keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Thylakoids

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915172/dark-chilling-induces-substantial-structural-changes-and-modifies-galactolipid-and-carotenoid-composition-during-chloroplast-biogenesis-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-cotyledons
#1
Joanna Skupień, Joanna Wójtowicz, Łucja Kowalewska, Radosław Mazur, Maciej Garstka, Katarzyna Gieczewska, Agnieszka Mostowska
Plants in a temperate climate are often subject to different environmental factors, chilling stress among them, which influence the growth especially during early stages of plant development. Chloroplasts are one of the first organelles affected by the chilling stress. Therefore the proper biogenesis of chloroplasts in early stages of plant growth is crucial for undertaking the photosynthetic activity. In this paper, the analysis of the cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis at different levels of plastid organization was performed in cucumber, one of the most popular chilling sensitive crops...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914200/assembling-the-tat-protein-translocase
#2
Felicity Alcock, Phillip J Stansfeld, Hajra Basit, Johann Habersetzer, Matthew Ab Baker, Tracy Palmer, Mark I Wallace, Ben C Berks
The twin-arginine protein translocation system (Tat) transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts. The Tat transporter is assembled from multiple copies of the membrane proteins TatA, TatB, and TatC. We combine sequence co-evolution analysis, molecular simulations, and experimentation to define the interactions between the Tat proteins of Escherichia coli at molecular-level resolution. In the TatBC receptor complex the transmembrane helix of each TatB molecule is sandwiched between two TatC molecules, with one of the inter-subunit interfaces incorporating a functionally important cluster of interacting polar residues...
December 3, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904946/chlorophyll-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-provides-new-insight-into-the-chlorosis-induced-by-plant-virus-infection
#3
Rong Lei, Hongshan Jiang, Fan Hu, Jin Yan, Shuifang Zhu
Leaf chlorosis induced by plant virus infection has a short fluorescence lifetime, which reflects damaged photosynthetic complexes and degraded chloroplasts. Plant viruses often induce chlorosis and necrosis, which are intimately related to photosynthetic functions. Chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime measurement is a valuable noninvasive tool for analyzing photosynthetic processes and is a sensitive indicator of the environment surrounding the fluorescent molecules. In this study, our central goal was to explore the effect of viral infection on photosynthesis by employing chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), steady-state fluorescence, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pigment analysis...
November 30, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902306/description-of-gloeomargarita-lithophora-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-thylakoid-bearing-basal-branching-cyanobacterium-with-intracellular-carbonates-and-proposal-for-gloeomargaritales-ord-nov
#4
David Moreira, Rosaluz Tavera, Karim Benzerara, Fériel Skouri-Panet, Estelle Couradeau, Emmanuelle Gérard, Céline Loussert Fonta, Eberto Novelo, Yvan Zivanovic, Purificación López-García
A unicellular cyanobacterium, strain Alchichica-D10, was isolated from microbialites of the alkaline Lake Alchichica, Mexico. The cells were short rods (3.9 ± 0.6 μm in length and 1.1 ± 0.1 μm in width) forming biofilms of intense emerald green color. They exhibited red autofluorescence under UV light excitation. UV-visible absorption spectra revealed that they contain chlorophyll a and phycocyanin, and electron microscopy showed the presence of thylakoids. The strain grew within a temperature range of 15-30 °C...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901641/light-triggered-selective-nitration-of-psbo1-in-isolated-arabidopsis-thylakoid-membranes-is-inhibited-by-photosynthetic-electron-transport-inhibitors
#5
Misa Takahashi, Jun Shigeto, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiromichi Morikawa
PSBO1 is exclusively nitrated when isolated thylakoid membranes are incubated in a buffer bubbled with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) containing NO2 and nitrite. NO2 is the primary intermediate for this selective nitration. Isolated thylakoid membranes were incubated in NO2-bubbled buffer at 25°C in the light or dark. Protein analysis confirmed the selective nitration of PSBO1. Illumination was found to be essential in PSBO1 nitration. A nitration mechanism whereby nitratable tyrosine residues of PSBO1 are, prior to nitration, selectively photo-oxidized by photosynthetic electron transport to tyrosyl radicals to combine with NO2 to form 3-nitrotyrosine was hypothesized...
