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Relative energy deficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321633/dietary-intake-of-minerals-vitamins-and-trace-elements-among-geriatric-population-in-india
#1
Aakriti Gupta, Preetika Khenduja, Ravindra Mohan Pandey, Hem Chandra Sati, Nighat Yaseen Sofi, Umesh Kapil
The geriatric population is at a high risk of developing deficiencies of essential micronutrients such as minerals, vitamins, and trace elements and their related deficiency signs and symptoms. Scarce data is available on the dietary intake of essential micronutrients among geriatric subjects in India. Hence, to fill the gap in the existing knowledge, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2015-2016 in District Nainital, Uttarakhand State, India. A total of 255 geriatric subjects were enrolled from 30 clusters (villages) identified by using population proportionate to size sampling methodology...
March 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297948/fractally-fourier-decimated-homogeneous-turbulent-shear-flow-in-noninteger-dimensions
#2
Mani Fathali, Saber Khoei
Time evolution of the fully resolved incompressible homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger Fourier dimensions is numerically investigated. The Fourier dimension of the flow field is extended from the integer value 3 to the noninteger values by projecting the Navier-Stokes equation on the fractal set of the active Fourier modes with dimensions 2.7≤d≤3.0. The results of this study revealed that the dynamics of both large and small scale structures are nontrivially influenced by changing the Fourier dimension d...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296314/effect-of-the-normalized-prescription-isodose-line-on-the-magnitude-of-monte-carlo-vs-pencil-beam-target-dose-differences-for-lung-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#3
Dandan Zheng, Qinghui Zhang, Xiaoying Liang, Xiaofeng Zhu, Vivek Verma, Shuo Wang, Sumin Zhou
In lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) cases, the pencil beam (PB) dose calculation algorithm is known to overestimate target dose as compared to the more accurate Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. We investigated whether changing the normalized prescription isodose line affected the magnitude of MC vs. PB target dose differences. Forty-eight patient plans and twenty virtual-tumor phantom plans were studied. For patient plans, four alternative plans prescribed to 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% isodose lines were each created for 12 patients who previously received lung SBRT treatments...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267864/mitigating-nutrition-and-health-deficiencies-in-older-adults-a-role-for-food-innovation
#4
REVIEW
Sephora Baugreet, Ruth M Hamill, Joseph P Kerry, Sinéad N McCarthy
The aim of this review is to describe the factors contributing to diminished food intake, resulting in nutritional deficiencies and associated health conditions in older adults and proposes food innovation strategies to mitigate these. Research has provided convincing evidence of a link between healthy eating patterns and healthy aging. There is a need to target new food product development (NPD) with functional health benefits specifically designed to address the particular food-related needs of older consumers...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252153/defects-in-crystalline-pvdf-a-density-functional-theory-density-functional-tight-binding-study
#5
Saeid Arabnejad, Koichi Yamashita, Sergei Manzhos
We present a comparative density functional theory (DFT) and density functional tight binding (DFTB) study of structures, energetics, vibrational properties as well as electronic structures of the four crystalline phases of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with different types of defects. For pure phases, the relative energies of PVDF strands (i.e. absent van der Walls bonding) agree well between DFT (using a GGA or a hybrid functional) and DFTB. For crystals, DFTB needs to be calibrated due to deficiencies in the treatment of vdW interactions...
March 2, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246337/diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AF%C2%B5-deficiency-preserves-glucose-tolerance-and-modulates-lipid-metabolism-in-obese-mice
#6
Louise Mannerås-Holm, Milena Schönke, Joseph T Brozinick, Laurène Vetterli, Hai-Hoang Bui, Philip Sanders, Emmani B M Nascimento, Marie Björnholm, Alexander V Chibalin, Juleen R Zierath
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) catalyze the phosphorylation and conversion of DAG into phosphatidic acid. DGK isozymes have unique primary structures, expression patterns, subcellular localizations, regulatory mechanisms and DAG preferences. DGKε has a hydrophobic segment that promotes its attachment to membranes and shows substrate specificity for DAG with an arachidonoyl acyl chain in the sn-2 position of the substrate. We determined the role of DGKε in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis in relation to diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity using DGKε deficient (KO) and wild-type mice...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241734/tetragonia-tetragonioides-pall-kuntze-protects-estrogen-deficient-rats-against-disturbances-of-energy-and-glucose-metabolism-and-decreases-proinflammatory-cytokines
#7
Jin Ah Ryuk, Byoung-Seob Ko, Hye Won Lee, Da Sol Kim, Suna Kang, Yong Hyen Lee, Sunmin Park
Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pall.) Kuntze (TTK) and JakYakGamCho-Tang (JGT) have been used for improving women's health and treating inflammatory diseases. We determined that the long-term consumption of these herbal extracts alleviates the progression of postmenopausal symptoms in high-fat-diet fed ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and further explored the mechanisms involved. Five groups of OVX rats were fed high fat diets that were supplemented with either 2% dextrin (control), 2% TTK (70% ethanol extract), 2% JGT (water extract), 1% JGT + 1% TTK (JGTT), or 30 µg/kg body weight/day of 17β-estradiol (positive control)...
