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physiology and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143975/sustained-cardiac-programming-by-short-term-juvenile-exercise-training-in-male-rats
#1
Y Asif, M E Wlodek, M J Black, A P Russell, P F Soeding, G D Wadley
The aim of this study was to investigate if endurance training during juvenile life 'reprograms' the heart and leads to sustained improvements in the structure, function, and morphology of the adult heart. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exercise trained 5 days/week for four weeks in either juvenile (5-9 weeks of age), adolescent (11-15 weeks of age) or adult life (20-24 weeks of age). Juvenile exercise training, when compared to 24 week old sedentary rats, led to sustained increases in left ventricle (LV) mass (+18%; P < 0...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141882/transparent-anemone-shrimp-ancylomenes-pedersoni-become-opaque-after-exercise-and-physiological-stress-in-correlation-with-increased-hemolymph-perfusion
#2
Laura E Bagge, Stephen T Kinsey, Justin Gladman, Sönke Johnsen
Whole-body transparency, an effective camouflage strategy in many aquatic species, can be disrupted by environmental and/or physiological stressors. We found that tail-flip escape responses temporarily disrupt the transparency of the anemone shrimp Ancylomenes pedersoni After as few as three tail flips, the previously transparent abdominal muscle became cloudy. Eliciting additional tail flips to the point of exhaustion (16±1 s.e.m.; n=23) resulted in complete opacity, though the original transparency returned after 20-60 min of inactivity...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141215/octopamine-drives-endurance-exercise-adaptations-in-drosophila
#3
Alyson Sujkowski, Divya Ramesh, Axel Brockmann, Robert Wessells
Endurance exercise is an effective therapeutic intervention with substantial pro-healthspan effects. Male Drosophila respond to a ramped daily program of exercise by inducing conserved physiological responses similar to those seen in mice and humans. Female flies respond to an exercise stimulus but do not experience the adaptive training response seen in males. Here, we use female flies as a model to demonstrate that differences in exercise response are mediated by differences in neuronal activity. The activity of octopaminergic neurons is specifically required to induce the conserved cellular and physiological changes seen following endurance training...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139195/phenotypic-characteristics-associated-with-slow-gait-speed-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#4
Claire M Nolan, Matthew Maddocks, Toby M Maher, Jane L Canavan, Sarah E Jones, Ruth E Barker, Suhani Patel, Joseph Jacob, Paul Cullinan, William D-C Man
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Usual gait speed over 4 m (4MGS) is an established functional performance measure in older adults that consistently predicts adverse health outcomes, but few data exist in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We assessed the reliability of 4MGS, its relationship with established outcome measures and its responsiveness to pulmonary rehabilitation. METHODS: In four prospective IPF cohorts, 4MGS inter-observer (n = 46) and test-retest (n = 46) reliability, concurrent validity (n = 65 and n = 62) and responsiveness (n = 60) were determined...
November 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138215/physiology-undergraduate-degree-requirements-in-the-u-s
#5
Valerie S VanRyn, James M Poteracki, Erica A Wehrwein
Course-level learning objectives and core concepts for undergraduate physiology teaching exist. The next step is to consider how these resources fit into generalizable program-level guidelines for Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees in Physiology. In the absence of program-level guidelines for Physiology degree programs, we compiled a selective internal report to review degree requirements from 18 peer BS programs entitled "Physiology" in the United States (U.S.). There was a range of zero to three required semesters of math, physics, physics laboratory, general biology, biology laboratory, general chemistry, chemistry laboratory, organic chemistry, organic chemistry laboratory, biochemistry, biochemistry laboratory, anatomy, anatomy laboratory, core systems physiology, and physiology laboratory...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138214/sport-science-internships-for-learning-a-critical-view
#6
EDITORIAL
James J Malone
Sport science has gained vast popularity with students who have an interest in both physiology and the underpinning mechanisms of exercise concerning performance and health. The high numbers of graduates each year, coupled with the low number of graduate positions working in sports, has led to a high level of competition between students. To stand out from the crowd, sport science students may undertake an internship placement as part of their course, designed to enhance theoretical, practical, and soft skills in an applied setting...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137117/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-proteomics-literature-on-the-response-of-human-skeletal-muscle-to-obesity-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm-versus-exercise-training
#7
REVIEW
Kanchana Srisawat, Sam O Shepherd, Paulo J Lisboa, Jatin G Burniston
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of proteomics literature that reports human skeletal muscle responses in the context of either pathological decline associated with obesity/T2DM and physiological adaptations to exercise training. Literature was collected from PubMed and DOAJ databases following PRISMA guidelines using the search terms 'proteom*', and 'skeletal muscle' combined with either 'obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance' or 'exercise, training'. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review, and meta-analysis was performed on a sub-set (four studies) of the reviewed literature that reported the necessary primary data...