November 30, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897248/comprehensive-investigation-of-tobacco-leaves-during-natural-early-senescence-via-multi-platform-metabolomics-analyses
#6
Lili Li, Jieyu Zhao, Yanni Zhao, Xin Lu, Zhihui Zhou, Chunxia Zhao, Guowang Xu
Senescence is the final stage of leaf growth and development. Many different physiological activities occur during this process. A comprehensive metabolomics analysis of tobacco middle leaves at 5 different developmental stages was implemented through multi-platform methods based on liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In total, 412 metabolites were identified, including pigments, sterols, lipids, amino acids, polyamines, sugars and secondary metabolites...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896527/an-enzyme-kinetics-study-of-the-ph-dependence-of-chloride-activation-of-oxygen-evolution-in-photosystem-ii
#7
Sergei Baranov, Alice Haddy
Oxygen evolution by photosystem II (PSII) involves activation by Cl(-) ion, which is regulated by extrinsic subunits PsbQ and PsbP. In this study, the kinetics of chloride activation of oxygen evolution was studied in preparations of PSII depleted of the PsbQ and PsbP subunits (NaCl-washed and Na2SO4/pH 7.5-treated) over a pH range from 5.3 to 8.0. At low pH, activation by chloride was followed by inhibition at chloride concentrations >100 mM, whereas at high pH activation continued as the chloride concentration increased above 100 mM...
November 28, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895226/the-plastoglobule-localized-metallopeptidase-pgm48-is-a-positive-regulator-of-senescence-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Nazmul H Bhuiyan, Giulia Friso, Elden Rowland, Kristina Majsec, Klaas Jan van Wijk
Plastoglobuli (PG) are thylakoid-associated monolayer lipid particles with a specific proteome of ~30 PG core proteins and isoprenoid- and neutral lipids. During senescence, PG increase in size, reflecting their role in dismantling thylakoid membranes. Here we show that the only PG-localized peptidase, PGM48, positively regulates leaf senescence. We discovered that PGM48 is a member of the M48 peptidase family with PGM48 homologs, forming a clade (M48D) only found in photosynthetic organisms. Unlike the M48A, B, and C clades, members of M48D have no transmembrane domains, consistent with their unique subcellular location in the PG...
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895203/a-palmitic-acid-elongase-affects-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-plastidal-monogalactosyldiacylglcerol-levels-in-nannochloropsis
#9
Lina Juana Dolch, Camille Rak, Giorgio Perin, Guillaume Tourcier, Richard Broughton, Marina Leterrier, Tomas Morosinotto, Frédérique Tellier, Jean-Denis Faure, Denis Falconet, Juliette Jouhet, Olga Sayanova, Frederic Beaudoin, Eric Marechal
Nannochloropsis species are oleaginous eukaryotes containing a plastid limited by four membranes, deriving from a secondary endosymbiosis. In Nannochloropsis, thylakoid lipids including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) are enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The need for EPA in MGDG is not understood. Fatty acids are de novo synthesized in the stroma, then converted into very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids at the ER. The production of MGDG relies therefore on an EPA supply from the ER to the plastid, following an unknown process...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895124/anionic-phospholipids-and-the-albino3-translocase-activate-srp-receptor-interaction-during-lhcp-targeting
#10
Sowmya Chandrasekar, Shu-Ou Shan
The universally conserved signal recognition particle (SRP) cotranslationally delivers newly synthesized membrane and secretory proteins to the target cellular membrane. The only exception is found in the chloroplast of green plants, where the chloroplast SRP (cpSRP) post-translationally targets light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins (LHCP) to the thylakoid membrane. The mechanism and regulation of this post-translational mode of targeting by cpSRP remain unclear. Using biochemical and biophysical methods, here we show that anionic phospholipids activate the cpSRP receptor cpFtsY to promote rapid and stable cpSRP54-cpFtsY complex assembly...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891682/robust-min-system-oscillation-in-the-presence-of-internal-photosynthetic-membranes-in-cyanobacteria
