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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769433/medical-imaging-dose-optimization-from-ground-up-expert-opinion-of-an-international-summit
#1
Ehsan Samei, Hannu Jarvinen, Mika Kortesniemi, Georgios Simantirakis, Charles Goh, Anthony Wallace, Eliseo Vano, Adrian Bejan, M M Rehani, J Vassileva
As in any medical intervention, there is either a known or an anticipated benefit to the patient from undergoing a medical imaging procedure. This benefit is generally significant as demonstrated by the manner in which medical imaging has transformed clinical medicine. At the same time, when it comes to imaging that deploys ionizing radiation, there is a potential associated risk from radiation. Radiation risk has been recognized as a key liability in the practice of medical imaging, creating a motivation for radiation dose optimization...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767543/efficacy-of-single-tablet-darunavir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-in-the-treatment-of-hiv-1
#2
Eugènia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet
HIV eradication is not feasible and lifelong treatment is warranted to manage HIV infection. In this scenario, the advent of single-tablet, once-daily, fixed-dose co-formulations is important for reducing pill burden and maximize long-term drug adherence. Cobicistat-boosted darunavir along with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide co-formulation (DRV/c/FTC/TAF or the trade name Symtuza®) is the first marketed protease inhibitor-based fixed-dose combination regimen for the treatment of HIV infection. It was approved in late 2017 by the European Medical Agency both for naïve patients and treatment-experienced patients with viral suppression...
May 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766727/-human-life-as-goodness-why-euthanasia-is-morally-unacceptable
#3
David Černý
The current discussion of the moral admissibility or inadmissibility of euthanasia should, in my opinion, consider the greatest possible number of the shared premises of the two opinion camps. That is why I followed a thesis in this paper that the question of the good life is the focus of ethical interest, as this is what connects the advocates and the opponents to euthanasia. In the first part of the paper I critically discuss the two main theories of the good life widely embraced among the advocates of euthanasia: hedonism and desire-fulfilment theory...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765260/attitude-and-perception-of-undergraduate-medical-students-toward-the-problem-based-learning-in-chitwan-medical-college-nepal
#4
Ram Lochan Yadav, Rano Mal Piryani, Gopendra Prasad Deo, Dev Kumar Shah, Laxmi Kumari Yadav, Md Nazrul Islam
Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced into Basic Medical Sciences early in the 1980s at Tribhuvan University (TU), Nepal, followed by other universities where didactic lecture method was still followed as the main teaching strategy. Despite gaining its popularity worldwide as integrated teaching learning method, PBL is not given importance in Nepal. This study aimed to assess the attitude and perceptions of undergraduate medical students regarding learning outcomes of PBL and to know their views about role and qualities of effective tutors for its successful implementation...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758590/interobserver-variation-in-cd30-immunohistochemistry-interpretation-consequences-for-patient-selection-for-targeted-treatment
#5
Lianne Koens, Peter M van de Ven, Nathalie J Hijmering, Marie José Kersten, Arjan Diepstra, Martine Chamuleau, Daphne de Jong
CD30 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in malignant lymphoma is used for selection of patients in clinical trials using brentuximab vedotin, an antibody drug-conjugate targeting the CD30 molecule. For reliable implementation in daily practice and meaningful selection of patients for clinical trials, information on technical variation and interobserver reproducibility of CD30 IHC staining is required. We conducted a 3-round reproducibility assessment of CD30 scoring for categorized frequency and intensity, including a technical validation, a "live polling" pre- and post-instruction scoring round, and a web-based round including individual scoring with additional IHC information to mimic daily diagnostic practice...
May 14, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754154/-series-caries-prevention-in-historical-perspective-fluoride
#6
H Kalsbeek
Shortly after the Second World War it became known in the Netherlands that fluoride can contribute to the prevention of dental caries. As to how this effect was achieved, opinions differed. Initially, the dominant the view was that fluoride had to be absorbed into the enamel and dentine during tooth formation to make the teeth resistant to caries. Later it was discovered that decalcification of the enamel is inhibited if fluoride is present in the dental plaque. While in the beginning water fluoridation was considered to be the most effective measure to prevent caries, the current position is that tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste plays the most important role in caries prevention...
