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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237783/biographical-feature-richard-b-tom-thomson-jr-ph-d-d-abmm-f-aam
#1
Erik Munson
"The previous era was characterized by house staff laboratories in every ward, and house staff and attending physicians often spent long periods performing a diagnostic examination of the expectorated sputum specimen, which had been obtained with great care and plated for prompt incubation in incubators on the ward. Therapeutic decisions were generally based on these results. During the past 30 years, there has been a notable decline in the quality of this exercise. Some of this decline can be ascribed to the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988, which required that staff have credentials to interpret Gram stains of any specimens, thus essentially eliminating the house staff laboratory...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229098/pulmonary-veno-occlusive-disease-an-important-consideration-in-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#2
REVIEW
Ryan Balko, Hawa Edriss, Kenneth Nugent, Victor Test
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease is a rare subcategory of pulmonary arterial hypertension (WHO Group 1). The disease is poorly understood and difficult to diagnose; it has no definitive cure to date. These patients present with nonspecific symptoms, including dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and weakness. Chest x-rays sometimes differ from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and may demonstrate alveolar infiltrates and pleural effusions. High resolution computed tomography scans reveal ground glass opacities, interlobular septal thickening, and lymphadenopathy...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221256/exercise-doppler-echocardiography-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-hypertension-renewed-interest-and-evolving-roles
#3
EDITORIAL
Yun Yun Go, Raluca Dulgheru, Tadafumi Sugimoto, Stella Marchetta, Cécile Oury, Patrizio Lancellotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218398/enhanced-hemoglobin-oxygen-unloading-in-migratory-salmonids
#4
Jacelyn J Shu, Till S Harter, Phillip R Morrison, Colin J Brauner
Recent findings indicate that some teleost fishes may be able to greatly enhance hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) unloading at the tissues under conditions that result in catecholamine release. The putative mechanism relies on the high pH sensitivity of teleost hemoglobin (Hb), intracellular red blood cell (RBC) pH regulation via β-adrenergic Na+/H+ exchanger (β-NHE) activity, and plasma-accessible carbonic anhydrase at the tissues that short-circuits RBC pH regulation. Previous studies have shown that in rainbow trout, this system may double Hb-O2 unloading to red muscle compared to a situation without short-circuiting...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202745/the-association-of-n-terminal-pro-brain-type-natriuretic-peptide-with-hemodynamics-and-functional-capacity-in-therapy-naive-precapillary-pulmonary-hypertension-results-from-a-cohort-study
#5
T M Berghaus, J Kutsch, C Faul, W von Scheidt, M Schwaiblmair
BACKGROUND: N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is currently used as a surrogate marker for disease severity in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, NT-proBNP tends to have a high variability and may insufficiently correlate with hemodynamics and exercise capacity. METHODS: To investigate the association of NT-proBNP with hemodynamics and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in 84 therapy-naive patients with precapillary PH. RESULTS: NT-proBNP levels were significantly correlated with hemodynamics and CPET parameters except for cardiac index, diffusion capacity, PaO2 at peak exercise, and peak minute ventilation...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201436/therapeutic-benefits-of-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-in-chronic-heart-failure-a-meta-analysis
#6
Renato De Vecchis, Arturo Cesaro, Carmelina Ariano
Background: Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5i) have been shown to be beneficial for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, several studies would have documented a useful effect of PDE5i even for pulmonary hypertension secondary to left-sided chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods: We performed a meta-analysis including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which had compared PDE5i (mostly sildenafil) and placebo in CHF patients. Results: Fourteen studies enrolling a total of 928 patients were incorporated in the meta-analysis...
September 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184292/cardiopulmonary-rehabilitation-program-impact-on-prognostic-markers-in-selected-patients-with-resting-and-exercise-induced-ventilatory-inefficiency-a-clinical-trial
#7
Sherin Hassan M Mehani, Heba Ahmed A Abdeen
[Purpose] Ventilatory limitation is a common problem in patients with chronic heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Excess ventilation may arise from augmented ventilatory drive, over activity of chemoreceptors and muscle ergoreceptors, or premature onset of lactic acidosis. Exertional dyspnea can cause limitations in the activities of daily living and as a result, reduced quality of life for these patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program on ventilatory efficiency for these patients...
October 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167297/an-official-european-respiratory-society-statement-pulmonary-haemodynamics-during-exercise
#8
Gabor Kovacs, Philippe Herve, Joan Albert Barbera, Ari Chaouat, Denis Chemla, Robin Condliffe, Gilles Garcia, Ekkehard Grünig, Luke Howard, Marc Humbert, Edmund Lau, Pierantonio Laveneziana, Gregory D Lewis, Robert Naeije, Andrew Peacock, Stephan Rosenkranz, Rajeev Saggar, Silvia Ulrich, Dario Vizza, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf, Horst Olschewski
There is growing recognition of the clinical importance of pulmonary haemodynamics during exercise, but several questions remain to be elucidated. The goal of this statement is to assess the scientific evidence in this field in order to provide a basis for future recommendations.Right heart catheterisation is the gold standard method to assess pulmonary haemodynamics at rest and during exercise. Exercise echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing represent non-invasive tools with evolving clinical applications...
