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Xiaoqiang Quan, Yi Ding, Ruo Feng, Xiaoyan Zhu, Qinxian Zhang
Gastric cancer (GC) is often a deadly disease due to the late diagnosis and chemoresistance that characterizes many cases of this disease. The aim of this study was to explore a panel of candidate cytokines as diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for GC. Sixteen tissue samples of GC and adjacent noncancerous mucosa were selected from GC patients (n=8) for antibody microarray analysis. Proteomic chip-based analysis was performed to simultaneously identify 507 cytokines using a cytokine antibody array in the gastric tissues to screen for differential proteins related in cases of GC...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
Egi Tritya Apdila, Koichiro Awai
Glycolipids constitute the majority of membrane components in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, whereas they are minor lipids in other organisms. In cyanobacteria, three glycolipids comprise ~90 mol% of the total lipids in thylakoid membranes, where photosynthetic electron transport occurs. Among these glycolipids, 80 mol% are galactolipids (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol). Galactolipids are well conserved in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms and are believed to be essential for the integrity of the membrane system...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Limin Gao, Zhifeng Lu, Lei Ding, Junjie Guo, Min Wang, Ning Ling, Shiwei Guo, Qirong Shen
Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane proteins facilitating the transport of water and some small neutral molecules across cell membranes. In past years, much effort has been made to reveal the location of AQPs as well as their function in water transport, photosynthetic processes, and stress responses in higher plants. In the present review, we paid attention to the character of AQPs in determining carbon and nitrogen status. The role of AQPs during photosynthesis is characterized as its function in transporting water and CO₂ across the membrane of chloroplast and thylakoid; recalculated results from published studies showed that over-expression of AQPs contributed to 25% and 50% increases in stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance (gm), respectively...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qing-Bo Yu, Tuan-Tuan Zhao, Lin-Shan Ye, Ling Cheng, Ying-Qian Wu, Chao Huang, Zhong-Nan Yang
In higher plant chloroplasts, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) consists of four catalytic subunits and numerous nuclear-encoded accessory proteins, including pTAC10, an S1-domain-containing protein. In this study, pTAC10 knockout lines were characterized. Two ptac10 mutants had an albino phenotype and severely impaired chloroplast development. The pTAC10 genomic sequence fused to a four-tandem MYC tag driven by its own promoter functionally complemented the ptac10-1 mutant phenotype. pTAC10 was present in both the chloroplast stroma and thylakoids...
January 12, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Yuanyuan Chen, Ross E Dalbey
Oxa1/Alb3/YidC family members promote the insertion of proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane, the chloroplast thylakoid membrane, and the bacterial plasma membrane. Remarkably, two recent studies identify new Oxa1 homologs that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and function in ER membrane protein biogenesis.
January 5, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Yan He, Liangjian Li, Zhihong Zhang, Jian-Li Wu
Premature leaf senescence negatively impacts the grain yield in the important monocot rice (Oryza sativa L.); to understand the molecular mechanism we carried out a screen for mutants with premature senescence leaves in a mutant bank generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis of elite indica rice ZhongJian100. Five premature senescence leaf (psl15, psl50, psl89, psl117 and psl270) mutants were identified with distinct yellowish phenotypes on leaves starting from the tillering stage to final maturation...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jooyeon Jeong, Kwangryul Baek, Jihyeon Yu, Henning Kirst, Nico Betterle, Woongghi Shin, Sangsu Bae, Anastasios Melis, EonSeon Jin
Nuclear-encoded light-harvesting chlorophyll- and carotenoid-binding proteins (LHCPs) are imported into the chloroplast and transported across the stroma to thylakoid membrane assembly sites by the chloroplast signal recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway. The LHCP translocation defect (LTD) protein is essential for the delivery of imported LHCPs to the CpSRP pathway in Arabidopsis. However, the function of the LTD protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has not been investigated. Here, we generated a C. reinhardtii ltd (Crltd) knockout mutant by using CRISPR-Cas9, a new target-specific knockout technology...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sowbiya Muneer, Hao Wei, Yoo Gyeong Park, Hai Kyoung Jeong, Byoung Ryong Jeong
The present study depicted the role of silicon in limiting the hyperhydricity in shoot cultures of carnation through proteomic analysis. Four-week-old healthy shoot cultures of carnation "Purple Beauty" were sub-cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium followed with four treatments, viz. control (-Si/-Hyperhydricity), hyperhydric with no silicon treatment (-Si/+Hyperhydricity), hyperhydric with silicon treatment (+Si/+Hyperhydricity), and only silicon treated with no hyperhydricity (+Si/-Hyperhydricity). Comparing to control morphological features of hyperhydric carnations showed significantly fragile, bushy and lustrous leaf nature, while Si supply restored these effects...
