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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073733/antibiotic-therapy-and-staphylococcal-skin-infections-in-a-tropical-malarial-zone-guyana-practices-in-conventional-and-exceptional-situations
#1
S-P Corcostegui, H Lefort, A Dia, V Pommier de Santi, C Carfantan, J Galant, E Lightburne, P Guénot, X Deparis, R Migliani, J-J Morand
A problem of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus skin infections emerged in the French armed forces in 2004, in a malaria-endemic areas. The high incidence rate led us to evaluate military staff practices. This was a cross-sectional survey of doctors and nurses deployed as officers in French Guyana since 2006. The definition of skin and soft-tissue infection came from the criteria for epidemiological surveillance of the armed forces. We studied the management of antibiotic therapy and its related difficulties...
November 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070310/implementation-of-the-who-multimodal-hand-hygiene-improvement-strategy-in-a-university-hospital-in-central-ethiopia
#2
Frieder Pfäfflin, Tafese Beyene Tufa, Million Getachew, Tsehaynesh Nigussie, Andreas Schönfeld, Dieter Häussinger, Torsten Feldt, Nicole Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The burden of health-care associated infections in low-income countries is high. Adequate hand hygiene is considered the most effective measure to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to assess compliance with hand hygiene and perception and knowledge about hand hygiene before and after the implementation of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign designed by the World Health Organization. METHODS: The study was carried out at Asella Teaching Hospital, a university hospital and referral centre for a population of about 3...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069883/comparison-of-phenotypic-methods-for-the-detection-of-penicillinase-in-staphylococcus-aureus-and-proposal-of-a-practical-diagnostic-approach
#3
Michael Hombach, Christoph Weissert, Maria Magdalena Senn, Reinhard Zbinden
OBJECTIVES: Disc diffusion is a cost-efficient, low-complexity, reliable method for detection of blaZ-mediated benzylpenicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus if the zone edge is inspected. EUCAST breakpoints cannot fully separate β-lactamase-positive from β-lactamase-negative strains, and EUCAST recommends the zone edge test. Literature on nitrocefin-based testing and the zone edge test is scarce with wide variations in reported assay performance. METHODS: This study compared two different nitrocefin-based commercial and in-house tests and the EUCAST-based zone edge test for penicillinase detection in S...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069473/high-intensity-training-improves-global-and-segmental-strains-in-severe-congestive-heart-failure
#4
Yair Blumberg, Offir Ertracht, Itai Gershon, Noa Bachner-Hinenzon, Tali Reuveni, Shaul Atar
BACKGROUND: High intensity training (HIT) is superior to moderate aerobic training (MAT) for improving quality of life in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has recently been suggested for estimation of left ventricle global and regional function. AIMS: We evaluated the utility of STE for characterizing differences in cardiac function following MAT or HIT in a CHF rat model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following baseline physiological assessment, CHF was induced by coronary artery ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046795/mo-fg-202-06-improving-the-performance-of-gamma-analysis-qa-with-radiomics-based-image-analysis
#5
L Wootton, A Chaovalitwongse, N Li, M Nyflot, E Ford
PURPOSE: The use of gamma analysis for IMRT quality assurance has well-known limitations. Traditionally, a simple thresholding technique is used to evaluated passing criteria. However, like any image the gamma distribution is rich in information which thresholding mostly discards. We therefore propose a novel method of analyzing gamma images that uses quantitative image features borrowed from radiomics, with the goal of improving error detection. METHODS: 368 gamma images were generated from 184 clinical IMRT beams...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043024/utility-of-a-questionnaire-tool-quaras-for-localizing-and-lateralizing-seizures-in-the-epilepsy-monitoring-unit-emu
#6
Rima M Chaudhari, Bhargavi Ramanujam, Renjith Appukuttan, Anubha Sharma, Yuvraj Kunwar, Gaurav Tejaniya, Ajay Garg, Madakasira Vasantha Padma, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrashekhar Bal, Deepa Dash, Sarat P Chandra, Manjari Tripathi