November 11, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136476/effectiveness-of-a-school-based-program-focusing-on-diet-and-health-habits-taught-through-physical-exercise
#8
Ana Pablos, Vicente Nebot, Vicente Vañó-Vicent, Diego Ceca, Laura Elvira
The global rate of obesity in childhood is becoming an epidemic and many authors have established a significant association between childhood obesity and overweight in adulthood. It is therefore necessary to seek effective strategies to reduce these levels of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Healthy Habits Program (HHP). The participants were 158 children from the 5th and 6th grades (Intervention Group [IG] n=82, Control Group [CG] n=76). The HHP is a school-based physical activity program focusing on promoting a healthy lifestyle...
November 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136305/neural-basis-of-exertional-fatigue-in-the-heat-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#9
REVIEW
X R Tan, Ivan C C Low, Mary C Stephenson, T W Soong, Jason K W Lee
The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies - brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI and arterial spin labelling...
November 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131507/the-disruptive-effect-of-lysozyme-on-the-bacterial-cell-wall-explored-by-an-in-silico-structural-outlook
#10
Emiliano D Primo, Lisandro H Otero, Francisco Ruiz, Sebastián Klinke, Walter Giordano
The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the bacterial life cycle by cleaving the linkage between the NAG and NAM carbohydrates. Lab exercises focused on the effects of lysozyme on the bacterial cell wall are frequently incorporated in biochemistry classes designed for undergraduate students in diverse fields as biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, and veterinary medicine...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129022/heat-acclimation-decay-and-re-induction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Hein A M Daanen, Sebastien Racinais, Julien D Périard
BACKGROUND: Although the acquisition of heat acclimation (HA) is well-documented, less is known about HA decay (HAD) and heat re-acclimation (HRA). The available literature suggests 1 day of HA is lost following 2 days of HAD. Understanding this relationship has the potential to impact upon the manner in which athletes prepare for major competitions, as a HA regimen may be disruptive during final preparations (i.e., taper). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the rate of HAD and HRA in three of the main physiological adaptations occurring during HA: heart rate (HR), core temperature (T c), and sweat rate (SR)...
November 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128525/respiratory-rehabilitation-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-narrative-review-of-rehabilitation-techniques
#12
REVIEW
J Levy, H Prigent, D Bensmail
BACKGROUND: Respiratory disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are an important issue. They can occur early during the course of the disease, are associated with the neurological impairment, and can lead to pneumonia and respiratory failure, which are the main causes of death in advanced MS. Prevailing impaired expiratory muscles and cough abilities has been demonstrated in this population and might constitute a specific target for rehabilitation interventions. However, international guidelines lack recommendations regarding respiratory rehabilitation in MS...
November 8, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127518/identifying-molecular-mediators-of-environmentally-enhanced-neurogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Brian E Eisinger, Xinyu Zhao
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life and supports healthy brain functions. The production of new neurons decreases with age, and deficiencies in adult neurogenesis are associated with neurodevelopmental and degenerative disease. The rate of neurogenesis is dynamically sensitive to an individual's environmental conditions and experiences, and certain stimuli are known robustly to enhance neurogenesis in rodent models, including voluntary exercise, enriched environment, and electroconvulsive shock...
November 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127187/apobec2-deficiency-causes-mitochondrial-defects-and-mitophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#14
Yusuke Sato, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Naohiro Nihei, Takane Kaneko, Yoriko Sato, Shin-Ichi Adachi, Shinji Kondo, Mako Nakamura, Wataru Mizunoya, Hiroshi Iida, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Cristina Rada, Fumiaki Yoshizawa
Apobec2 is a member of the activation-induced deaminase/apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide cytidine deaminase family expressed in differentiated skeletal and cardiac muscle. We previously reported that Apobec2 deficiency in mice leads to a shift in muscle fiber type, myopathy, and diminished muscle mass. However, the mechanisms of myopathy caused by Apobec2 deficiency and its physiologic functions are unclear. Here we show that, although Apobec2 localizes to the sarcomeric Z-lines in mouse tissue and cultured myotubes, the sarcomeric structure is not affected in Apobec2-deficient muscle...
