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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916721/loss-of-cardiac-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-2-results-in-rapamycin-resistant-acetylation-independent-hypertrophy
#1
Andrea S Pereyra, Like Y Hasek, Kate L Harris, Alycia G Berman, Frederick W Damen, Craig J Goergen, Jessica M Ellis
Cardiac hypertrophy is closely linked to impaired fatty acid oxidation, but the molecular basis of this link is unclear. Here, we investigated the loss of an obligate enzyme in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), on muscle and heart structure, function, and molecular signatures in a muscle- and heart-specific CPT2-deficient mouse (Cpt2M-/-) model. CPT2 loss in heart and muscle reduced complete oxidation of long-chain fatty acids by 87% and 69%, respectively, without altering body weight, energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, or adiposity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912186/cardiomyopathies-due-to-left-ventricular-noncompaction-mitochondrial-and-storage-diseases-and-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Towbin, John Lynn Jefferies
The normal function of the human myocardium requires the proper generation and utilization of energy and relies on a series of complex metabolic processes to achieve this normal function. When metabolic processes fail to work properly or effectively, heart muscle dysfunction can occur with or without accompanying functional abnormalities of other organ systems, particularly skeletal muscle. These metabolic derangements can result in structural, functional, and infiltrative deficiencies of the heart muscle. Mitochondrial and enzyme defects predominate as disease-related etiologies...
September 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910603/apolipoprotein-a-iv-constrains-hpa-and-behavioral-stress-responsivity-in-a-strain-dependent-manner
#3
Amy E B Packard, Jintao Zhang, Brent Myers, Chih-Wei Ko, Fei Wang, Patrick Tso, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
There is a critical gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms that govern interactions between daily life experiences (e.g., stress) and metabolic diseases, despite evidence that stress can have profound effects on cardiometabolic health. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a protein found in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that transport lipids throughout the body) where it participates in lipid handling and the regulation of peripheral metabolism. Moreover, apoA-IV is expressed in brain regions that regulate energy balance including the arcuate nucleus...
September 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904917/evaluation-of-leptin-as-a-marker-of-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Thiyagarajan Manjuladevi Moonishaa, Sunil Kumar Nanda, Muthukrishnan Shamraj, Rajendran Sivaa, Periyasamy Sivakumar, Kandasamy Ravichandran
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, whose incidence is rapidly increasing in India. T2DM is caused by varying degrees of insulin resistance (IR) and relative insulin deficiency. Leptin, an adipokine with the primary function of regulating energy balance, is found to mediate insulin secretion and sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Hence, we aimed to determine the role of leptin in the development of IR in newly diagnosed T2DM patients...
July 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891045/a-critical-period-for-the-trophic-actions-of-leptin-on-agrp-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#5
Anna Kamitakahara, Karine Bouyer, Chien-Hua Wang, Richard Simerly
In the developing hypothalamus, the fat-derived hormone leptin stimulates the growth of axons from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) to other regions that control energy balance. These projections are significantly reduced in leptin deficient (Lep(ob/ob) ) mice and this phenotype is largely rescued by neonatal leptin treatments. However, treatment of mature Lep(ob/ob) mice is ineffective, suggesting that the trophic action of leptin is limited to a developmental critical period. To temporally delineate closure of this critical period for leptin-stimulated growth, we treated Lep(ob/ob) mice with exogenous leptin during a variety of discrete time periods, and measured the density of Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP) containing projections from the ARH to the ventral part of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMHv), and to the medial parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus (PVHmp)...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887804/identification-of-major-quantitative-trait-loci-for-root-diameter-in-synthetic-hexaploid-wheat-under-phosphorus-deficient-conditions
#6
Fangkun Wu, Xilan Yang, Zhiqiang Wang, Mei Deng, Jian Ma, Guoyue Chen, Yuming Wei, Yaxi Liu
Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) possesses numerous genes for resistance to stress, including phosphorus (P) deficiency. Root diameter (RDM) plays an important role in P-deficiency tolerance, but information related to SHW is still limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of RDM in SHW under P-deficient conditions. To this end, we measured the RDM of 138 F9 recombinant inbred lines derived from an F2 population of a synthetic hexaploid wheat line (SHW-L1) and a common wheat line (Chuanmai32) under two P conditions, P sufficiency (PS) and P deficiency (PD), and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for RDM using an enriched high-density genetic map, containing 120,370 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 733 diversity arrays technology markers, and 119 simple sequence repeats...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885690/global-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-in-the-submandibular-salivary-gland-of-klotho-knockout-mice
#7
Sung-Min Kwon, Soo-A Kim, Jung-Hoon Yoon, Jong-In Yook, Sang-Gun Ahn
Salivary dysfunction commonly occurs in many older adults and is considered a physiological phenomenon. However, the genetic changes in salivary glands during aging have not been characterized. The present study analyzed the gene expression profile in salivary glands from accelerated aging klotho deficient mice (klotho -/-, 4 weeks old). Microarray analysis showed that 195 genes were differentially expressed (z-score > 2 in two independent arrays) in klotho null mice compared to wild-type mice. Importantly, alpha2-Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (Atp1a2), Ca(2+) -ATPase (Atp2a1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF), which have been suggested to be regulators of submandibular salivary gland function, were significantly decreased...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875865/predictors-and-correlates-of-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-in-young-women-results-from-the-safe-d-study
#8
Emma T Callegari, Suzanne M Garland, Alexandra Gorelik, Nicola J Reavley, John D Wark
Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health concern. Studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) determinants in young women are limited and few include objective covariates. Our aims were to define the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and examine serum 25(OH)D correlates in an exploratory study of women aged 16-25 years. We studied 348 healthy females living in Victoria, Australia, recruited through Facebook. Data collected included serum 25(OH)D assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem MS, relevant serum biochemistry, soft tissue composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, skin melanin density, Fitzpatrick skin type, sun exposure using UV dosimeters and lifestyle factors...