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167228/contribution-of-impaired-parasympathetic-activity-to-right-ventricular-dysfunction-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#9
Denielli da Silva Gonçalves Bos, Cathelijne E Van Der Bruggen, Kondababu Kurakula, Xiao-Qing Sun, Karina R Casali, Adenauer G Casali, Nina Rol, Robert Szulcek, Cris Dos Remedios, Christophe Guignabert, Ly Tu, Peter Dorfmuller, Marc Humbert, Paul J M Wijnker, Diederik W D Kuster, Jolanda van der Velden, Marie-José Goumans, Harm-Jan Bogaard, Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf, Frances S de Man, M Louis Handoko
Background -Beneficial effects of parasympathetic stimulation have been reported in left heart failure, however, whether it would be beneficial for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains to be explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between parasympathetic activity and right ventricular (RV) function in PAH-patients, and the potential therapeutic effects of pyridostigmine (PYR), an oral drug stimulating the parasympathetic activity through acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibition, in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
November 22, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167118/exercise-facilitates-early-recognition-of-cardiac-and-vascular-remodeling-in-chronic-thrombo-embolic-pulmonary-hypertension-in-a-novel-cteph-swine-model
#10
Kelly Stam, Richard W B van Duin, Andre Uitterdijk, Zongye Cai, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
Chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) develops in 4% of patients after pulmonary embolism and is accompanied by an impaired exercise tolerance, which is ascribed to the increased right ventricular (RV) afterload and a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in the lungs. This study investigated changes in arterial PO2 and hemodynamics in response to graded treadmill exercise during development and progression of CTEPH in a swine model. Swine were chronically instrumented and received multiple pulmonary embolisms by (i) microsphere infusion (Spheres) over five weeks, (ii) endothelial dysfunction by administration of eNOS inhibitor L-Nω-Nitroarginine methyl ester (LNAME) during seven weeks, (iii) combined pulmonary embolisms and endothelial dysfunction (LNAME+Spheres), or (iv) served as sham-operated controls (Sham)...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158619/the-effect-of-mineral-based-alkaline-water-on-hydration-status-and-the-metabolic-response-to-short-term-anaerobic-exercise
#11
Jakub Chycki, Tomasz Zając, Adam Maszczyk, Anna Kurylas
Previously it was demonstrated that mineralization and alkalization properties of mineral water are important factors influencing acid-base balance and hydration in athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of drinking different types of water on urine pH, specific urine gravity, and post-exercise lactate utilization in response to strenuous exercise. Thirty-six male soccer players were divided into three intervention groups, consuming around 4.0 l/day of different types of water for 7 days: HM (n=12; highly mineralized water), LM (n=12; low mineralized water), and CON (n=12; table water)...
September 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150159/diagnostic-performance-of-pulmonary-capacitance-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
Pankaj Jain, Sriram Rao, Peter Macdonald, Eugene Kotlyar, Andrew Jabbour, Christopher Hayward, Anne Keogh
BACKGROUND: Reliable markers of early disease are needed in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). As measures of the contribution of abnormal vascular compliance to overall vascular resistance, resting and exercise pulmonary capacitance-defined as the stroke volume divided by the change in pulmonary pulse pressure-may be sensitive markers of early disease. METHODS: We examined all patients in our pulmonary hypertension database with idiopathic PAH, who had undergone rest and exercise right heart catheterisation in one sitting...
November 8, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150155/the-association-of-functional-capacity-with-right-atrial-deformation-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-study-with-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking
#13
Weiwei Liu, Yueheng Wang, Jinling Zhou, Hui Bai, Feng Wang, Ju Wang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess right atrial (RA) myocardial mechanics in pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients using two-dimensional speckle tracking (2D-STE), and define the relationship between RA function and exercise capacity in PH patients. METHODS: Thirty-eight consecutive PH patients were studied and compared with a control group of 25 healthy volunteers. Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS), RA strain rate were measured in all subjects...
