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Relative energy deficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533895/effects-of-nitrogen-and-tiller-type-on-grain-yield-and-physiological-responses-in-rice
#1
Yang Wang, Jianwei Lu, Tao Ren, Saddam Hussain, Chen Guo, Sen Wang, Rihuan Cong, Xiaokun Li
The increasing food demands from an expanding population necessitate global efforts to increase crop production and ensure food security. The rate of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is strongly related to crop yield. However, although the application of N fertilizer significantly increases the number of tillers in rice, late emerging tillers usually produce lower yields compared with early emerging tillers. Understanding the physiological constraints of late emerging rice tillers is critical for further increasing rice grain yields...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532548/mtorc1-in-agrp-neurons-integrates-exteroceptive-and-interoceptive-food-related-cues-in-the-modulation-of-adaptive-energy-expenditure-in-mice
#2
Luke K Burke, Tamana Darwish, Althea R Cavanaugh, Sam Virtue, Emma Roth, Joanna Morro, Shun-Mei Liu, Jing Xia, Jeffrey W Dalley, Keith Burling, Streamson Chua, Toni Vidal-Puig, Gary J Schwartz, Clémence Blouet
Energy dissipation through interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis is an important contributor to adaptive energy expenditure. However, it remains unresolved how acute and chronic changes in energy availability are detected by the brain to adjust iBAT activity and maintain energy homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that AGRP inhibitory tone to iBAT represents an energy-sparing circuit that integrates environmental food cues and internal signals of energy availability. We establish a role for the nutrient-sensing mTORC1 signaling pathway within AGRP neurons in the detection of environmental food cues and internal signals of energy availability, and in the bi-directional control of iBAT thermogenesis during nutrient deficiency and excess...
May 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527629/p62-sequestosome-1-knockout-delays-neurodegeneration-induced-by-drp1-loss
#3
Tatsuya Yamada, Yoshihiro Adachi, Toru Yanagawa, Miho Iijima, Hiromi Sesaki
Purkinje neurons, one of the largest neurons in the brain, are critical for controlling body movements, and the dysfunction and degeneration of these cells cause ataxia. Purkinje neurons require a very efficient energy supply from mitochondria because of their large size and extensive dendritic arbors. We have previously shown that mitochondrial division mediated by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is critical for the development and survival of Purkinje neurons. Drp1 deficiency has been associated with one of the major types of ataxia: autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay...
May 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526632/erythrocytosis-following-testosterone-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Samuel J Ohlander, Bibin Varghese, Alexander W Pastuszak
INTRODUCTION: A rapid increase in awareness of androgen deficiency has led to substantial increases in prescribing of testosterone therapy (TTh), with benefits of improvements in mood, libido, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, energy, and cognition. However, TTh can be limited by its side effects, particularly erythrocytosis. This review examines the literature on testosterone-induced erythrocytosis and polycythemia. AIM: To review the available literature on testosterone-induced erythrocytosis, discuss possible mechanisms for pathophysiology, determine the significance of formulation, and elucidate potential thromboembolic risk...
May 16, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526376/the-excessive-caloric-intake-and-micronutrient-deficiencies-related-to-obesity-after-a-long-term-interdisciplinary-therapy
#5
Vanessa Fadanelli Schoenardie Poli, Ricardo Badan Sanches, Amanda Dos Santos Moraes, João Pedro Novo Fidalgo, Maythe Amaral Nascimento, Paula Bresciani, Stephan Garcia Andrade-Silva, Marcos Alberto Taddeo Cipullo, José Carlos Clemente, Danielle Arisa Caranti
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle modification therapy on food intake, body composition, and anthropometric measurements of obese women. METHODS: Seventy obese women (age 41 ± 5.9 y) attended the interdisciplinary therapy, with nutrition, physical exercise, physiotherapy, and psychological support during the course of 1 y. Usual food intake was estimated by 3-d dietary record. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed to determine body fat and fat-free mass...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504974/diffusion-and-aggregation-of-oxygen-vacancies-in-amorphous-silica
#6
Manveer S Munde, David Z Gao, Alexander L Shluger
Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we investigated oxygen vacancy diffusion and aggregation in relation to dielectric breakdown in amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2). Our calculations indicate the existence of favourable sites for the formation of vacancy dimers and trimers in the amorphous network with maximum binding energies of approximately 0.13 eV and 0.18 eV, respectively. However, an average energy barrier height for neutral vacancy diffusion is found to be about 4.6 eV, rendering this process unfeasible...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484037/chromosome-level-genome-assembly-and-transcriptome-of-the-green-alga-chromochloris-zofingiensis-illuminates-astaxanthin-production
#7
Melissa S Roth, Shawn J Cokus, Sean D Gallaher, Andreas Walter, David Lopez, Erika Erickson, Benjamin Endelman, Daniel Westcott, Carolyn A Larabell, Sabeeha S Merchant, Matteo Pellegrini, Krishna K Niyogi
Microalgae have potential to help meet energy and food demands without exacerbating environmental problems. There is interest in the unicellular green alga Chromochloris zofingiensis, because it produces lipids for biofuels and a highly valuable carotenoid nutraceutical, astaxanthin. To advance understanding of its biology and facilitate commercial development, we present a C. zofingiensis chromosome-level nuclear genome, organelle genomes, and transcriptome from diverse growth conditions. The assembly, derived from a combination of short- and long-read sequencing in conjunction with optical mapping, revealed a compact genome of ∼58 Mbp distributed over 19 chromosomes containing 15,274 predicted protein-coding genes...
