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Diwei Zheng, Bin Li, Lu Xu, Qiu-Ling Zhang, Jin-Xuan Fan, Chu-Xin Li, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Tumor hypoxia has attained the status of a core hallmark of cancer that globally affected the entire tumor phenotype. Reversing tumor hypoxia might offer alternative therapeutic opportunities for current anticancer therapies. In this research, a Photosynthetic Leaf-inspired Abiotic/biotic Nano-Thylakoid (PLANT) system was designed by fusing thylakoid membrane with synthetic nanoparticles for efficient O2 generation in vivo. Under 660 nm laser irradiation, PLANT system exhibited intracellular O2 generation and the anaerobic respiration of multicellular tumor spheroid was suppressed by PLANT as well...
May 23, 2018: ACS Nano
Riyadh Muhaidat, Athena D McKown, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Zakariya Bani Domi, Osama Otoum
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tetraena simplex is an independently evolved C4 species in the Zygophylloideae (Zygophyllaceae) and a characteristic forb of saline flats in hot and sandy desert habitats. During early ontogeny, the species had a morphological shift from planar cotyledons (dorsiventral symmetry) to terete, succulent leaves (radial symmetry). We tested whether this shift had a corresponding change in internal Kranz anatomy and tissue patterning. METHODS: For a comprehensive characterization of C4 photosynthesis across early ontogeny in T...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Daisuke Takagi, Kentaro Ifuku, Taishi Nishimura, Chikahiro Miyake
The light reactions of photosynthesis are known to comprise both linear and cyclic electron flow in order to convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of NADPH and ATP. Antimycin A (AA) has been proposed as an inhibitor of ferredoxin-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF-PSI) in photosynthesis research. However, its precise inhibitory mechanism and target site had not been elucidated yet. Here we show that AA inhibits the cyclic (alternative) electron flow via cytochrome b559 (Cyt b559 ) within photosystem II (CEF-PSII)...
May 22, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Xiaohuan Mu, Qinwu Chen, Fanjun Chen, Lixing Yuan, Guohua Mi
Remobilization of leaf nitrogen (N) contributes greatly to grain N in maize, but leads to low photosynthetic rate (Pn ). Pn is determined by various N components involving in light harvest and CO2 reduction. However, it is less clear which N component is the major contributor for the reduction of photosynthesis in modern stay-green maize hybrids. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between remobilization of different N components and Pn during grain filling stage under low N (no N application) and high N (180 kg N ha-1 ) in a field experiment...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Dinakar Challabathula, Qingwei Zhang, Dorothea Bartels
Inhibition of photosynthesis is a central, primary response that is observed in both desiccation-tolerant and desiccation-sensitive plants affected by drought stress. Decreased photosynthesis during drought stress can either be due to the limitation of carbon dioxide entry through the stomata and the mesophyll cells, due to increased oxidative stress or due to decreased activity of photosynthetic enzymes. Although the photosynthetic rates decrease in both desiccation-tolerant and sensitive plants during drought, the remarkable difference lies in the complete recovery of photosynthesis after rehydration in desiccation-tolerant plants...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Matthias Gilbert, Hanno Bährs, Christian E W Steinberg, Christian Wilhelm
Humic substances (HSs) can influence the growth and composition of freshwater phytoplankton assemblage. Since HSs contain many phenolic and quinonic moieties and cause growth reductions in eco-physiological field experiments, HSs are considered photosystem II herbicides. To test this specific mode of action in vivo and in vitro, respectively, we used intact cells of the green alga Desmodesmus armatus, as well as thylakoids isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as a model system for the green algal chloroplast...