April 13, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145311/pulmonary-hypertension-as-a-manifestation-of-mitochondrial-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Shan Xu, Xiaoling Xu, Jisong Zhang, Kejing Ying, Yuquan Shao, Ruifeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases are a group of multisystem heterogeneous diseases caused by pathologic dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A wide range of clinical expression has been described. However, pulmonary hypertension has rarely been described in association with mitochondrial disease until the past decade, and there is no currently recognized treatment for the pulmonary hypertension complicated with mitochondrial disorder. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with shortness of breath and exercise limitation after a cold, and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was confirmed by right heart catheter...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143104/left-ventricular-end-diastolic-dimension-and-septal-e-are-predictors-of-cardiac-index-at-rest-while-tricuspid-annular-plane-systolic-excursion-is-a-predictor-of-peak-oxygen-uptake-in-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Yoshihisa Nakano, Naoki Okumura, Shiro Adachi, Shigetake Shimokata, Fumitaka Tajima, Yoshihiro Kamimura, Toyoaki Murohara, Takahisa Kondo
Little is known regarding a correlation of hemodynamics at rest or exercise capacity with echocardiographic parameters in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). To clarify these potential correlations, we performed transthoracic echocardiography, right heart catheterization, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in 53 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVDd), early diastolic velocity of the septal mitral annulus (septal e'), tricuspid regurgitation peak gradient (TRPG), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) were significantly correlated with cardiac index (LVDd; r = 0...
November 15, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127236/structural-and-functional-changes-of-the-pulmonary-vasculature-after-hypoxia-exposure-in-the-neonatal-period-a-new-swine-model-of-pulmonary-vascular-disease
#16
Daphne P M de Wijs-Meijler, Richard W B van Duin, Dirk J Duncker, Urs Scherrer, Claudio Sartori, Irwin K M Reiss, Daphne Merkus
Pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) represents an underestimated and increasing clinical burden in the neonatal period, but also later in life, when exercise-tolerance is decreased. Animal models performing long-term follow-up after a perinatal insult are lacking. This study aimed to develop and characterize a neonatal swine model with hypoxia-induced PVD, during long-term follow-up after re-exposure to normoxia, and to investigate the exercise response in this model. Piglets were exposed to a normoxic (N=10) or hypoxic environment (N=9) for four weeks...
November 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111287/transcatheter-closure-of-a-small-atrial-septal-defect-with-an-amplatzer%C3%A2-patent-foramen-ovale-occluder-in-a-working-dog-with-cyanosis-and-exercise-intolerance-at-high-altitude
#17
A Shelden, S Wesselowski, S G Gordon, A B Saunders
A 6.5-year-old male Border Collie presented for transcatheter closure of an atrial septal defect due to exercise intolerance and cyanosis while working and training at altitude. A small, left-to-right shunting secundum atrial septal defect was confirmed with no evidence of significant right-sided volume overload. Pulmonary hypertension with subsequent right-to-left interatrial shunting occurring during exercise at high altitude was suspected and prompted the closure of the defect due to the dog's continued athletic requirements...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104130/diaphragmatic-breathing-reduces-belching-and-proton-pump-inhibitor-refractory-gastroesophageal-reflux-symptoms
#18
Andrew Ming-Liang Ong, Laura Teng-Teng Chua, Christopher Jen-Lock Khor, Ravishankar Asokkumar, Vikneswaran Namasivayam, Yu-Tien Wang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and excessive belching, most belches are supragastric, and can induce reflux episodes and worsen GERD. Supragastric belching (SGB) might be reduced with diaphragmatic breathing exercises. We investigated whether diaphragmatic breathing therapy is effective in reducing belching and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) refractory gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 36 consecutive patients with GERD refractory to PPI therapy and a belching visual analogue scale (VAS) score of 6 or more, seen at a gastroenterology clinic at a tertiary hospital in Singapore from April 2015 through October 2016...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101173/ph-recovery-from-a-proton-load-in-rat-cardiomyocytes-effects-of-chronic-exercise
#19
Vennetia R Danes, Josephine Anthony, Kaveh Rayani, Kenneth W Spitzer, Glen F Tibbits
The ability of cardiomyocytes to recover from a proton load was examined in the hearts of exercise-trained (T) and sedentary control (C) rats in CO2/HCO3--free media. Acidosis was created by the NH4Cl pre-pulse technique and pHi was determined using fluorescence microscopy on carboxy-SNARF-1 AM loaded isolated cardiomyocytes. CO2-independent intracellular pH buffering capacity (βi) was measured by incrementally reducing the [NH4Cl]o in steps of 50% from 20 to 1.25 mM. βi increased as pHi decreased in both T and C groups...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098626/micrornas-mediate-beneficial-effects-of-exercise-in-heart
#20
Yihua Bei, Lichan Tao, Dragos Cretoiu, Sanda Maria Cretoiu, Junjie Xiao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), a group of small non-coding RNAs, repress gene expressions at posttranscriptional level in most cases and are involved in cardiovascular physiology and disease pathogenesis. Increasing evidence has proved that miRNAs are potential regulators of exercise induced cardiac growth and mediate the benefits of exercise in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In this chapter, we will review the regulatory effects of miRNAs in cardiac adaptations to exercise, and summarize their cardioprotective effects against myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, heart failure, diabetic cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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