May 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479249/ptp1b-deficiency-improves-hypothalamic-insulin-sensitivity-resulting-in-the-attenuation-of-agrp-mrna-expression-under-high-fat-diet-conditions
#8
Mariko Sugiyama, Ryoichi Banno, Akira Mizoguchi, Takashi Tominaga, Taku Tsunekawa, Takeshi Onoue, Daisuke Hagiwara, Yoshihiro Ito, Yoshiaki Morishita, Shintaro Iwama, Motomitsu Goto, Hidetaka Suga, Hiroshi Arima
Hypothalamic insulin receptor signaling regulates energy balance and glucose homeostasis via agouti-related protein (AgRP). While protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is classically known to be a negative regulator of peripheral insulin signaling by dephosphorylating both insulin receptor β (IRβ) and insulin receptor substrate, the role of PTP1B in hypothalamic insulin signaling remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of PTP1B in hypothalamic insulin signaling using PTP1B deficient (KO) mice in vivo and ex vivo...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476777/disease-stage-dependent-changes-in-cardiac-contractile-performance-and-oxygen-utilization-underlie-reduced-myocardial-efficiency-in-human-inherited-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#9
Ahmet Güçlü, Paul Knaapen, Hendrik J Harms, Rahana Y Parbhudayal, Michelle Michels, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Albert C van Rossum, Tjeerd Germans, Jolanda van der Velden
BACKGROUND: Reduced myocardial efficiency represents a target for therapy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy although therapeutic benefit may depend on disease stage. Here, we determined disease stage-dependent changes in myocardial efficiency and effects of myectomy surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial external efficiency (MEE) was determined in 27 asymptomatic mutation carriers (genotype positive/phenotype negative), 10 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), 10 patients with aortic valve stenosis, and 14 healthy individuals using [(11)C]-acetate positron emission tomography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging...
May 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471544/neonatal-hypothyroidism-affects-testicular-glucose-homeostasis-through-increased-oxidative-stress-in-prepubertal-mice-effects-on-glut3-glut8-and-cx43
#10
D Sarkar, S K Singh
Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in maintaining the link between metabolism and reproduction and the altered THs status is associated with induction of oxidative stress in various organs like brain, heart, liver and testis. Further, reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in regulation of glucose homeostasis in several organs, and glucose utilization by Leydig cells is essential for testosterone biosynthesis and thus is largely dependent on glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8). Glucose uptake by Sertoli cells is mediated through glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) under the influence of THs to meet energy requirement of developing germ cells...
May 4, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462907/electron-holography-on-hfo2-hfo2-x-bilayer-structures-with-multilevel-resistive-switching-properties
#11
G Niu, M A Schubert, S U Sharath, P Zaumseil, S Vogel, C Wenger, E Hildebrandt, S Bhupathi, E Perez, L Alff, M Lehmann, T Schroeder, T Niermann
Unveiling the physical nature of the oxygen-deficient conductive filaments (CFs) that are responsible for the resistive switching of the HfO2-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices represents a challenging task due to the oxygen vacancy related defect nature and nanometer size of the CFs. As a first important step to this goal, we demonstrate in this work direct visualization and a study of physico-chemical properties of oxygen-deficient amorphous HfO2-x by carrying out transmission electron microscopy electron holography as well as energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy on HfO2/HfO2-x bilayer heterostructures, which are realized by reactive molecular beam epitaxy...
May 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452736/-action-of-l-carnitine-corvitin-and-their-combination-on-functional-state-of-liver-in-experimental-model-of-reye-syndrome-in-rats
#12
M Ghonghadze, N Antelava, K Liluashvili, M Okujava, K Pachkoria
Administration of Aacetylsalicylic acid in children with viral infections (influence B, chickenpox) can be related with development of Reye syndrome - severe encephalopathy and liver insufficiency with mortality in 50% of cases. During Reye syndrome most important is deficiency of carnitine and hepatocyte damage. Decreased amount of carnitine impairs the energy function of mitochondria and gluconeogenesis as well as production of urea. As a result develops toxic encephalopathy and liver insufficiency. The goal of the research was assessment of efficacy of L-Carnitine, Corvitin and their combination on functional state of liver in experimental model of Reye Syndrome in rats...