December 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S Andrei Anghel, Philip T McGilvray, Ramanujan S Hegde, Robert J Keenan
Members of the evolutionarily conserved Oxa1/Alb3/YidC family mediate membrane protein biogenesis at the mitochondrial inner membrane, chloroplast thylakoid membrane, and bacterial plasma membrane, respectively. Despite their broad phylogenetic distribution, no Oxa1/Alb3/YidC homologs are known to operate in eukaryotic cells outside the endosymbiotic organelles. Here, we present bioinformatic evidence that the tail-anchored protein insertion factor WRB/Get1, the "endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane complex" subunit EMC3, and TMCO1 are ER-resident homologs of the Oxa1/Alb3/YidC family...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
Tim Jiang, Edward Saehong Oh, Diana Bonea, Rongmin Zhao
Arabidopsis plastidic HSP90C is an HSP90 family molecular chaperone that is required for chloroplast development and function. To understand the mechanism of action of HSP90C within the chloroplast, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screening and revealed it interacts directly with the photosystem II extrinsic protein PsbO1, which performs a canonical function in the thylakoid lumen. To understand the biological significance of HSP90C-PsbO1 interaction, we investigated the role of HSP90C in modulating the stromal and thylakoid distribution of PsbO1GFP fusion protein...
2017: PloS One
Keshav Dahal, Greg C Vanlerberghe
The non-energy conserving alternative oxidase (AOX) respiration of plant mitochondria is known to interact with chloroplast photosynthesis. This may have consequences for growth, particularly under sub-optimal conditions when energy imbalances can impede photosynthesis. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the metabolism and growth of wild-type (WT) Nicotiana tabacum with that of AOX knockdown and overexpression lines during a prolonged steady-state mild to moderate water deficit. Under moderate water deficit, AOX amount was an important determinant of the rate of both mitochondrial respiration in the light and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) at the growth irradiance...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Eugen Kress, Peter Jahns
The dynamics of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence and the dynamics of xanthophyll conversion under different actinic light conditions were studied in intact leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. NPQ induction was investigated during up to 180 min illumination at 450, 900, and 1,800 μmol photons m-2 s-1 (μE) and NPQ relaxation after 5, 30, 90, or 180 min of pre-illumination at the same light intensities. The comparison of wild-type plants with mutants affected either in xanthophyll conversion (npq1 and npq2) or PsbS expression (npq4 and L17) or lumen acidification (pgr1) indicated that NPQ states with similar, but not identical characteristics are induced at longer time range (15-60 min) in wild-type and mutant plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Amine Elkhouni, Mokded Rabhi, Alexander G Ivanov, Mariana Krol, Walid Zorrig, Abderazzek Smaoui, Chedly Abdelly, Norman P A Huner
The abundance of calcareous soils makes bicarbonate-induced iron (Fe) deficiency a major problem for plant growth and crop yield. Therefore, Fe-efficient plants may constitute a solution for calcareous soil use. In the present work, we investigated the ability of the forage legume Sulla carnosa (Desf.) to maintain the integrity of its photosynthetic apparatus under iron deficiency conditions. Three treatments were applied: control, direct iron deficiency and bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency. At the harvest, all organs of deficient plants showed severe growth inhibition, the effect being less pronounced under indirect iron deficiency...