May 18, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Zheng Liu, Jia Gao, Fei Gao, Peng Liu, Bin Zhao, Jiwang Zhang
Maize ( Zea mays L.) is the important crop over the world. Nitrogen (N) as necessary element affects photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of summer maize. In this study, N0 (0 kg N ha-1 ), N1 (129 kg N ha-1 ), N2 (185 kg N ha-1 ), and N3 (300 kg N ha-1 ) was conducted using hybrid 'ZhengDan958' at Dawenkou research field (36°11'N, 117°06'E, 178 m altitude) in the North China Plain to explore the effects of N rate on photosynthetic characteristics and chloroplast ultrastructure. Gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll SPAD value, chloroplast ultrastructure, dry matter weight and grain yield were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rahma Goussi, Arafet Manaa, Walid Derbali, Simone Cantamessa, Chedly Abdelly, Roberto Barbato
Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stress affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Photosynthesis, together with cell growth, is among the primary process affected by salinity. Here, we report the effects of salt stress on photosynthesis in the model halophyte Thellungiella salsuginea. Plants were grown in hydroponic system and then treated for 2 weeks with different NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 400 mM). Leaf analysis using both photonic and transmission electron microscopes showed some changes in mesophyll cell organization, including shape and dimension...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Yazhi Gao, Wei Liu, Xiaoxiong Wang, Lihua Yang, Su Han, Shiguo Chen, Reto Jörg Strasser, Bernal E Valverde, Sheng Qiang
The effects of four phytotoxins usnic acid (UA), salicylic acid (SA), cinnamic acid (CA) and benzoic acid (BA) on photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied in vivo to identify and localise their initial action sites on two photosystems. Our experimental evidence shows that the four phytotoxins have multiple targets in chloroplasts, which mainly lie in photosystem II (PSII), not photosystem I (PSI). They share an original action site by blocking electron transport beyond QA (primary plastoquinone acceptor) at PSII acceptor side since a fast increase of the J-step level is the greatest change in chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics OJIP in C...
May 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Vivek Dogra, Jean-David Rochaix, Chanhong Kim
Singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) is a prime cause of photodamage of the photosynthetic apparatus. The chlorophyll molecules in the photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC) and in the light-harvesting antenna complex (LHC) are major sources of 1 O2 generation. It has been thought that the generation of 1 O2 mainly takes place in the appressed regions of the thylakoid membranes, namely the grana core, where most of the active PSII complexes are localized. Apart from being a toxic molecule, new evidence suggests that 1 O2 significantly contributes to chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling that primes acclimation and cell death responses...
May 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mayuko Otsubo, Chikako Ikoma, Mariko Ueda, Yumi Ishii, Noriaki Tamura
The functional role of a lipid-associated soluble protein, fibrillin5 (FBN5), was determined with the Arabidopsis thaliana homozygous fbn5-knockout mutant line (SALK_064597) that carries a T-DNA insertion within the FBN5 gene. The fbn5 mutant remained alive, displaying a slow growth and a severe dwarf phenotype. The mutant grown even under growth light conditions at 80 μmol·m-2·s-1 showed a drastic decrease in electron transfer activities around PSII, with little change in electron transfer activities around PSI, a phenomenon which was exaggerated under high light stress...
May 7, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Barbara Piwowarczyk, Krzysztof Tokarz, Ewa Muszyńska, Wojciech Makowski, Roman Jędrzejczyk, Zbigniew Gajewski, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska
Kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria L.) is a well-known Zn hyperaccumulator. Zn often occurs with Pb in one ore; thus, plants inhabiting waste dumps are exposed not only to Zn but also to Pb toxicity. While the response of kidney vetch to Zn toxicity is relatively well known, the Pb survival strategy of Anthyllis vulneraria has not been the subject of investigations. The aim of presented research was to determine the survival strategy of kidney vetch exposed to high lead concentrations. Shoot explants of a calamine kidney vetch ecotype were placed on agar media containing 0...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bin Zhang, Chi Zhang, Congge Liu, Yanping Jing, Yuan Wang, Ling Jin, Lei Yang, Aigen Fu, Jisen Shi, Fugeng Zhao, Wenzhi Lan, Sheng Luan
Manganese (Mn) is an essential catalytic metal in the Mn-cluster that oxidizes water to produce oxygen during photosynthesis. However, the transport protein(s) responsible for Mn2+ import into the chloroplast remains unknown. Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis CMT1 (Chloroplast Manganese Transporter 1), an evolutionarily conserved protein in the Uncharacterized Protein Family 0016 (UPF0016), that is required for manganese accumulation into the chloroplast. The CMT1 gene was expressed primarily in green tissues and the CMT1 protein was localized in the inner envelope membrane of the chloroplast...
May 5, 2018: Molecular Plant
Marion Eisenhuta, Natalie Hoecker, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Rubek Merina Basgaran, Samantha Flachbart, Peter Jahns, Tabea Eser, Stefan Geimer, Søren Husted, Andreas P M Weber, Dario Leister, Anja Schneider
The transition metal manganese (Mn) is indispensable for photoautotrophic growth, since photosystem II (PSII) employs an inorganic Mn4 CaO5 cluster for water splitting. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis membrane protein CHLOROPLAST MANGANESE TRANSPORTER 1 (CMT1) is involved in chloroplast Mn homeostasis. CMT1 is the closest homolog of -the previously characterized thylakoid Mn transporter- PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT71 (PAM71). In contrast to PAM71, CMT1 resides at the chloroplast envelope and is ubiquitously expressed...