May 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738820/classification-of-forensic-autopsy-reports-through-conceptual-graph-based-document-representation-model
#7
Ghulam Mujtaba, Liyana Shuib, Ram Gopal Raj, Retnagowri Rajandram, Khairunisa Shaikh, Mohammed Ali Al-Garadi
Text categorization has been used extensively in recent years to classify plain-text clinical reports. This study employs text categorization techniques for the classification of open narrative forensic autopsy reports. One of the key steps in text classification is document representation. In document representation, a clinical report is transformed into a format that is suitable for classification. The traditional document representation technique for text categorization is the bag-of-words (BoW) technique...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737410/executive-summary-of-the-clinical-guidelines-of-pharmacotherapy-for-neuropathic-pain-second-edition-by-the-japanese-society-of-pain-clinicians
#8
REVIEW
Masahiko Sumitani, Tetsuya Sakai, Yoichi Matsuda, Hiroaki Abe, Shigeki Yamaguchi, Toyoshi Hosokawa, Sei Fukui
Neuropathic pain has a substantial effect on quality of life (QOL). The Japanese Society of Pain Clinicians (JSPC) has developed clinical guidelines of pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain. These guidelines offer clarity on recommendations based on both the most recent scientific evidence and expert opinions. Understanding the concept, disease entity, and burden of neuropathic pain, as well as its screening and diagnosis are important steps before starting pharmacotherapy. As well as other guidelines, the guidelines propose several lines of pharmacotherapies in a step-wise manner...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736868/a-pragmatic-comparative-study-of-palliative-care-clinician-s-reports-of-the-degree-of-shadowing-visible-on-plain-abdominal-radiographs
#9
Katherine Clark, L Lam, N J Talley, G Watts, J L Phillips, N J Byfieldt, D C Currow
The assessment of constipation symptoms is based on history and physical examination. However, the experience is highly subjective perhaps explaining why palliative medicine doctors continue to use plain abdominal radiographs as part of routine assessment of constipation. Previous studies have demonstrated poor agreement between clinicians with this work in palliative care, limited further by disparity of clinicians' experience and training. The aim of this work was to explore whether there was less variation in the assessments of faecal shadowing made by more experienced clinicians compared to their less experienced colleagues...
May 7, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733840/clinical-opinion-doing-something-about-the-cesarean-delivery-rate
#10
S L Clark, T J Garite, E J Hamilton, M A Belfort, G D Hankins
There is a general consensus that the cesarean delivery rate in the U.S. is too high, and that practice patterns of obstetricians are largely to blame for this situation. In reality, the U.S. cesarean delivery rate is the result of 3 forces largely beyond the control of the practicing clinician: patient expectations and misconceptions regarding the safety of labor, the medical-legal system, and limitations in technology. Efforts to "do something" about the cesarean delivery rate by promulgating practice directives which are marginally evidence-based or influenced by social pressures are both ineffective and potentially harmful...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730400/the-experience-of-reading
#11
Alan Tonnies Moore, Eric Schwitzgebel
What do people consciously experience when they read? There has been almost no rigorous research on this question, and opinions diverge radically among both philosophers and psychologists. We describe three studies of the phenomenology of reading and its relationship to memory of textual detail and general cognitive abilities. We find three main results. First, there is substantial variability in reports about reading experience, both within and between participants. Second, reported reading experience varies with passage type: passages with dialogue prompted increased reports of inner speech, while passages with vivid visual detail prompted increased reports of visual imagery...
May 3, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728162/current-trends-in-practices-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-unilateral-vocal-fold-immobility-a-survey-on-injections-thyroplasty-and-nerve-reinnervation
#12
Sarah Bouhabel, Christopher J Hartnick
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to poll pediatric otolaryngologists with a special interest in pediatric laryngology on their experience with injection medialization laryngoplasty (IML), thyroplasty, and reinnervation procedures in order to reflect on changing clinical practices. METHOD: A 10-items questionnaire was designed to inquire about current management practices in the treatment of symptomatic UVFI. The 59 members of an ASPO pediatric laryngology working group received the anonymous online survey...
June 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721471/practical-consensus-recommendaton-for-adjuvant-bone-modifying-agents-in-breast-cancer
#13
A Bharatuar, M Kar, S Khatri, V Goswami, R Sarin, S Dawood, R Iyenger, M Ganvir, Purvish M Parikh, S Aggarwal, Vineet Talwar
Bone-modifying therapy is a primary research interest in breast cancer. Several features contribute to the importance of the bone environment in the management of breast cancer. Firstly, bone metastases represent the most common site of breast cancer metastases and secondly, the emergence of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) among breast cancer survivors and patients is of increasing concern. In the adjuvant setting, bisphosphonates can be given to prevent and treat tumor therapy-induced bone loss in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and, owing to their beneficial effect on bone turnover, have also been evaluated for prevention of bone metastases occurrence...
