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Relative energy deficiency athletes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205517/within-day-energy-deficiency-and-reproductive-function-in-female-endurance-athletes
#1
I L Fahrenholtz, A Sjödin, D Benardot, Å B Tornberg, S Skouby, J Faber, J Sundgot-Borgen, A Melin
We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in athletes with eumenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction (MD) with similar 24-hour energy availability/energy balance (EA/EB). Furthermore, to investigate whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR), body-composition, S-cortisol, estradiol, T3 , and fasting blood glucose. We reanalyzed 7-day dietary intake and energy expenditure data in 25 elite endurance athletes with eumenorrhea (n=10) and MD (n=15) from a group of 45 subjects where those with disordered eating behaviors (n=11), MD not related to low EA (n=5), and low dietary record validity (n=4) had been excluded...
December 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117450/nutrition-strategies-before-and-during-ultra-endurance-event-a-significant-gap-between-science-and-practice
#2
Soyzana K Papadopoulou, Eleni E Xyla, Spyridon Methenitis, Konstantinos G Feidantsis, Yiannis Kotsis, Ioannis G Pagkalos, Maria N Hassapidou
The purpose of the present study was to investigate and assess the nutritional practices of open-water swimmers, during the preparation period and the competition, as well as their implications on performance and anthropometric parameters according to their age. Twenty-four (n=24) men open-water swimmers, twelve young (26.3±4.9yrs) and twelve older athletes (45.8±9.7yrs), participated in the present study. Nutritional behavior - intake-energy consumption, and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated prior to the Toroneos Gulf crossing (26Km)...
November 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071833/-amenorrhea-in-athletic-adolescents-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#3
Martine Jacot-Guillarmod, Cécile Diserens
The female athletic triad refers to the interaction between menstrual function, energy availability and bone density. When an imbalance appears between energy input and output, the global health of the athletic teenager is at risk of somatic and/or psychological complications as defined by the RED-S (Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports). In athletic girls menstrual disorder should be seen as an alert. It may be difficult to distinguish it from menstrual irregularity due to immature hypothalamic-hyphophysic-gonadal axis, which can be physiological at that age...
October 25, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831686/food-versus-pharmacy-assessment-of-nutritional-and-pharmacological-strategies-to-improve-bone-health-in-energy-deficient-exercising-women
#4
REVIEW
Emily A Southmayd, Adelaide C Hellmers, Mary Jane De Souza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to summarize our current knowledge surrounding treatment strategies aimed at recovery of bone mass in energy-deficient women suffering from the Female Athlete Triad. RECENT FINDINGS: The independent and interactive contributions of energy status versus estrogen status on bone density, geometry, and strength have recently been reported, highlighting the importance of addressing both energy and estrogen in treatment strategies for bone health...
October 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745464/elite-athletes-and-pubertal-delay
#5
Karina Kapczuk
Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes...
October 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737524/female-athlete-triad
#6
Meredith B Loveless
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The obstetrician/gynecologist (ob/gyn) may be the first provider to have the opportunity to recognize and diagnose female athlete triad. This review will help the ob/gyn to understand the female athlete triad and what is new on this topic, how to screen and diagnose the condition and the ob/gyn's role in treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Female athlete triad, also known as relative energy deficiency in sports, involves an interrelationship among energy availability, menstrual function and low bone density...
July 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665560/-female-athlete-triad-what-s-new
#7
Alexandra Nowak, Jean-Luc Ziltener, Silvia Bonfanti
The Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport has been suggested as the new and wider denomination of the Female athlete triad. This new terminology enables a wider approach to the different consequences of an insufficient energy intake amongst regular athletes. In fact, this energy dysbalance leads to a wider pathological phenomenon touching many systems (e.g. cardiovascular, psychological, hematological…). This designation is no longer restricted to the female gender, and now also includes men, whom are nowadays less affected or maybe only less assessed...
July 13, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435337/treatment-strategies-for-the-female-athlete-triad-in-the-adolescent-athlete-current-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Jill Thein-Nissenbaum, Erin Hammer
Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad), which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD). These conditions often manifest clinically as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures; an individual may suffer from 1 or all of the Triad components simultaneously...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631418/anthropometrics-and-body-composition-in-east-african-runners-potential-impact-on-performance
#9
Martin Mooses, Anthony C Hackney
Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), fractional utilization of V̇O2max during running, and running economy (RE) are crucial factors for running success for all endurance athletes. Although evidence is limited, investigations of these key factors indicate that East Africans' superiority in distance running is largely due to a unique combination of these factors. East African runners appear to have a very high level of RE most likely associated, at least partly, with anthropometric characteristics rather than with any specific metabolic property of the working muscle...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430502/low-energy-availability-in-exercising-women-historical-perspectives-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Joanne Slater, Rachel Brown, Rebecca McLay-Cooke, Katherine Black
Research on the health of female athletes has developed substantially over the past 50 years. This review aims to provide an overview of this research and identify directions for future work. While early cross-sectional studies focused primarily on menstruation, research has progressed to now encompass hormonal changes, bone health and lipid profiles. The seminal work of Loucks and colleagues distinguished that these health concerns were due to low energy availability (LEA) rather than exercise alone. LEA occurs when the body has insufficient energy available to meet the needs of training and normal physiological functioning...