OBJECTIVES: An accurate description of the seizure semiology improves the recognition of the ictal onset zone and helps in hypothesizing the possible epileptogenic zone (EZ). Semiology based on a reliable description of seizures may be as good as investigative modalities, as has been shown by numerous studies. The main objective of this study was to apply a questionnaire-tool for auras and semiology (QUARAS) in refractory epilepsy cohort and compare its yield to that of standard history-taking...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040019/relative-salience-of-spectral-and-temporal-features-in-auditory-long-term-memory
#7
Pingbo Yin, Shihab A Shamma, Jonathan B Fritz
In order to explore the representation of sound features in auditory long-term memory, two groups of ferrets were trained on Go vs Nogo, 3-zone classification tasks. The sound stimuli differed primarily along the spectral and temporal dimensions. In Group 1, two ferrets were trained to (i) classify tones based on their frequency (Tone-task), and subsequently learned to (ii) classify white noise based on its amplitude modulation rate (AM-task). In Group 2, two ferrets were trained to classify tones based on correlated combinations of their frequency and AM rate (AM-Tone task)...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039927/multi-center-validation-of-prostate-tumor-localization-using-multi-parametric-mri-and-prior-knowledge
#8
Cuong Viet Dinh, Peter Steenbergen, Ghazaleh Ghobadi, Henk van der Poel, Stijn W T P J Heijmink, Jeroen de Jong, Sofie Isebaert, Karin Haustermans, Evelyne Lerut, Raymond Oyen, Yangming Ou, Davatzikos Christos, Uulke A van der Heide
PURPOSE: Tumor localization provides crucial information for radiotherapy dose differentiation treatments, such as focal dose escalation and dose painting by numbers, which aim at achieving tumor control with minimal side effects. Multi-parametric (mp-)MRI is increasingly used for tumor detection and localization in prostate because of its ability to visualize tissue structure and to reveal tumor characteristics. However, it can be challenging to distinguish cancer, particularly in the transition zone...
December 31, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032245/electronic-and-optical-properties-of-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes
#9
REVIEW
R Saito, A R T Nugraha, E H Hasdeo, N T Hung, W Izumida
In this article, we overview our recent theoretical works on electronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes by going from the background to the perspectives. Electronic Raman spectra of metallic carbon nanotubes give a new picture of Raman processes. Thermoelectricity of semiconducting nanotubes gives a general concept of the confinement effect on the thermoelectric power factor. Selective excitation of only a single phonon mode is proposed by the pulsed train technique of coherent phonon spectroscopy...
February 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025662/the-effect-of-a-live-high-train-high-exercise-regimen-on-behavioural-temperature-regulation
#10
Shawnda A Morrison, Urša Ciuha, Daniela Zavec-Pavlinić, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic
PURPOSE: Acute hypoxia alters the threshold for sensation of cutaneous thermal stimuli. We hypothesised that hypoxia-induced alterations in cutaneous temperature sensation may lead to modulation of the perception of temperature, ultimately influencing behavioural thermoregulation and that the magnitude of this effect could be influenced by daily physical training. METHODS: Fourteen men were confined 10 days to a normobaric hypoxic environment (PIO2 = 88.2 ± 0...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017975/the-role-of-surgeons-colposcopic-experience-in-obtaining-adequate-samples-by-large-loop-excision-of-the-transformation-zone-in-women-of-reproductive-age
#11
R Sparić, A Tinelli, M Guido, R Stefanović, I Babović, V Kesić
Introduction: There is insufficient reporting on the level of colposcopic training for the safe use of large loop excision of the transformation zone. The aim of this study was to perform a quality assessment of large loop excision of the transformation zone in women of reproductive age by evaluating the surgeons' colposcopic experience. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on diagnostic or therapeutic large loop excision of the transformation zone. The following variables were analyzed: age, parity, indications for surgery, level of surgeon's colposcopic experience, definitive histological diagnosis, margin involvement, and the presence and type of artifacts interfering with the pathological interpretation...
