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Relative energy deficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213318/targeted-redox-and-energy-cofactor-metabolomics-in-clostridium-thermocellum-and-thermoanaerobacterium-saccharolyticum
#1
Kyle Sander, Keiji G Asano, Deepak Bhandari, Gary J Van Berkel, Steven D Brown, Brian Davison, Timothy J Tschaplinski
Background: Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum are prominent candidate biocatalysts that, together, can enable the direct biotic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. The imbalance and suboptimal turnover rates of redox cofactors are currently hindering engineering efforts to achieve higher bioproductivity in both organisms. Measuring relevant intracellular cofactor concentrations will help understand redox state of these cofactors and help identify a strategy to overcome these limitations; however, metabolomic determinations of these labile metabolites have historically proved challenging...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205517/within-day-energy-deficiency-and-reproductive-function-in-female-endurance-athletes
#2
I L Fahrenholtz, A Sjödin, D Benardot, Å B Tornberg, S Skouby, J Faber, J Sundgot-Borgen, A Melin
We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in athletes with eumenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction (MD) with similar 24-hour energy availability/energy balance (EA/EB). Furthermore, to investigate whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR), body-composition, S-cortisol, estradiol, T3 , and fasting blood glucose. We reanalyzed 7-day dietary intake and energy expenditure data in 25 elite endurance athletes with eumenorrhea (n=10) and MD (n=15) from a group of 45 subjects where those with disordered eating behaviors (n=11), MD not related to low EA (n=5), and low dietary record validity (n=4) had been excluded...
December 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205180/androgen-receptor-deficiency-in-monocytes-macrophages-does-not-alter-adiposity-or-glucose-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#3
Katya B Rubinow, Barbara Houston, Shari Wang, Leela Goodspeed, Kayoko Ogimoto, Gregory J Morton, Christopher McCarty, Robert E Braun, Stephanie T Page
Androgen deprivation in men leads to increased adiposity, but the mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of fat mass have not been fully defined. Androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in monocytes/macrophages, which are resident in key metabolic tissues and influence energy metabolism in surrounding cells. Male mice bearing a cell-specific knockout of the AR in monocytes/macrophages (M-ARKO) were generated to determine whether selective loss of androgen signaling in these cells would lead to altered body composition...
December 5, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199177/inhibition-of-glycogen-phosphorylase-stimulates-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activity-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-protein-expression-in-male-rats
#4
Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Karen P Briski
The glucose polymer glycogen is a vital fuel reserve in the brain. The mediobasal hypothalamic energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains glucostasis via neurotransmitter mechanisms that suppress [γ-aminobutyric acid; GABA] or stimulate [nitric oxide; steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1)] counter-regulatory outflow. This study investigated whether glycogen-derived fuel supply is a critical screened variable in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) monitoring of neuro-metabolic stability during glucostasis and/or insulin (I)-induced hypoglycemia...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197736/abnormal-cortical-neural-synchrony-during-working-memory-in-schizophrenia
#5
Seung Suk Kang, Angus W MacDonald, Matthew V Chafee, Chang-Hwan Im, Edward M Bernat, Nicholas D Davenport, Scott R Sponheim
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the origins of working memory (WM) impairment in schizophrenia we investigated cortical oscillatory activity in people with schizophrenia (PSZ) while they performed a WM task requiring encoding, maintenance, and retrieval/manipulation processes of spatial information. METHODS: We examined time-frequency synchronous energy of cortical source signals that were derived from magnetoencephalography (MEG) localized to cortical regions using WM-related hemodynamic responses and individualized structural head-models...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183324/novel-essential-amino-acid-supplements-enriched-with-l-leucine-facilitate-increased-protein-and-energy-intakes-in-older-women-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Theocharis Ispoglou, Kevin Deighton, Roderick Fgj King, Helen White, Matthew Lees
BACKGROUND: Inadequate protein intake (PI), containing a sub-optimal source of essential amino acids (EAAs), and reduced appetite are contributing factors to age-related sarcopenia. The satiating effects of dietary protein per se may negatively affect energy intake (EI), thus there is a need to explore alternative strategies to facilitate PI without compromising appetite and subsequent EI. METHODS: Older women completed two experiments (EXP1 and EXP2) where they consumed either a Bar (565 kJ), a Gel (477 kJ), both rich in EAAs (7...
November 28, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183319/ppar%C3%AE-is-essential-for-retinal-lipid-metabolism-and-neuronal-survival
#7
Elizabeth A Pearsall, Rui Cheng, Kelu Zhou, Yusuke Takahashi, H Greg Matlock, Shraddha S Vadvalkar, Younghwa Shin, Thomas W Fredrick, Marin L Gantner, Steven Meng, Zhongjie Fu, Yan Gong, Michael Kinter, Kenneth M Humphries, Luke I Szweda, Lois E H Smith, Jian-Xing Ma
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear receptor. The role of endogenous PPARα in retinal neuronal homeostasis is unknown. Retinal photoreceptors are the highest energy-consuming cells in the body, requiring abundant energy substrates. PPARα is a known regulator of lipid metabolism, and we hypothesized that it may regulate lipid use for oxidative phosphorylation in energetically demanding retinal neurons. RESULTS: We found that endogenous PPARα is essential for the maintenance and survival of retinal neurons, with Pparα -/- mice developing retinal degeneration first detected at 8 weeks of age...