August 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875607/the-role-of-overweight-and-obesity-on-bone-health-in-korean-adolescents-with-a-focus-on-lean-and-fat-mass
#9
Hwa Young Kim, Hae Woon Jung, Hyunsook Hong, Jae Hyun Kim, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang, Young Ah Lee
As the associations between pediatric overweight/obesity and bone health remain controversial, we investigated the effects of overweight/obesity as well as lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) on bone parameters in adolescents. Bone parameters were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data of 982 adolescents (aged 12-19 years) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010). Z-scores for LM, FM, bone mass, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) using Korean pediatric reference values were used for analysis...
October 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874461/selective-deletion-of-renin-b-in-the-brain-alters-drinking-and-metabolism
#10
Keisuke Shinohara, Pablo Nakagawa, Javier Gomez, Donald A Morgan, Nicole K Littlejohn, Matthew D Folchert, Benjamin J Weidemann, Xuebo Liu, Susan A Walsh, Laura L Ponto, Kamal Rahmouni, Justin L Grobe, Curt D Sigmund
The brain-specific isoform of renin (Ren-b) has been proposed as a negative regulator of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We analyzed mice with a selective deletion of Ren-b which preserved expression of the classical renin (Ren-a) isoform. We reported that Ren-b(Null) mice exhibited central RAS activation and hypertension through increased expression of Ren-a, but the dipsogenic and metabolic effects in Ren-b(Null) mice are unknown. Fluid intake was similar in control and Ren-b(Null) mice at baseline and both exhibited an equivalent dipsogenic response to deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt...
September 5, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865861/liver-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-important-factors-involved-in-the-metabolic-adaptation-of-the-transition-cow
#11
N-T Ha, C Drögemüller, C Reimer, F Schmitz-Hsu, R M Bruckmaier, H Simianer, J J Gross
During early lactation, dairy cows experience a severe metabolic load often resulting in the development of various diseases. The inevitable deficiency in nutrients and energy at the onset of lactation requires an optimal adaptation of the hepatic metabolism to overcome metabolic stress. We conducted a whole-liver transcriptome analysis for the transition cow to identify novel factors crucial for metabolic adaptation. Liver samples were obtained from 6 Red Holstein dairy cows (parity 2 to 7, mean ± standard deviation: 3...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855710/gpr88-is-a-critical-regulator-of-feeding-and-body-composition-in-mice
#12
Jackie Lau, Aitak Farzi, Ronaldo F Enriquez, Yan-Chuan Shi, Herbert Herzog
GPR88 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor with predominant expression in reward-related areas in the brain. While the lack of GPR88 has been demonstrated to induce behavioral deficits, the potential function of the receptor in the control of food intake and energy balance remains unexplored. In this work, the role of GPR88 in energy homeostasis was investigated in Gpr88 (-/-) mice fed either standard chow or high fat diet (HFD). Gpr88 (-/-) mice showed significantly reduced adiposity accompanied with suppressed spontaneous food intake, particularly pronounced under HFD treatment...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844085/targeting-sentinel-proteins-and-extrasynaptic-glutamate-receptors-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-preventing-the-effects-elicited-by-perinatal-asphyxia
#13
Mario Herrera-Marschitz, Ronald Perez-Lobos, Carolyne Lespay-Rebolledo, Andrea Tapia-Bustos, Emmanuel Casanova-Ortiz, Paola Morales, Jose-Luis Valdes, Diego Bustamante, Bruce K Cassels
Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a relevant cause of death at the time of labour, and when survival is stabilised, associated with short- and long-term developmental disabilities, requiring inordinate care by health systems and families. Its prevalence is high (1 to 10/1000 live births) worldwide. At present, there are few therapeutic options, apart from hypothermia, that regrettably provides only limited protection if applied shortly after the insult.PA implies a primary and a secondary insult. The primary insult relates to the lack of oxygen, and the secondary one to the oxidative stress triggered by re-oxygenation, formation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen (RNS) species, and overactivation of glutamate receptors and mitochondrial deficiencies...
