
A series of 28 analogues of the phytotoxic geranylcyclohexentriol (-)-phomentrioloxin A (1) has been synthesized through cross-couplings of various enantiomerically pure haloconduritols or certain deoxygenated derivatives with either terminal alkynes or borylated alkenes. Some of these analogues display modest herbicidal activities, and physiological profiling studies suggest that analogue 4 inhibits photosystem II in isolated thylakoids in vitro.
December 27, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025675/direct-isolation-of-a-functional-violaxanthin-cycle-domain-from-thylakoid-membranes-of-higher-plants
#14
Reimund Goss, Anne Greifenhagen, Juliane Bergner, Daniela Volke, Ralf Hoffmann, Christian Wilhelm, Susann Schaller-Laudel
A special domain of the thylakoid membrane of higher plants has been isolated which carries out the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigment violaxanthin to zeaxanthin. Recent models indicate that in the chloroplast of higher plants, the violaxanthin (V) cycle takes place within specialized domains in the thylakoid membrane. Here, we describe a new procedure to directly isolate such a domain in functional state. The procedure consists of a thylakoid membrane isolation at a pH value of 5.2 which realizes the binding of the enzyme V de-epoxidase (VDE) to the membrane throughout the preparation process...
December 26, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025520/plastoglobule-targeting-competence-of-a-putative-transit-peptide-sequence-from-rice-phytoene-synthase-2-in-plastids
#15
Min Kyoung You, Jin Hwa Kim, Yeo Jin Lee, Ye Sol Jeong, Sun-Hwa Ha
Plastoglobules (PGs) are thylakoid membrane microdomains within plastids that are known as specialized locations of carotenogenesis. Three rice phytoene synthase proteins (OsPSYs) involved in carotenoid biosynthesis have been identified. Here, the N-terminal 80-amino-acid portion of OsPSY2 (PTp) was demonstrated to be a chloroplast-targeting peptide by displaying cytosolic localization of OsPSY2(ΔPTp):mCherry in rice protoplast, in contrast to chloroplast localization of OsPSY2:mCherry in a punctate pattern...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018391/identification-of-plastoglobules-as-a-site-of-carotenoid-cleavage
#16
Sarah Rottet, Julie Devillers, Gaétan Glauser, Véronique Douet, Céline Besagni, Felix Kessler
Carotenoids play an essential role in light harvesting and protection from excess light. During chloroplast senescence carotenoids are released from their binding proteins and are eventually metabolized. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) is involved in carotenoid breakdown in senescing leaf and desiccating seed, and is part of the proteome of plastoglobules (PG), which are thylakoid-associated lipid droplets. Here, we demonstrate that CCD4 is functionally active in PG. Leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana ccd4 mutants constitutively expressing CCD4 fused to yellow fluorescent protein showed strong fluorescence in PG and reduced carotenoid levels upon dark-induced senescence...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018387/role-of-ions-in-the-regulation-of-light-harvesting
#17
REVIEW
Radek Kaňa, Govindjee
Regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting in the thylakoids is one of the major key factors affecting the efficiency of photosynthesis. Thylakoid membrane is negatively charged and influences both the structure and the function of the primarily photosynthetic reactions through its electrical double layer (EDL). Further, there is a heterogeneous organization of soluble ions (K(+), Mg(2+), Cl(-)) attached to the thylakoid membrane that, together with fixed charges (negatively charged amino acids, lipids), provides an electrical field...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013173/specific-roles-of-cyclic-electron-flow-around-photosystem-i-in-photosynthetic-regulation-in-immature-and-mature-leaves
#18
Wei Huang, Ying-Jie Yang, Shi-Bao Zhang
Cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I (PSI) is essential for photosynthesis in mature leaves. However, the physiological roles of CEF in immature leaves are little known. Here, we measured the PSI and PSII activities, light response changes in PSI and PSII energy quenching for immature and mature leaves of Erythrophleum guineense grown under full sunlight. Comparing with the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), the immature leaves had much lower values of the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm) than the mature leaves, suggesting the unsynchronized development of PSI and PSII activities...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011869/pcom-db-update-a-protein-co-migration-database-for-photosynthetic-organisms
#19
Atsushi Takabayashi, Saeka Takabayashi, Kaori Takahashi, Mai Watanabe, Hiroko Uchida, Akio Murakami, Tomomichi Fujita, Masahiko Ikeuchi, Ayumi Tanaka
The identification of protein complexes is important to understand protein structure and function, and the regulation of cellular processes. We used blue-native PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry to identify protein complexes systematically, and built a web database, the protein co-migration database (PCoM-DB, http://pcomdb.lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp/proteins/top), to provide prediction tools for protein complexes. PCoM-DB provides migration profiles for any given protein of interest, and allows users to compare them with migration profiles of other proteins, showing the oligomeric states of proteins and thus identifying potential interaction partners...
December 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008672/the-angulata7-gene-encodes-a-dnaj-like-zinc-finger-domain-protein-involved-in-chloroplast-function-and-leaf-development-in-arabidopsis
#20
Tamara Muñoz-Nortes, José Manuel Pérez-Pérez, María Rosa Ponce, Héctor Candela, José Luis Micol
The characterization of mutants with altered leaf shape and pigmentation has previously allowed the identification of nuclear genes that encode plastid-localized proteins that perform essential functions in leaf growth and development. A large-scale screen previously allowed us to isolate ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants with small rosettes and pale green leaves with prominent marginal teeth, which were assigned to a phenotypic class that we dubbed Angulata. The molecular characterization of the twelve genes assigned to this phenotypic class should help us to advance our understanding of the still poorly understood relationship between chloroplast biogenesis and leaf morphogenesis...
December 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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