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Relative energy deficiency athletes

Martin Mooses, Anthony C Hackney
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), fractional utilization of VO2max during running and running economy (RE) are crucial factors for running success for all endurance athletes. Although evidence is limited, investigations of these key factors indicate that the East Africans superiority in distance running is to a large exent due to a unique combination of these factors. East African runners appear to have a very high level of RE most likely associated, at least partly, with anthropometric characteristics rather than with any specific metabolic property of the working muscle...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Joanne Slater, Rachel Brown, Rebecca McLay-Cooke, Katherine Black
Research on the health of female athletes has developed substantially over the past 50 years. This review aims to provide an overview of this research and identify directions for future work. While early cross-sectional studies focused primarily on menstruation, research has progressed to now encompass hormonal changes, bone health and lipid profiles. The seminal work of Loucks and colleagues distinguished that these health concerns were due to low energy availability (LEA) rather than exercise alone. LEA occurs when the body has insufficient energy available to meet the needs of training and normal physiological functioning...
February 2017: Sports Medicine
Vibha Singhal, Giovana D Maffazioli, Kate E Ackerman, Hang Lee, Elisa F Elia, Ryan Woolley, Gerald Kolodny, Aaron M Cypess, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT...
2016: PloS One
Wendy Marcason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
A Zagrodna, P Jóźków, M Mędraś, M Majda, M Słowińska-Lisowska
Sclerostin is a protein secreted by osteocytes that acts as an inhibitor of bone formation. It has been shown that physical activity affects sclerostin concentration and thus bone remodelling. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum concentrations of sclerostin, selected bone turnover markers (PTH, P1NP), 25(OH)D3 and the intake of calcium and vitamin D in physically active versus sedentary men. A total of 59 healthy men aged 17-37 were enrolled in the study (43 athletes and 16 non-athletes). The mean sclerostin concentration in the group of athletes (A) was significantly higher than in non-athletes (NA) (35...
March 2016: Biology of Sport
M-R G Silva, T Paiva
This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition...
September 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Miryl J Hilibrand, Sommer Hammoud, Meghan Bishop, Daniel Woods, Robert W Fredrick, Christopher C Dodson
With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis...
November 2015: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Susan Carter, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Kathrin Steffen, Richard Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Richard J Allison, Abdulaziz Farooq, Bruce Hamilton, Graeme L Close, Mathew G Wilson
PURPOSE: Adequate vitamin D (25(OH)D) is required to maintain good bone health, yet many athletes are 25(OH)D deficient. This study sought to examine the relation between serum 25(OH)D and measures of bone health (bone mineral density (BMD) and T-score) in an ethnically diverse athletic population. METHODS: Nine hundred and fifty male athletes presented for precompetition medical assessment in our facility. An additional 436 individuals registered with a Qatari sporting federation (such as sailing, archery, shooting, bowling) but exercising <2 h·wk were used as control population...
April 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mary Jane De Souza, Nancy I Williams, Aurelia Nattiv, Elizabeth Joy, Madhusmita Misra, Anne B Loucks, Gordon Matheson, Marion P Olmsted, Michelle Barrack, Rebecca J Mallinson, Jenna C Gibbs, Marci Goolsby, Jeanne F Nichols, Barbara Drinkwater, Charlotte Sanborn, Rosemary Agostini, Carol L Otis, Mimi D Johnson, Anne Zeni Hoch, Julia M K Alleyne, L Tyler Wadsworth, Karsten Koehler, Jaci VanHeest, Paula Harvey, Amanda K Weiss Kelly, Michael Fredericson, George A Brooks, Emma O'Donnell, Lisa R Callahan, Margot Putukian, Lauren Costello, Suzanne Hecht, Mitchell J Rauh, Jacalyn McComb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Jenna E Heller, Joi J Thomas, Bruce W Hollis, D Enette Larson-Meyer
Excess body fat or obesity is known to increase risk of poor vitamin D status in nonathletes but it is not known if this is the case in athletes. Furthermore, the reason for this association is not understood, but is thought to be due to either sequestration of the fat-soluble vitamin within adipose tissue or the effect of volume dilution related to obese individuals' larger body size. Forty two US college athletes (24 men 18 women, 20.7 ± 1.6 years, 85.0 ± 28.7 kg, BMI = 25.7 ± 6.1 kg/m2) provided blood samples during the fall and underwent measurement of body composition via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
April 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Dan Benardot, Wes Zimmermann, Gregory R Cox, Saul Marks
Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks...
August 2014: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Sherry Robertson, Dan Benardot, Margo Mountjoy
The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed...
August 2014: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Anna Melin, Monica Klungland Torstveit, Louise Burke, Saul Marks, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen
Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes...
August 2014: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Susan Carter, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Kathrin Steffen, Richard Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist
Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected...
April 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Elizabeth A Lawson, Kathryn E Ackerman, Meghan Slattery, Dean A Marengi, Hannah Clarke, Madhusmita Misra
CONTEXT: Oxytocin has been implicated in the modulation of energy metabolism in animals. Oxytocin knockout mice develop obesity without a change in food intake, suggesting that a lack of oxytocin may reduce metabolic rate. Furthermore, administration of oxytocin centrally reduces food intake in rats, an effect reversed by an oxytocin antagonist, implying that oxytocin may regulate appetite and energy intake. We have previously demonstrated that young female athletes (in a higher energy expenditure state than nonathletes) have low nocturnal oxytocin compared with nonathletes...
May 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Veronica Montfort-Steiger, Craig A Williams
Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes...
2007: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Ian M Lahart, Andrew M Lane, Andrew Hulton, Karen Williams, Richard Godfrey, Charles Pedlar, Mathew G Wilson, Gregory P Whyte
Multiday ultra-endurance races present athletes with a significant number of physiological and psychological challenges. We examined emotions, the perceived functionality (optimal-dysfunctional) of emotions, strategies to regulate emotions, sleep quality, and energy intake-expenditure in a four-man team participating in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM); a 4856km continuous cycle race. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition, with emotional states differing significantly between each cyclist over time...
2013: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Sara Márquez, Olga Molinero
INTRODUCTION: The female athlete triad (FAT) is a serious health-related problem that threatens women who exercise. This condition is an interrelated multifactorial syndrome which includes low energy availability, menstrual cycle disturbances and decreased bone mineral density. OBJECTIVE: To review the major components of the FAT and their relationships, as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Articles related to the topic were reviewed through PubMed and SportDiscus databases...
July 2013: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
R L Duckham, N Peirce, C A Bailey, G Summers, N Cameron, K Brooke-Wavell
Athletes have higher bone mineral density (BMD) relative to nonathletes. In amenorrheic athletes BMD may be compromised by estrogen deficiency, but it is unknown whether this is accompanied by structural differences. We compared femoral neck bone geometry and density of a-/oligomenorrheic athletes (AAs), eumenorrheic athletes (EAs), and eumenorrheic controls (ECs). We recruited 156 women: (68 endurance athletes and 88 controls). Femoral neck BMD, section modulus (Z), and width were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
May 2013: Calcified Tissue International
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