#11
Joshua S MacCready, Jory Schossau, Katherine W Osteryoung, Daniel C Ducat
The oscillatory Min system of Escherichia coli defines the cell division plane by regulating the site of FtsZ-ring formation and represents one of the best-understood examples of emergent protein self-organization in nature. The oscillatory patterns of the Min-system proteins MinC, MinD and MinE (MinCDE) are strongly dependent on the geometry of membranes they bind. Complex internal membranes within cyanobacteria could disrupt this self-organization by sterically occluding or sequestering MinCDE from the plasma membrane...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883062/genome-wide-transcriptome-analysis-revealed-organelle-specific-responses-to-temperature-variations-in-algae
#12
HyeonSeok Shin, Seong-Joo Hong, Chan Yoo, Mi-Ae Han, Hookeun Lee, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Suhyung Cho, Choul-Gyun Lee, Byung-Kwan Cho
Temperature is a critical environmental factor that affects microalgal growth. However, microalgal coping mechanisms for temperature variations are unclear. Here, we determined changes in transcriptome, total carbohydrate, total fatty acid methyl ester, and fatty acid composition of Tetraselmis sp. KCTC12432BP, a strain with a broad temperature tolerance range, to elucidate the tolerance mechanisms in response to large temperature variations. Owing to unavailability of genome sequence information, de novo transcriptome assembly coupled with BLAST analysis was performed using strand specific RNA-seq data...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871883/importance-of-phosphatidylcholine-on-the-chloroplast-surface
#13
REVIEW
César Botella, Juliette Jouhet, Maryse A Block
In plant cells, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major glycerolipid of most membranes but practically lacking from the plastid internal membranes. In chloroplasts, PC is absent from the thylakoids and the inner envelope membrane. It is however the main component of the outer envelope membrane, where it exclusively distributes in the outer monolayer. This unique distribution is likely related with operational compartmentalization of plant lipid metabolism. In this review, we summarize the different mechanisms involved in homeostasis of PC in plant cells...
November 19, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867392/the-physcomitrella-patens-chloroplast-proteome-changes-in-response-to-protoplastation
#14
Igor Fesenko, Anna Seredina, Georgij Arapidi, Vasily Ptushenko, Anatoly Urban, Ivan Butenko, Sergey Kovalchuk, Konstantin Babalyan, Andrey Knyazev, Regina Khazigaleeva, Elena Pushkova, Nikolai Anikanov, Vadim Ivanov, Vadim M Govorun
Plant protoplasts are widely used for genetic manipulation and functional studies in transient expression systems. However, little is known about the molecular pathways involved in a cell response to the combined stress factors resulted from protoplast generation. Plants often face more than one type of stress at a time, and how plants respond to combined stress factors is therefore of great interest. Here, we used protoplasts of the moss Physcomitrella patens as a model to study the effects of short-term stress on the chloroplast proteome...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865844/perturbations-of-carotenoid-and-tetrapyrrole-biosynthetic-pathways-result-in-differential-alterations-in-chloroplast-function-and-plastid-signaling
#15
Joon-Heum Park, Sunyo Jung
In this study, we used the biosynthetic inhibitors of carotenoid and tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathways, norflurazon (NF) and oxyfluorfen (OF), as tools to gain insight into mechanisms of photooxidation in rice plants. NF resulted in bleaching symptom on leaves of the treated plants, whereas OF treatment developed a fast symptom of an apparent necrotic phenotype. Both plants exhibited decreases in photosynthetic efficiency, as indicated by Fv/Fm. NF caused severe disruption in thylakoid membranes, whereas OF-treated plants exhibited disruption of chloroplast envelope and plasma membrane...