December 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017876/improved-acetabular-fracture-diagnosis-after-training-in-a-ct-based-method
#12
Pomme Jouffroy, Amer Sebaaly, Thomas Aubert, Guillaume Riouallon
BACKGROUND: Acetabular fractures remain challenging to diagnose, particularly when they are complex. An accurate diagnosis is nevertheless crucial to selectthe best surgical strategy.None of the training methods described to date relies on the Letournel classification with a detailed analysis of each abnormality seen by computed tomography (CT). We therefore prospectively assessed a CT-based diagnostic method by 1) determining the rate of correct diagnoses by orthopaedic surgeons before and after training in the method, 2) comparingthe times needed to read the CT images before and after training, 3) and assessing therepeatability of the method...
December 22, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996891/mapping-air-quality-zones-for-coastal-urban-centers
#13
Brian Freeman, Bahram Gharabaghi, Jesse Thé, Mohammad Munshed, Shah Faisal, Meshal Abdullah, Athari Al Aseed
This study presents a new method that incorporates modern air dispersion models allowing local terrain and land-sea breeze effects to be considered along with political and natural boundaries for more accurate mapping of air quality zones for coastal urban centers. This method uses local coastal wind patterns and key urban air pollution sources in each zone to more accurately calculate air pollutant concentration statistics. The new approach distributes virtual air pollution sources within each small grid cells of an area of interest and analyzes a puff dispersion model for a full year's worth of one-hour prognostic weather data...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990722/radiomic-features-for-prostate-cancer-detection-on-mri-differ-between-the-transition-and-peripheral-zones-preliminary-findings-from-a-multi-institutional-study
#14
Shoshana B Ginsburg, Ahmad Algohary, Shivani Pahwa, Vikas Gulani, Lee Ponsky, Hannu J Aronen, Peter J Boström, Maret Böhm, Anne-Maree Haynes, Phillip Brenner, Warick Delprado, James Thompson, Marley Pulbrock, Pekka Taimen, Robert Villani, Phillip Stricker, Ardeshir R Rastinehad, Ivan Jambor, Anant Madabhushi
PURPOSE: To evaluate in a multi-institutional study whether radiomic features useful for prostate cancer (PCa) detection from 3 Tesla (T) multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) in the transition zone (TZ) differ from those in the peripheral zone (PZ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3T mpMRI, including T2-weighted (T2w), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), were retrospectively obtained from 80 patients at three institutions. This study was approved by the institutional review board of each participating institution...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987527/development-validation-and-clinical-application-of-pelvic-lymphadenectomy-assessment-and-completion-evaluation-place-intraoperative-assessment-of-lymph-node-dissection-after-robot-assisted-radical-cystectomy-for-bladder-cancer
#15
Ahmed A Hussein, Nobuyuki Hinata, Shiva Dibaj, Paul R May, Justen D Kozlowski, Hassan Abol-Enein, Ronney Abaza, Daniel Eun, Shamim Khan, James L Mohler, Piyush Agrawal, Kamal Pohar, Richard Sarle, Ronald Boris, Sridhar S Mane, Alan Hutson, Khurshid A Guru
OBJECTIVES: To develop a scoring tool, Pelvic Lymphadenectomy Appropriateness and Completion Evaluation (PLACE), to assess the intraoperative completeness and appropriateness of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) following robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). METHODS: A panel of 11 open and robotic surgeons developed the content and structure of PLACE. The PLND template was divided into 3 zones. Twenty-one de-identified videos of bilateral robot-assisted PLND were assessed by the 11 experts using PLACE to determine inter-rater reliability (IRR)...
December 17, 2016: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976458/grassland-gross-carbon-dioxide-uptake-based-on-an-improved-model-tree-ensemble-approach-considering-human-interventions-global-estimation-and-covariation-with-climate
#16
Wei Liang, Yihe Lü, Weibin Zhang, Shuai Li, Zhao Jin, Philippe Ciais, Bojie Fu, Shuai Wang, Jianwu Yan, Junyi Li, Huimin Su
Grassland ecosystems act as a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and provide vital ecosystem services for many species. However, these low-productivity and water-limited ecosystems are sensitive and vulnerable to climate perturbations and human intervention, the latter which is often not considered due to lack of spatial information regarding the grassland management. Here by the application of a model tree ensemble (MTE-GRASS) trained on local eddy covariance data and using as predictors gridded climate and management intensity field (grazing and cutting), we first provide an estimate of global grassland gross primary production (GPP)...