May 4, 2018: Molecular Plant
Jinxing Li, Yuchao Song, Keren Wu, Qi Tao, Yongchao Liang, Tingqiang Li
Chromic oxide nanoparticles (Cr2 O3 NPs) are widely used in commercial factories and can cause serious environmental problems. However, the mechanism behind Cr2 O3 NP-induced phytotoxicity remains unknown. In this study, the effects of Cr2 O3 NPs on the growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, SEM-EDS analysis, and chloroplast ultrastructure of soybean (Glycine max) were investigated to evaluate its phytotoxicity. The growth of soybean treated with various Cr2 O3 NP suspensions (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g L-1 ) was significantly inhibited...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jun Tominaga, Yasutoshi Nakahara, Daisuke Horikawa, Ayumi Tanaka, Maki Kondo, Yasuhiro Kamei, Tsuneaki Takami, Wataru Sakamoto, Kazutoshi Unno, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiroshi Shimada
BACKGROUND: Chlorophyll breakdown is the most obvious sign of leaf senescence. The chlorophyll catabolism pathway and the associated proteins/genes have been identified in considerable detail by genetic approaches combined with stay-green phenotyping. Arabidopsis CYO1 (AtCYO1), a protein disulfide reductase/isomerase localized in the thylakoid membrane, is hypothesized to assemble the photosystem by interacting with cysteine residues of the subunits. RESULTS: In this study, we report that ectopic overexpression of AtCYO1 in leaves induces a stay-green phenotype during darkness, where oxidative conditions favor catabolism...
May 4, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Hsou-Min Li, Chun-Wei Yu
Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) together constitute approximate 80% of chloroplast lipids. Apart from facilitating the photosynthesis light reaction in the thylakoid membrane, these two lipids are important for maintaining chloroplast morphology and for plant survival under abiotic stresses like phosphate starvation and freezing. Recently, it was shown that severe growth retardation phenotypes of the DGDG-deficient mutant dgd1 were due to jasmonate over-production, linking MGDG and DGDG homeostasis with phytohormone production and suggesting MGDG as a major substrate for jasmonate biosynthesis...
May 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Antoaneta V Popova, Konstantin Dobrev, Maya Velitchkova, Alexander G Ivanov
The high-light-induced alterations in photosynthetic performance of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) as well as effectiveness of dissipation of excessive absorbed light during illumination for different periods of time at room (22 °C) and low (8-10 °C) temperature of leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, wt and lut2, were followed with the aim of unraveling the role of lutein in the process of photoinhibition. Photosynthetic parameters of PSII and PSI were determined on whole leaves by PAM fluorometer and oxygen evolving activity-by a Clark-type electrode...
May 3, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Emre Cevik, Buket Bezgin Carbas, Mehmet Senel, Huseyin Bekir Yildiz
In this study, a photo-bioelectrochemical fuel cell was constructed for photocurrent generation by illuminating the electrodes within an aqueous solution. In this purpose, gold electrode was coated with poly 4-(4H-Dithieno [3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrol-4-yl) aniline, P(DTP-Ph-NH2 ) conductive polymer film by using electrochemical polymerization. Then, P(DTP-Ph-NH2 ) conductive polymer film coated surface was electrochemically modified with cytochrome C which covalently linked onto the surface via bis-aniline functionality of the polymer film and formed crosslinked-structure...
April 26, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jia Gao, Hai Yan Cui, Jian Guo Shi, Shu Ting Dong, Peng Liu, Bin Zhao, Ji Wang Zhang
We examined the changes of photosynthetic characteristics and chloroplast ultrastructure in mesophyll cell of summer maize in response to different light intensities in the field, with the summer maize hybrid Denghai 605 as experimental material. Two treatments of both shading (S) and increasing light (L) from flowering to physiological maturity stage were designed, with the ambient sunlight treatment as control (CK). Under shading treatment, poorly developed thylakoid structure, blurry lamellar structure, loose granum, large gap between slices and warping granum were the major characteristics in chloroplast...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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