March 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237036/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rv1474c-is-a-tetr-like-transcriptional-repressor-that-regulates-aconitase-an-essential-enzyme-and-rna-binding-protein-in-an-iron-responsive-manner
#8
Kannan Balakrishnan, Krishnaveni Mohareer, Sharmistha Banerjee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), tuberculosis (TB) causing bacteria, employs several mechanisms to maintain iron homeostasis which is critical for its survival and pathogenesis. M.tb aconitase (Acn), a [4Fe-4S] cluster-containing essential protein, apart from participating in energy cycle, also binds to predicted iron-responsive RNA elements. In this study, we identified Rv1474c as a regulator of its operonic partner acn and carried out its biochemical and functional characterization. The binding motif for Rv1474c in the upstream region of acn (Rv1475c)-Rv1474c operon was verified by gel-shift assays...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236628/resting-energy-expenditure-in-girls-with-turner-syndrome
#9
Gerhard Binder, Laura Frank, Julian Ziegler, Gunnar Blumenstock, Roland Schweizer
BACKGROUND: Knowledge concerning energy metabolism in Turner syndrome (TS) is lacking. We compared the resting energy expenditure per fat-free mass (REE/FFM) in TS with other girls with short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) and age-related controls. METHODS: We measured prospectively REE by spirometry under fasting conditions in the morning in 85 short prepubertal girls at the start of GH treatment. Diagnoses were TS (n=20), GH deficiency (GHD) (n=38) and small for gestational age (SGA) short stature (n=27)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223503/mitochondrial-energy-deficiency-leads-to-hyperproliferation-of-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-and-enhanced-insulin-sensitivity
#10
Ryan M Morrow, Martin Picard, Olga Derbeneva, Jeremy Leipzig, Meagan J McManus, Gilles Gouspillou, Sébastien Barbat-Artigas, Carlos Dos Santos, Russell T Hepple, Deborah G Murdock, Douglas C Wallace
Diabetes is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in the presence of excess insulin. Glucose and fatty acids provide reducing equivalents to mitochondria to generate energy, and studies have reported mitochondrial dysfunction in type II diabetes patients. If mitochondrial dysfunction can cause diabetes, then we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial metabolism should render animals resistant to diabetes. This was confirmed in mice in which the heart-muscle-brain adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 1 (ANT1) was inactivated...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220846/cmt-linked-loss-of-function-mutations-in-gdap1-impair-store-operated-ca-2-entry-stimulated-respiration
#11
Paloma González-Sánchez, David Pla-Martín, Paula Martínez-Valero, Carlos B Rueda, Eduardo Calpena, Araceli Del Arco, Francesc Palau, Jorgina Satrústegui
GDAP1 is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein involved in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Lack of GDAP1 gives rise to altered mitochondrial networks and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrial interactions resulting in a decreased ER-Ca(2+) levels along with a defect on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) related to a misallocation of mitochondria to subplasmalemmal sites. The defect on SOCE is mimicked by MCU silencing or mitochondrial depolarization, which prevent mitochondrial calcium uptake. Ca(2+) release from de ER and Ca(2+) inflow through SOCE in neuroblastoma cells result in a Ca(2+)-dependent upregulation of respiration which is blunted in GDAP1 silenced cells...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218831/new-possibilities-for-magnetic-control-of-chemical-and-biochemical-reactions
#12
Anatoly Buchachenko, Ronald G Lawler
Chemistry is controlled by Coulomb energy; magnetic energy is lower by many orders of magnitude and may be confidently ignored in the energy balance of chemical reactions. The situation becomes less clear, however, when reaction rates are considered. In this case, magnetic perturbations of nearly degenerate energy surface crossings may produce observable, and sometimes even dramatic, effects on reactions rates, product yields, and spectroscopic transitions. A case in point that has been studied for nearly five decades is electron spin-selective chemistry via the intermediacy of radical pairs...
February 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218306/plin5-alleviates-myocardial-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-through-inhibiting-the-lipolysis-of-lipid-droplets
#13
Pengfei Zheng, Zhonglin Xie, Yuan Yuan, Wen Sui, Chao Wang, Xing Gao, Yuanlin Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yu Gu, Peizhen Hu, Jing Ye, Xuyang Feng, Lijun Zhang
Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a complex pathophysiological process. Current research has suggested that energy metabolism disorders, of which the abnormal consumption of fatty acids is closely related, compose the main pathological basis for myocardial I/R injury. Lipid droplets (LD) are critical regulators of lipid metabolism by LD-associated proteins. Among the lipid droplet proteins, the perilipin family members regulate lipolysis and lipogenesis through different mechanisms. Plin5, an important perilipin protein, promotes LD generation and lowers fatty acid oxidation, thus protecting the myocardium from lipotoxicity...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214879/thiamine-deprivation-produces-a-liver-atp-deficit-and-metabolic-and-genomic-effects-in-mice-findings-are-parallel-to-those-of-biotin-deficiency-and-have-implications-for-energy-disorders
#14
Alain de J Hernandez-Vazquez, Josue Andres Garcia-Sanchez, Elizabeth Moreno-Arriola, Ana Salvador-Adriano, Daniel Ortega-Cuellar, Antonio Velazquez-Arellano
Thiamine is one of several essential cofactors for ATP generation. Its deficiency, like in beriberi and in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, has been studied for many decades. However, its mechanism of action is still not completely understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Since it acts as a coenzyme for dehydrogenases of pyruvate, branched-chain keto acids, and ketoglutarate, its nutritional privation is partly a phenocopy of inborn errors of metabolism, among them maple syrup urine disease. In the present paper, we report metabolic and genomic findings in mice deprived of thiamine...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205437/surface-and-interface-engineering-of-noble-metal-free-electrocatalysts-for-efficient-energy-conversion-processes
#15
Yun Pei Zhu, Chunxian Guo, Yao Zheng, Shi-Zhang Qiao
Developing cost-effective and high-performance electrocatalysts for renewable energy conversion and storage is motivated by increasing concerns regarding global energy security and creating sustainable technologies dependent on inexpensive and abundant resources. Recent achievements in the design and synthesis of efficient non-precious-metal and even non-metal electrocatalysts make the replacement of noble metal counterparts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with earth-abundant elements, for example, C, N, Fe, Mn, and Co, a realistic possibility...