November 28, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181264/evaluation-of-bone-mineral-density-and-related-parameters-in-patients-with-haemophilia-a-single-center-cross-sectional-study
#8
Hatice Demet Kiper Unal, Melda Comert Ozkan, Fatos Dilan Atilla, Zuhal Demirci, Nur Soyer, Ilgin Yildirim Simsir, Ozgur Omur, Kazim Capaci, Guray Saydam, Fahri Sahin
Haemophilia has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) probably due to some predisposing factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between BMD and potential clinical predictors in adult haemophilic patients. Fortynine patients with moderate and severe haemophilia were enrolled. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and blood tests were performed for vitamin D, calcium, phosphore, alkaline phosphatase and parathormone levels. Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia (FISH) and Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) were used to assess musculoskeletal functions...
2017: American Journal of Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173237/deficiency-of-essential-dietary-n-3-pufa-disrupts-the-caecal-microbiome-and-metabolome-in-mice
#9
Ruairi C Robertson, Clara Seira Oriach, Kiera Murphy, Gerard M Moloney, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan, R P Ross, Catherine Stanton
n-3 PUFA are lipids that play crucial roles in immune-regulation, cardio-protection and neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the role that these essential dietary fats play in modulating caecal microbiota composition and the subsequent production of functional metabolites. To investigate this, female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of three diets (control (CON), n-3 supplemented (n3+) or n-3 deficient (n3-)) during gestation, following which their male offspring were continued on the same diets for 12 weeks...
November 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172423/composition-graded-mowsx-hybrids-with-tailored-catalytic-activity-by-bipolar-electrochemistry
#10
Shu Min Tan, Martin Pumera
Among transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD)-based composites, TMD/graphene-related material and bichalcogen TMD composites have been widely studied for application toward energy production via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, scarcely any literature explored the possibility of bimetallic TMD hybrids as HER electrocatalysts. The use of harmful chemicals and harsh preparation conditions in conventional syntheses also detracts from the objective of sustainable energy production. Herein, we present the conservational alternative synthesis of MoWSx via one-step bipolar electrochemical deposition...
November 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164337/changes-in-the-midgut-cells-in-the-european-cave-spider-meta-menardi-during-starvation-in-spring-and-autumn
#11
Saška Lipovšek, Gerd Leitinger, Tone Novak, Franc Janžekovič, Szymon Gorgoń, Karolina Kamińska, Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska
During the growth period, in surface habitats, spiders catch enough prey to feed normally. In contrast, in the cave entrance zone, prey may be relatively scarce. Meta menardi inhabits this cave section, resulting in temporary starvation. We studied structural changes in the midgut epithelial cells of M. menardi during a short-term and a medium-term controlled starvation to mimic the occasional starvation in caves, during spring and autumn. Digestive cells, secretory cells and adipocytes were examined before the experimental starvation, in the middle and at the end of starvation...
November 22, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162555/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-deficiency-alters-brain-energy-metabolism-in-acute-systemic-inflammation
#12
Manu Verma, Tiina M J Kipari, Zhenguang Zhang, Tak Yung Man, Thorsten Forster, Natalie Z M Homer, Jonathan R Seckl, Megan C Holmes, Karen E Chapman
Chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels impair cognition and are pro-inflammatory in the brain. Deficiency or inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 (11β-HSD1), which converts inactive into active glucocorticoids, protects against glucocorticoid-associated chronic stress- or age-related cognitive impairment. Here, we hypothesised that 11β-HSD1 deficiency attenuates the brain cytokine response to inflammation. Because inflammation is associated with altered energy metabolism, we also examined the effects of 11β-HSD1 deficiency upon hippocampal energy metabolism...