April 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721364/audio-recording-for-independent-confirmation-of-clinical-assessments-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#14
Steven D Targum, Christopher Murphy, Jibran Khan, Laura Zumpano, Mark Whitlock, Arthur A Simen, Brendon Binneman
Objective : The assessment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) to deteremine whether a medication intervention is necessary is not always clear and might benefit from a second opinion. However, second opinions are time consuming, expensive, and not practical in most settings. We obtained independent, second opinion reviews of the primary clinician's assessment via audio-digital recording. Design : An audio-digital recording of key site-based assessments was used to generate site-independent "dual" reviews of the clinical presentation, symptom severity, and medication requirements of patients with GAD as part of the screening procedures for a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials...
April 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720143/integrating-student-feedback-during-dental-curriculum-hack-a-thon
#15
Shawheen S Saffari, R Frederick Lambert, Lucy Dang, Sarah Pagni, Irina F Dragan
BACKGROUND: The future of dental education is at crossroads. This study used the parameter of the 2016 Dental Curriculum Hack-a-Thon to assess intra- and inter-institutional agreement between student and faculty views regarding dental curriculums to determine if there is an impact in student perceptions towards dental education from before and after the event. METHODS: This exploratory, cross-sectional study involved two surveys, with Survey 1 being distributed among four faculty-student pairs of the four participating dental schools answering 14 questions...
May 2, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719733/selection-of-quality-indicators-for-nutritional-therapy-in-pediatrics-a-cross-sectional-study-conducted-in-brazil
#16
Julia Bertoldi, Aline Ferreira, Luiza Scancetti, Patricia Padilha
Background: Quality indicators for nutritional therapy (QINT) are important in assessing care and monitoring of resources. Among the 30 indicators proposed by International Life Sciences Institute, Brazil, there is still no evaluation of the most pertinent for Pediatrics. Objective: To list the 10 main quality indicators for nutritional therapies (QINTs) for Pediatrics. Methods: This was a two-phase cross-sectional study. Firstly, a questionnaire was answered by physicians, nutritionists, nurses, and pharmacists, all with having experience in nutritional therapy (NT) with Pediatrics, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718748/an-update-on-the-toxicological-considerations-for-protease-inhibitors-used-for-hepatitis-c-infection
#17
Lung-Yi Mak, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen
Hepatitis C virus protease inhibitors (PIs) are important components of many direct acting antiviral regimens. Many clinical trials and real-world studies have described the safety data for individual PIs. We aimed to review the safety of both the first and second generation PIs in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Areas covered: The unique pharmacokinetic properties of PIs partly explain their toxicities. Second generation PIs, when used without interferon and ribavirin, are well-tolerated. Use of PIs in renal impaired patients or those on dialysis appears to be safe...
May 2, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715129/second-opinion-reviews-for-cancer-diagnoses-in-anatomic-pathology-a-comprehensive-cancer-center-s-experience
#18
Carolina Strosberg, Julie Gibbs, Diana Braswell, Ronni R Leslie, Jane Messina, Barbara A Centeno, Domenico Coppola
AIM: The objective of this study was to define the rates of discrepancy between outside pathological diagnoses and secondary reviews. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the rates of discordance between outside diagnoses and secondary reviews, categorizing by organ site and minor or major (affecting patient care) discordances. RESULTS: A total of 9,289 consecutive surgical pathology (SP) and cytopathology (CP) cases reviewed in 2015 were identified...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713319/debunking-the-myth-of-exercise-induced-immune-suppression-redefining-the-impact-of-exercise-on-immunological-health-across-the-lifespan
#19
REVIEW
John P Campbell, James E Turner
Epidemiological evidence indicates that regular physical activity and/or frequent structured exercise reduces the incidence of many chronic diseases in older age, including communicable diseases such as viral and bacterial infections, as well as non-communicable diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammatory disorders. Despite the apparent health benefits achieved by leading an active lifestyle, which imply that regular physical activity and frequent exercise enhance immune competency and regulation, the effect of a single bout of exercise on immune function remains a controversial topic...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708448/alcoholic-steatohepatitis-ash-and-alcoholic-hepatitis-ah-cascade-of-events-clinical-aspects-and-pharmacotherapy-options
#20
Rolf Teschke
Clinicians caring for patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) are often confronted with the question of the best pharmacotherapy to be used. Areas covered: This article covers metabolic aspects of alcohol as the basis of understanding pharmacotherapy and to facilitate choosing the drug therapeutic options for patients with severe AH. Expert opinion: Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and alcoholic hepatitis (AH) as terms are often used interchangeably in scientific literature but a stringent differentiation is recommended for proper clarity...
April 30, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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