February 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196880/agrp-to-kiss1-neuron-signaling-links-nutritional-state-and-fertility
#16
Stephanie L Padilla, Jian Qiu, Casey C Nestor, Chunguang Zhang, Arik W Smith, Benjamin B Whiddon, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly, Richard D Palmiter
Mammalian reproductive function depends upon a neuroendocrine circuit that evokes the pulsatile release of gonadotropin hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) from the pituitary. This reproductive circuit is sensitive to metabolic perturbations. When challenged with starvation, insufficient energy reserves attenuate gonadotropin release, leading to infertility. The reproductive neuroendocrine circuit is well established, composed of two populations of kisspeptin-expressing neurons (located in the anteroventral periventricular hypothalamus, Kiss1(AVPV), and arcuate hypothalamus, Kiss1(ARH)), which drive the pulsatile activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192171/a-new-light-on-alkaptonuria-a-fourier-transform-infrared-microscopy-ftirm-and-low-energy-x-ray-fluorescence-lexrf-microscopy-correlative-study-on-a-rare-disease
#17
Elisa Mitri, Lia Millucci, Lucia Merolle, Giulia Bernardini, Lisa Vaccari, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Annalisa Santucci
BACKGROUND: Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultra-rare disease associated to the lack of an enzyme involved in tyrosine catabolism. This deficiency results in the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) in the form of ochronotic pigment in joint cartilage, leading to a severe arthropathy. Secondary amyloidosis has been also unequivocally assessed as a comorbidity of AKU arthropathy. Composition of ochronotic pigment and how it is structurally related to amyloid is still unknown. METHODS: We exploited Synchrotron Radiation Infrared and X-Ray Fluorescence microscopies in combination with conventional bio-assays and analytical tools to characterize chemical composition and morphology of AKU cartilage...
February 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191577/on-the-mechanism-of-gas-adsorption-for-pristine-defective-and-functionalized-graphene
#18
Y You, J Deng, X Tan, N Gorjizadeh, M Yoshimura, S C Smith, V Sahajwalla, R K Joshi
Defects are no longer deemed an adverse aspect of graphene. Contrarily, they can pave ways of extending the applicability of graphene. Herein, we discuss the effects of three types of defects in graphene including carbon deficiency, adatom (single Fe) dopants and the introduction of functional groups (carbonyl, ether group) on the NO2 gas adsorption via density functional theory methods. We have observed that introducing Fe on graphene can enhance the NO2 adsorption process. Adsorption energy calculations suggest that the enhancement in NO2 adsorption is more profound for Fe-doped mono- and tetra-vacant graphene than that for Fe doped bi- and tri-vacant graphene, which is favourable for NO2 gas capture applications...
February 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179390/natural-genetic-variation-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-response-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Natalia Martin, Jogender Singh, Alejandro Aballay
Caenorhabditis elegans responds to pathogenic microorganisms by activating its innate immune system, which consists of physical barriers, behavioral responses, and microbial killing mechanisms. We examined whether natural variation plays a role in the response of C. elegans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa using two C. elegans strains that carry the same allele of npr-1, a gene that encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor related to mammalian neuropeptide Y receptors, but that differ in their genetic backgrounds. Strains carrying an allele for the NPR-1 215F isoform have been shown to exhibit lack of pathogen avoidance behavior and deficient immune response towards P...
February 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178390/metabolic-and-hemodynamic-effects-of-sodium-dependent-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-on-cardio-renal-protection-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
REVIEW
Atsunori Kashiwagi, Hiroshi Maegawa
The specific Na+/glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) inhibit glucose reabsorption in proximal renal tubular cells, and both fasting and postprandial glucose significantly decrease due to urinary glucose loss. As a result, pancreatic β-cell function and peripheral insulin action significantly improve with relief from glucose toxicity. Furthermore, whole body energy metabolism changes to relative glucose deficiency and triggers increased lipolysis in fat cells, and fatty acid oxidation and then ketone body production in the liver during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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