February 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435337/treatment-strategies-for-the-female-athlete-triad-in-the-adolescent-athlete-current-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Jill Thein-Nissenbaum, Erin Hammer
Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad), which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD). These conditions often manifest clinically as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures; an individual may suffer from 1 or all of the Triad components simultaneously...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432843/vitamin-b1-in-critically-ill-patients-needs-and-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Jake T B Collie, Ronda F Greaves, Oliver A H Jones, Que Lam, Glenn M Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Thiamine has a crucial role in energy production, and consequently thiamine deficiency (TD) has been associated with cardiac failure, neurological disorders, oxidative stress (lactic acidosis and sepsis) and refeeding syndrome (RFS). This review aims to explore analytical methodologies of thiamine compound quantification and highlight similarities, variances and limitations of current techniques and how they may be relevant to patients. CONTENT: An electronic search of Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for original articles published in peer-reviewed journals was conducted...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427343/loss-of-pericyte-smoothened-activity-in-mice-with-genetic-deficiency-of-leptin
#15
Guanhua Xie, Marzena Swiderska-Syn, Mark L Jewell, Mariana Verdelho Machado, Gregory A Michelotti, Richard T Premont, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with multiple diseases, but it is unclear how obesity promotes progressive tissue damage. Recovery from injury requires repair, an energy-expensive process that is coupled to energy availability at the cellular level. The satiety factor, leptin, is a key component of the sensor that matches cellular energy utilization to available energy supplies. Leptin deficiency signals energy depletion, whereas activating the Hedgehog pathway drives energy-consuming activities...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414075/vitamin-b2-deficiency-enhances-the-pro-inflammatory-activity-of-adipocyte-consequences-for-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-development
#16
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Ewa Pocheć
AIMS: Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ important for regulation of such physiological processes as energy metabolism or lipids homeostasis. In an obesity state, it participates in the induction of chronic systemic inflammation accompanied by pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty acid elevation. For this reasons, adipose tissue is involved in, e.g., insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes or hyperlipidemia development. In our previous study, we have shown that riboflavin deficiency induces a pathological pro-inflammatory response of macrophages, the main component of adipose tissue...
June 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412412/autophagy-regulatory-molecule-tmem74-interacts-with-bik-and-inhibits-bik-induced-apoptosis
#17
Yizhe Sun, Qi Li, Jingyu Zhang, Zhongjiang Chen, Qihua He, Xi Liu, Ning Zhao, Ang Yin, He Huang, Minwei He, Lulu Cao, Lu Wang
TMEM74 (Transmembrane protein 74), a lysosome transmembrane protein, induces cell autophagy. Knockdown of TMEM74 abolished EBSS-induced autophagy. BIK, belonging to BOP (BH3-only protein) protein family, has been reported to induce cell apoptosis. Autophagy and apoptosis, as different pathways regulated by extra- or intra-cellular signals precisely, both play a crucial role in processes of intra-cellular substrates degradation, energy metabolism and cell survival. However, the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis still remains elusive...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412370/suppression-of-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-selectively-triggers-apoptosis-in-activated-t-cells-and-ameliorates-immune-diseases
#18
Zijun Ouyang, Xingqi Wang, Qianqian Meng, Lili Feng, Yang Sun, Xuefeng Wu, Qiang Xu
Deficient apoptosis of activated T cells can result in immunological disorders. Molecules associated with energy and metabolisms are suggested to be involved in pathogenesis of immune diseases, but remain uninvestigated. In the present study we reported that glibenclamide exerted a new pharmacological effect on inflammatory responses by selectively triggering apoptosis of activated T cells. Glibenclamide demonstrated an inhibition on activated T lymphocytes, whereas showed no toxicity in the naive cells. This effect was mainly related with its ability to facilitate apoptosis in activated T cells with an up-regulation of cleaved-caspases and cleaved-PARP...
May 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412214/chinese-medicine-bu-fei-decoction-attenuates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-via-inhibition-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Xi-Ran He, Shu-Yan Han, Xiao-Hong Li, Wen-Xian Zheng, Li-Na Pang, Shan-Tong Jiang, Ping-Ping Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese medicine Bu-Fei decoction (BFD) has been utilized to treat patients with Qi deficiency for decades, with the advantages of invigorating vital energy, clearing heat-toxin and moistening lung, etc. According to previous clinical experience and trials, BFD has been found to indeed improve life quality of lung cancer patients and prolong survival time. Nevertheless, little is known on its potential mechanisms so far. Being regarded as a pivotal cytokine in the tumor microenvironment, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) stands out as a robust regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is closely linked to tumor progression...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408965/phospholipase-c-related-catalytically-inactive-protein-can-regulate-obesity-a-state-of-peripheral-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Yosuke Yamawaki, Kana Oue, Satomi Shirawachi, Satoshi Asano, Kae Harada, Takashi Kanematsu
Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. Chronic inflammation in fat influences the development of obesity-related diseases. Many reports state that obesity increases the risk of morbidity in many diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea, and breast, prostate and colon cancers, leading to increased mortality. Obesity is also associated with chronic neuropathologic conditions such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. However, there is strong evidence that weight loss reduces these risks, by limiting blood pressure and improving levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol...
February 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
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