February 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243823/effect-of-chronic-athletic-activity-on-brown-fat-in-young-women
#11
Vibha Singhal, Giovana D Maffazioli, Kate E Ackerman, Hang Lee, Elisa F Elia, Ryan Woolley, Gerald Kolodny, Aaron M Cypess, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017180/female-athlete-triad-or-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sports-red-s-is-there-a-difference
#12
Wendy Marcason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929475/sclerostin-as-a-novel-marker-of-bone-turnover-in-athletes
#13
A Zagrodna, P Jóźków, M Mędraś, M Majda, M Słowińska-Lisowska
Sclerostin is a protein secreted by osteocytes that acts as an inhibitor of bone formation. It has been shown that physical activity affects sclerostin concentration and thus bone remodelling. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum concentrations of sclerostin, selected bone turnover markers (PTH, P1NP), 25(OH)D3 and the intake of calcium and vitamin D in physically active versus sedentary men. A total of 59 healthy men aged 17-37 were enrolled in the study (43 athletes and 16 non-athletes). The mean sclerostin concentration in the group of athletes (A) was significantly higher than in non-athletes (NA) (35...
March 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26505326/poor-precompetitive-sleep-habits-nutrients-deficiencies-inappropriate-body-composition-and-athletic-performance-in-elite-gymnasts
#14
M-R G Silva, T Paiva
This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition...
September 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26458108/common-injuries-and-ailments-of-the-female-athlete-pathophysiology-treatment-and-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Miryl J Hilibrand, Sommer Hammoud, Meghan Bishop, Daniel Woods, Robert W Fredrick, Christopher C Dodson
With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis...
November 2015: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25950026/authors%C3%A2-2015-additions-to-the-ioc-consensus-statement-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport-red-s
#16
EDITORIAL
Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Susan Carter, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Kathrin Steffen, Richard Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25058327/no-association-between-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-markers-of-bone-health-in-athletes
#17
Richard J Allison, Abdulaziz Farooq, Bruce Hamilton, Graeme L Close, Mathew G Wilson
PURPOSE: Adequate vitamin D (25(OH)D) is required to maintain good bone health, yet many athletes are 25(OH)D deficient. This study sought to examine the relation between serum 25(OH)D and measures of bone health (bone mineral density (BMD) and T-score) in an ethnically diverse athletic population. METHODS: Nine hundred and fifty male athletes presented for precompetition medical assessment in our facility. An additional 436 individuals registered with a Qatari sporting federation (such as sailing, archery, shooting, bowling) but exercising <2 h·wk were used as control population...
April 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25037200/misunderstanding-the-female-athlete-triad-refuting-the-ioc-consensus-statement-on-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport-red-s
#18
EDITORIAL
Mary Jane De Souza, Nancy I Williams, Aurelia Nattiv, Elizabeth Joy, Madhusmita Misra, Anne B Loucks, Gordon Matheson, Marion P Olmsted, Michelle Barrack, Rebecca J Mallinson, Jenna C Gibbs, Marci Goolsby, Jeanne F Nichols, Barbara Drinkwater, Charlotte Sanborn, Rosemary Agostini, Carol L Otis, Mimi D Johnson, Anne Zeni Hoch, Julia M K Alleyne, L Tyler Wadsworth, Karsten Koehler, Jaci VanHeest, Paula Harvey, Amanda K Weiss Kelly, Michael Fredericson, George A Brooks, Emma O'Donnell, Lisa R Callahan, Margot Putukian, Lauren Costello, Suzanne Hecht, Mitchell J Rauh, Jacalyn McComb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25028792/relation-between-vitamin-d-status-and-body-composition-in-collegiate-athletes
#19
Jenna E Heller, Joi J Thomas, Bruce W Hollis, D Enette Larson-Meyer
Excess body fat or obesity is known to increase risk of poor vitamin D status in nonathletes but it is not known if this is the case in athletes. Furthermore, the reason for this association is not understood, but is thought to be due to either sequestration of the fat-soluble vitamin within adipose tissue or the effect of volume dilution related to obese individuals' larger body size. Forty two US college athletes (24 men 18 women, 20.7 ± 1.6 years, 85.0 ± 28.7 kg, BMI = 25.7 ± 6.1 kg/m2) provided blood samples during the fall and underwent measurement of body composition via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
April 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24936780/nutritional-recommendations-for-divers
#20
Dan Benardot, Wes Zimmermann, Gregory R Cox, Saul Marks
Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks...
August 2014: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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