December 22, 2017: Plant Biology
Floris J Van Eerden, Manuel N Melo, Pim W J M Frederix, Siewert J Marrink
The thylakoid membrane has a unique lipid composition, consisting mostly of galactolipids. These thylakoid lipids have important roles in photosynthesis. Here, we investigate to what extent these lipids bind specifically to the Photosystem II complex. To this end, we performed coarse-grain MD simulations of the Photosystem II complex embedded in a thylakoid membrane with realistic composition. Based on >85 μs simulation time, we find that monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol lipids are enriched in the annular shell around the protein, and form distinct binding sites...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Shruthi Hamsanathan, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Umesh K Bageshwar, Siegfried M Musser
The Tat machinery catalyzes the transport of folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane in plants. Using fluorescence quenching and cross-linking approaches, we demonstrate that the Escherichia coli TatBC complex catalyzes insertion of a pre-SufI signal peptide hairpin that penetrates about halfway across the membrane bilayer. Analysis of 512 bacterial Tat signal peptides using secondary structure prediction and docking algorithms suggest that this hairpin interaction mode is generally conserved...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Misao Itouga, Manabu Hayatsu, Mayuko Sato, Yuuri Tsuboi, Yukari Kato, Kiminori Toyooka, Suechika Suzuki, Seiji Nakatsuka, Satoshi Kawakami, Jun Kikuchi, Hitoshi Sakakibara
Water contamination by heavy metals from industrial activities is a serious environmental concern. To mitigate heavy metal toxicity and to recover heavy metals for recycling, biomaterials used in phytoremediation and bio-sorbent filtration have recently drawn renewed attention. The filamentous protonemal cells of the moss Funaria hygrometrica can hyperaccumulate lead (Pb) up to 74% of their dry weight when exposed to solutions containing divalent Pb. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that Pb is localized to the cell walls, endoplasmic reticulum-like membrane structures, and chloroplast thylakoids, suggesting that multiple Pb retention mechanisms are operating in living F...
2017: PloS One
Taiara Aguiar Caires, Goia de Mattos Lyra, Guilherme Scotta Hentschke, Alexandre de Gusmão Pedrini, Célia Leite Sant'Anna, José Marcos de Castro Nunes
Brazil has an extensive and environmentally diverse coastline, which favors the occurrence of numerous cyanobacterial morpho- and ecotypes. Nevertheless, this coastline is still poorly studied and its diversity is underestimated. Considering the family Oscillatoriaceae, Lyngbya deserves special attention. It includes many clades which are phylogenetically non-related but morphologically similar. Such clades occur in marine and freshwater environments and are traditionally treated as a single genus. In the current study, we sampled both mediolittoral and estuarine zones along the Brazilian coast...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Helmut Kirchhoff
Oxygenic photosynthesis is a fundamental biological process that shaped the earth's biosphere. The process of energy transformation is hosted in highly specialized thylakoid membranes that adjust their architecture in response to environmental cues at different structural levels leading to the adjustment of photosynthetic functions. This review presents structure-function dynamics ranging from the whole membrane system over the mesoscopic level (protein ensembles) down to interactions between lipids and protein complexes...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Alizée Malnoë, Alex Schultink, Sanya Shahrasbi, Dominique Rumeau, Michel Havaux, Krishna K Niyogi
Light utilization is finely tuned in photosynthetic organisms to prevent cellular damage. The dissipation of excess absorbed light energy, a process termed NPQ, plays an important role in photoprotection. Little is known about the sustained or slowly reversible form(s) of NPQ and whether they are photoprotective, in part due to the lack of mutants. The Arabidopsis thaliana suppressor of quenching1 (soq1) mutant exhibits enhanced sustained NPQ, which we term qH. To identify molecular players involved in qH, we screened for suppressors of soq1 and isolated mutants affecting either chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO) or the chloroplastic lipocalin (CHL), now renamed plastid lipocalin (LCNP)...
December 12, 2017: Plant Cell
James Barber
The biological energy cycle of our planet is driven by photosynthesis whereby sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll and other accessory pigments. The excitation energy is then efficiently transferred to a reaction centre where charge separation occurs in a few picoseconds. In the case of photosystem II (PSII), the energy of the charge transfer state is used to split water into oxygen and reducing equivalents. This is accomplished by the relatively low energy content of four photons of visible light. PSII is a large multi-subunit membrane protein complex embedded in the lipid environment of the thylakoid membranes of plants, algae and cyanobacteria...
January 2017: Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics
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