November 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125372/matched-increases-in-cerebral-artery-shear-stress-irrespective-of-stimulus-induce-similar-changes-in-extra-cranial-arterial-diameter-in-humans
#15
Kurt J Smith, Ryan L Hoiland, Ryan Grove, Hamish McKirdy, Louise Naylor, Philip N Ainslie, Daniel J Green
The mechanistic role of arterial shear stress in the regulation of cerebrovascular responses to physiological stimuli (exercise and hypercapnia) is poorly understood. We hypothesised that, if shear stress is a key regulator of arterial dilation, then matched increases in shear, induced by distinct physiological stimuli, would trigger similar dilation of the large extra-cranial arteries. Participants ( n = 10) participated in three 30-min experimental interventions, each separated by ≥48 h: (1) mild-hypercapnia (FICO2:∼0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124664/downhill-exercise-alters-immunoproteasome-content-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#16
Cory W Baumann, Dongmin Kwak, Deborah A Ferrington, LaDora V Thompson
Content of the immunoproteasome, the inducible form of the standard proteasome, increases in atrophic muscle suggesting it may be associated with skeletal muscle remodeling. However, it remains unknown if the immunoproteasome responds to stressful situations that do not promote large perturbations in skeletal muscle proteolysis. The purpose of this study was to determine how an acute bout of muscular stress influences immunoproteasome content. To accomplish this, wild-type (WT) and immunoproteasome knockout lmp7 (-/-) /mecl1 (-/-) (L7M1) mice were run downhill on a motorized treadmill...
November 9, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124325/changes-in-fat-oxidation-in-response-to-various-regimes-of-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit
#17
REVIEW
Todd Anthony Astorino, Matthew M Schubert
Increased whole-body fat oxidation (FOx) has been consistently demonstrated in response to moderate intensity continuous exercise training. Completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and its more intense form, sprint interval training (SIT), has also been reported to increase FOx in different populations. An explanation for this increase in FOx is primarily peripheral adaptations via improvements in mitochondrial content and function. However, studies examining changes in FOx are less common in response to HIIT or SIT than those determining increases in maximal oxygen uptake which is concerning, considering that FOx has been identified as a predictor of weight gain and glycemic control...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123620/the-effects-of-regular-exercise-on-capsaicin-induced-pulpal-pain-and-pain-induced-changes-in-passive-avoidance-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#18
Maryam Raoof, Afshin Shakoori, Razieh Kooshki, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Sara Amanpour
Background: Pulpal pain is one of the most common and severe orofacial pain conditions with considerable adverse effects on physiological processes including learning and memory. Regular exercise is known to be effective on cognitive function as well as pain processing in the central nervous system. Here, the possible effects of regular exercise on pulpal pain response as well as pain-induced changes in learning and memory efficiency in rats were investigated. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control, capsaicin, exercise, and exercise plus capsaicin groups...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122952/organ-level-validation-of-a-cross-bridge-cycling-descriptor-in-a-left-ventricular-finite-element-model-effects-of-ventricular-loading-on-myocardial-strains
#19
Sheikh Mohammad Shavik, Samuel T Wall, Joakim Sundnes, Daniel Burkhoff, Lik Chuan Lee
Although detailed cell-based descriptors of cross-bridge cycling have been applied in finite element (FE) heart models to describe ventricular mechanics, these multiscale models have never been tested rigorously to determine if these descriptors, when scaled up to the organ-level, are able to reproduce well-established organ-level physiological behaviors. To address this void, we here validate a left ventricular (LV) FE model that is driven by a cell-based cross-bridge cycling descriptor against key organ-level heart physiology...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122139/role-of-exercise-testing-in-hypertrophic%C3%A2-cardiomyopathy
#20
REVIEW
Ethan J Rowin, Barry J Maron, Iacopo Olivotto, Martin S Maron
Over the last 25 years, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have been studied with a variety of methods employing physiological exercise that have made major contributions to disease management and are performed without increased risk. Previously under-utilized in HCM, exercise (stress) echocardiography has become incorporated into the standard clinical assessment and diagnostic armamentarium of HCM using upright or supine symptom-limited treadmill or bicycle modalities. In patients without outflow gradients at rest, exercise echocardiography is the most appropriate method for provoking obstruction, with the capability of predicting future development of progressive heart failure symptoms, and differentiating patients with provocable obstruction from those without obstruction, with major implications for dictating treatment options, that is, surgical myectomy (alternatively, alcohol septal ablation) versus heart transplant...
November 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
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