August 26, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841353/esrra-estrogen-related-receptor-alpha-is-a-key-coordinator-of-transcriptional-and-post-translational-activation-of-autophagy-to-promote-innate-host-defense
#14
Soo Yeon Kim, Chul-Su Yang, Hye-Mi Lee, Jin Kyung Kim, Yi-Sak Kim, Ye-Ram Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Tae Sung Kim, Jae-Min Yuk, Catherine Rosa Dufour, Sang-Hee Lee, Jin-Man Kim, Hueng-Sik Choi, Vincent Giguère, Eun-Kyeong Jo
The orphan nuclear receptor ESSRA (estrogen related receptor, alpha) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis and mitochondrial function. Macroautophagy/autophagy, an intracellular degradation process, is a critical innate effector against intracellular microbes. Here, we demonstrate that ESRRA is required for the activation of autophagy to promote innate antimicrobial defense against mycobacterial infection. AMP-activated protein kinase pathway and SIRT1 (sirtuin 1) activation led to induction of ESRRA, which is essential for autophagosome formation, in bone marrow-derived macrophages...
August 25, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840584/metabolic-enzymes-in-sarcomagenesis-progress-toward-biology-and-therapy
#15
Luyuan Li, Josiane E Eid, Ana C Paz, Jonathan C Trent
Cellular metabolism reprogramming is an emerging hallmark of cancer, which provides tumor cells with not only necessary energy but also crucial materials to support growth. Exploiting the unique features of cancer metabolism is promising in cancer therapies. The growing interest in this field has led to numerous inhibitors being developed against key molecules in metabolic pathways, though most of them are still in preclinical development. Potential targeted cancer cell metabolic pathways under investigation include glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), glutaminolysis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), lipid synthesis, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism...
August 24, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836506/unintended-and-accidental-medical-radiation-exposures-in-radiology-guidelines-on-investigation-and-prevention
#16
Colin J Martin, J Vassileva, Eliseo Vano, M Mahesh, Steve Ebdon-Jackson, K Ng, Donald P Frush, R Loose, John Damilakis
This paper sets out guidelines for managing radiation exposure incidents involving patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology. The work is based on collation of experiences from representatives of international and national organizations for radiologists, medical physicists, radiographers, regulators, and equipment manufacturers, derived from an International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Meeting. More serious overexposures can result in skin doses high enough to produce tissue reactions, in interventional procedures and computed tomography, most notably from perfusion studies...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831686/food-versus-pharmacy-assessment-of-nutritional-and-pharmacological-strategies-to-improve-bone-health-in-energy-deficient-exercising-women
#17
REVIEW
Emily A Southmayd, Adelaide C Hellmers, Mary Jane De Souza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to summarize our current knowledge surrounding treatment strategies aimed at recovery of bone mass in energy-deficient women suffering from the Female Athlete Triad. RECENT FINDINGS: The independent and interactive contributions of energy status versus estrogen status on bone density, geometry, and strength have recently been reported, highlighting the importance of addressing both energy and estrogen in treatment strategies for bone health...
August 22, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828274/micrornas-tend-to-synergistically-control-expression-of-genes-encoding-extensively-expressed-proteins-in-humans
#18
Xue Chen, Wei Zhao, Ye Yuan, Yan Bai, Yong Sun, Wenliang Zhu, Zhimin Du
Considering complicated microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and action mechanisms, it was thought so high energy-consuming for a cell to afford simultaneous over-expression of many miRNAs. Thus it prompts that an alternative miRNA regulation pattern on protein-encoding genes must exist, which has characteristics of energy-saving and precise protein output. In this study, expression tendency of proteins encoded by miRNAs' target genes was evaluated in human organ scale, followed by quantitative assessment of miRNA synergism...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826719/advanced-glycation-end-products-receptor-rage-controls-myocardial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-fed-mice-by-sustaining-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-autophagy-lysosome-pathway
#19
Yichi Yu, Lei Wang, Florian Delguste, Arthur Durand, Axel Guilbaud, Clementine Rousselin, Ann Marie Schmidt, Frédéric Tessier, Eric Boulanger, Remi Neviere
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are recognized as major contributors of cardiovascular damage in diabetes and high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Blockade of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) attenuates vascular oxidative stress and development of atherosclerosis. We tested whether HFD-induced myocardial dysfunction would be reversed in RAGE deficiency mice, in association with changes in oxidative stress damage, mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial fission and autophagy-lysosomal pathway...
August 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820290/local-histone-acetylation-by-acss2-promotes-gene-transcription-for-lysosomal-biogenesis-and-autophagy
#20
Xinjian Li, Xu Qian, Zhimin Lu
Overcoming metabolic stress is a critical step in tumorigenesis. Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) converted from glucose or acetate is a substrate used for histone acetylation to regulate gene expression. However, how acetyl-CoA is produced under nutritional stress conditions is unclear. Herein we report that nutritional stress induces nuclear translocation of ACSS2 (acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2). This translocation is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent ACSS2 Ser659 phosphorylation and subsequent exposure of the nuclear localization signal of ACSS2 to KPNA1/importin α5 for binding...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
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