November 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159707/propionyl-coa-carboxylase-pcca-1-and-pccb-1-gene-deletions-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-globally-impair-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism
#13
Kimberly A Chapman, Julian Ostrovsky, Meera Rao, Stephen D Dingley, Erzsebet Polyak, Marc Yudkoff, Rui Xiao, Michael J Bennett, Marni J Falk
Propionic acidemia (PA) is a classical inborn error of metabolism with high morbidity that results from the inability of the propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) enzyme to convert propionyl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA. PA is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion due to functional loss of both alleles of either PCCA or PCCB. These genes are highly conserved across evolutionarily diverse species and share extensive similarity with pcca-1 and pccb-1 in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we report the global metabolic effects of deletion in a single PCC gene, either pcca-1 or pccb-1, in C...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152736/protein-deficiency-decreases-stereotypic-behavior-frequency-and-prevalence-and-activity-in-the-striped-mouse-rhabdomys-dilectus-chakae
#14
Neville Pillay, Rebecca Rimbach
Diverse motivational triggers, including diet, elicit stereotypic behavior. We investigated whether diets comprised of different protein levels but similar levels of energy were associated with the occurrence of locomotor stereotypies in the striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae. In a first experiment, 20 stereotypic and 20 non-stereotypic (10 subjects per sex and per group) juvenile (40 days old) subjects were placed on baseline (BP), high (HP) or low protein (LP) diet treatments (120 subjects in total)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151385/the-compositional-and-metabolic-responses-of-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-to-a-gradient-of-dietary-fish-oil-and-associated-n-3-long-chain-pufa-content
#15
Sam J S Houston, Vasileios Karalazos, John Tinsley, Mónica B Betancor, Samuel A M Martin, Douglas R Tocher, Oscar Monroig
The replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oil (VO) in feed formulations reduces the availability of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) to marine fish such as gilthead seabream. The aim of this study was to examine compositional and physiological responses to a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets (D1-D6) were fed to seabream, with the added oil being a blend of FO and VO to achieve a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Fish were sampled after 4 months feeding, to determine biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid concentrations and lipid metabolic gene expression...
November 20, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147649/knockdown-of-sirt1-suppresses-bladder-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-migration-and-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-antioxidant-response-through-foxo3a-mediated-pathways
#16
Qingxuan Hu, Gang Wang, Jianping Peng, Guofeng Qian, Wei Jiang, Conghua Xie, Yu Xiao, Xinghuan Wang
Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common tumors, but its underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. Our transcriptome analysis suggested a close link of Sirtuins, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR), cell cycle regulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, and Forkhead Box Class O (FOXO) signaling pathway in BCa. SIRT1 is a key member of Sirtuins, playing important roles in aging and energy metabolism, which has been reported to be involved in various metabolic diseases and tumors...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145496/insights-into-soybean-transcriptome-reconfiguration-under-hypoxic-stress-functional-regulatory-structural-and-compositional-characterization
#17
Thiago J Nakayama, Fabiana A Rodrigues, Norman Neumaier, Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Hugo B C Molinari, Thaís R Santiago, Eduardo F Formighieri, Marcos F Basso, José R B Farias, Beatriz M Emygdio, Ana C B de Oliveira, Ângela D Campos, Aluízio Borém, Frank G Harmon, Liliane M Mertz-Henning, Alexandre L Nepomuceno
Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic) or total (anoxic) oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136458/deficiency-of-the-stroma-lamellar-protein-lil8-psb33-affects-energy-transfer-around-psi-in-arabidopsis
#18
Yukako Kato, Makio Yokono, Seiji Akimoto, Atsushi Takabayashi, Ayumi Tanaka, Ryouichi Tanaka
Light-harvesting-like (LIL) proteins are a group of proteins that share a consensus amino acid sequence with light-harvesting Chl-binding (LHC) proteins. We hypothesized that they might be involved in photosynthesis-related processes. In order to gain a better understanding of a potential role in photosynthesis-related processes, we examined the most recently identified LIL protein, LIL8/PSB33. Recently, it was suggested that this protein is an auxiliary PSII core protein which is involved in organization of the PSII supercomplex...
November 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130310/2-1-3-benzothiadiazole-5-6-dicarboxylicimide-based-polymer-semiconductors-for-organic-thin-film-transistors-and-polymer-solar-cells
#19
Jianwei Yu, Joshua Loroña Ornelas, Yumin Tang, Mohammad Afsar Uddin, Han Guo, Simiao Yu, Yulun Wang, Han Young Woo, Shiming Zhang, Guichuan Xing, Xugang Guo, Wei Huang
A series of polymer semiconductors incorporating 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-5,6-dicarboxylicimide (BTZI) as strong electron withdrawing unit and alkoxy-functionalized head-to-head linkage containing bithiophene or bithiazole as highly electron rich co-unit are designed and synthesized. Due to the strong intramolecular charge transfer characteristics, all three polymers BTZI-TRTOR (P1), BTZI-BTOR (P2), and BTZI-BTzOR (P3) exhibit ultra-narrow bandgaps of 1.13, 1.05, and 0.92 eV, respectively, resulting in a very broad absorption covering from 350 nm up to 1400 nm...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125203/characterization-of-chalcogen-bonding-interactions-via-an-in-depth-conceptual-quantum-chemical-analysis
#20
Freija De Vleeschouwer, Mats Denayer, Balazs Pinter, Paul Geerlings, Frank De Proft
The chalcogen bond has been acknowledged as an influential noncovalent interaction (NCI) between an electron-deficient chalcogen (donor) and a Lewis base (acceptor). This work explores the main features of chalcogen bonding through a large-scale computational study on a series of donors and acceptors spanning a wide range in strength and character of this type of bond: (benzo)chalcogenadiazoles (with Ch = Te/Se/S) versus halides and neutral Lewis bases with O, N, and C as donor atoms. We start from Pearson's hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle, where the hard nature of the chalcogen bond is quantified through the molecular electrostatic potential and the soft nature through the Fukui function...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
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