December 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935421/the-effect-of-westward-travel-across-five-time-zones-on-sleep-and-subjective-jet-lag-ratings-in-athletes-before-and-during-the-2015-s-world-rowing-junior-championships
#17
Sarah Kölling, Gunnar Treff, Kay Winkert, Alexander Ferrauti, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann
This study examined sleep-wake habits and subjective jet-lag ratings of 55 German junior rowers (n = 30 male, 17.8 ± 0.5 years) before and during the World Rowing Junior Championships 2015 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Athletes answered sleep logs every morning, and Liverpool John Moore's University Jet-Lag Questionnaires each evening and morning. Following an 11-h westward flight with 5-h time shift, advanced bedtimes (-1 h, P < .001, ηp(2) = 0.68), reduced sleep onset latency (P = .002, ηp(2) = 0...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931505/phase-iii-clinical-trial-assessing-safety-and-efficacy-of-umbilical-cord-blood-mononuclear-cell-transplant-therapy-of-chronic-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Hui Zhu, Waisang Poon, Yansheng Liu, Gilberto Ka-Kit Leung, Yatwa Wong, Yaping Feng, Stephanie C P Ng, Kam Sze Tsang, David T F Sun, David K Yeung, Caihong Shen, Fang Niu, Zhexi Xu, Pengju Tan, Shaofeng Tang, Hongkun Gao, Yun Cha, Kwok-Fai So, Robert Fleischaker, Dongming Sun, John Chen, Jan Lai, Wendy Cheng, Wise Young
Umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cell (UCB-MNC) transplants improve recovery in animal spinal cord injury (SCI) models. We transplanted UCB-MNCs into 28 patients with chronic complete SCI in Hong Kong (HK) and Kunming (KM). Stemcyte Inc. donated UCB-MNCs isolated from human leukocyte antigen (HLA 4:6)-matched UCB units. In HK, four patients received four 4-l injections (1.6 million cells) into dorsal entry zones above and below the injury site, and another four received 8-l injections (3.2 million cells)...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918669/the-within-season-distribution-of-external-training-and-racing-workload-in-professional-male-road-cyclist
#19
Alan J Metcalfe, Paolo Menaspà, Vincent Villerius, Marc Quod, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Andrew D Govus, Chris R Abbiss
PURPOSE: To describe the within-season external workloads of professional male road cyclists for optimal training prescription. METHODS: Training and racing of four international competitive professional male cyclists (age 24 ± 2 y, body mass 77.6 ± 1.5 kg) were monitored for 12 months prior to the world team time trial championships. Three within-season phases leading up to the team time trial world championships on 20(th) Sept 2015 were defined as phase one (Oct - Jan), phase two (Feb - May) and phase three (June - Sept)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918229/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-trachoma-in-southern-nations-nationalities-and-peoples-region-ethiopia-results-of-40-population-based-prevalence-surveys-carried-out-with-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#20
Tesfaye Haileselassie Adera, Colin Macleod, Misganu Endriyas, Michael Dejene, Rebecca Willis, Brian K Chu, Yohannes Letamo, Tebeje Misganaw, Tamiru Mesele, Emebet Mekonnen, Alemayehu Sisay, Yeneneh Mulugeta, Wondu Alemayehu, Khumbo Kalua, Tezera Kifle Destu, Yilikal Adamu, Jennifer L Smith, Abu Beyene, Addisu Tadesse, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to estimate the prevalence of trachoma at sufficiently fine resolution to allow elimination interventions to begin, where required, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. METHODS: We carried out cross-sectional population-based surveys in 14 rural zones. A 2-stage cluster randomized sampling technique was used. A total of 40 evaluation units (EUs) covering 110 districts ("woredas") were surveyed from February 2013 to May 2014 as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP), using the standardized GTMP training package and methodology...
2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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