November 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864658/conjugates-between-photosystem-i-and-a-carbon-nanotube-for-a-photoresponse-device
#16
Daisuke Nii, Mariko Miyachi, Yuichiro Shimada, Yosuke Nozawa, Masahiro Ito, Yoshikazu Homma, Shu Ikehira, Yoshinori Yamanoi, Hiroshi Nishihara, Tatsuya Tomo
Photosystem I (PS I) is a large pigment-protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membranes that performs light-driven electron transfer across the thylakoid membrane. Carbon nanotubes exhibit excellent electrical conductivities and excellent strength and stiffness. In this study, we generated PSI-carbon nanotube conjugates dispersed in a solution aimed at application in artificial photosynthesis. PS I complexes in which a carbon nanotube binding peptide was introduced into the middle of the PsaE subunit were conjugated on a single-walled carbon nanotube, orienting the electron acceptor side to the nanotube...
November 18, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861610/the-chloroplast-srp-systems-of-chaetosphaeridium-globosum-and-physcomitrella-patens-as-intermediates-in-the-evolution-of-srp-dependent-protein-transport-in-higher-plants
#17
Dominik Ziehe, Beatrix Dünschede, Mira Zenker, Silke Funke, Marc M Nowaczyk, Danja Schünemann
The bacterial signal recognition particle (SRP) mediates the cotranslational targeting of membrane proteins and is a high affinity complex consisting of a SRP54 protein subunit (Ffh) and an SRP RNA. The chloroplast SRP (cpSRP) pathway has adapted throughout evolution to enable the posttranslational targeting of the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins (LHCPs) to the thylakoid membrane. In spermatophytes (seed plants), the cpSRP lacks the SRP RNA and is instead formed by a high affinity interaction of the conserved 54-kD subunit (cpSRP54) with the chloroplast-specific cpSRP43 protein...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859865/high-spatial-resolution-mass-spectrometry-imaging-reveals-the-genetically-programmed-developmental-modification-of-the-distribution-of-thylakoid-membrane-lipids-among-individual-cells-of-the-maize-leaf
#18
Maria Emilia Dueñas, Adam T Klein, Liza E Alexander, Marna D Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young Jin Lee
Metabolism in plants is compartmentalized among different tissues, cells and subcellular organelles. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) has recently advanced to allow for the visualization of metabolites at single cell resolution. Here we applied 5 and 10 μm high-spatial resolution MALDI-MSI to the asymmetric Kranz anatomy of maize leaves to study the differential localization of two major anionic lipids in thylakoid membranes, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG)...
November 17, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859364/significance-of-structural-variation-in-thylakoid-membranes-in-maintaining-functional-photosystems-during-reproductive-growth
#19
Hatsumi Nozue, Kaori Oono, Yoshinobu Ichikawa, Shun Tanimura, Kana Shirai, Kintake Sonoike, Masayuki Nozue, Nobuaki Hayashida
Structural variation in the stroma-grana arrangement of the thylakoid membranes, such as changes in the thickness of the grana stacks and in the ratio between grana and inter-grana thylakoid, is often observed. Broadly, such alterations are considered acclimation to changes in growth and the environment. However, the relation of thylakoid morphology to plant growth and photosynthesis remains obscure. Here, we report changes in the thylakoid during leaf development under a fixed light condition. Histological studies on the chloroplasts of fresh green Arabidopsis leaves have shown that characteristically shaped thylakoid membranes lacking the inter-grana region, referred to hereafter as isolated-grana, occurred adjacent to highly ordered, large grana layers...
November 17, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853580/multispeq-beta-a-tool-for-large-scale-plant-phenotyping-connected-to-the-open-photosynq-network
#20
Sebastian Kuhlgert, Greg Austic, Robert Zegarac, Isaac Osei-Bonsu, Donghee Hoh, Martin I Chilvers, Mitchell G Roth, Kevin Bi, Dan TerAvest, Prabode Weebadde, David M Kramer
Large-scale high-throughput plant phenotyping (sometimes called phenomics) is becoming increasingly important in plant biology and agriculture and is essential to cutting-edge plant breeding and management approaches needed to meet the food and fuel needs for the next century. Currently, the application of these approaches is severely limited by the availability of appropriate instrumentation and by the ability to communicate experimental protocols, results and analyses. To address these issues, we have developed a low-cost, yet sophisticated open-source scientific instrument designed to enable communities of researchers, plant breeders, educators, farmers and citizen scientists to collect high-quality field data on a large scale...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
keyword
keyword
67855
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"