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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088867/the-political-use-of-psychiatry-a-comparison-between-totalitarian-regimes
#1
Massimiliano Buoli, Aldo Sabino Giannuli
BACKGROUND: After the end of Second World War, the recent experience of the Nazi horrors stimulated a debate about the political use of psychiatry. Over the years, the focus shifted on major dictatorships of the time and especially on Soviet Union. AIMS: This article aims to provide a critical review of the ways in which psychiatry was used by totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. METHODS: We summarized relevant literature about political use of psychiatry in totalitarian regimes of the 20th century, with particular focus on Fascism, Nazism, Argentina dictatorship, Soviet Union and China...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087402/accuracy-is-in-the-eyes-of-the-pathologist-the-visual-interpretive-process-and-diagnostic-accuracy-with-digital-whole-slide-images
#2
Tad T Brunyé, Ezgi Mercan, Donald L Weaver, Joann G Elmore
Digital whole slide imaging is an increasingly common medium in pathology, with application to education, telemedicine, and rendering second opinions. It has also made it possible to use eye tracking devices to explore the dynamic visual inspection and interpretation of histopathological features of tissue while pathologists review cases. Using whole slide images, the present study examined how a pathologist's diagnosis is influenced by fixed case-level factors, their prior clinical experience, and their patterns of visual inspection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081569/gender-incongruence-of-childhood-clinical-utility-and-stakeholder-agreement-with-the-world-health-organization-s-proposed-icd-11-criteria
#3
Titia F Beek, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Walter P Bouman, Annelou L C de Vries, Thomas D Steensma, Gemma L Witcomb, Jon Arcelus, Christina Richards, Griet De Cuypere, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels
The World Health Organization (WHO) is revising the tenth version of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). This includes a reconceptualization of the definition and positioning of Gender Incongruence of Childhood (GIC). This study aimed to: 1) collect the views of transgender individuals and professionals regarding the retention of the diagnosis; 2) see if the proposed GIC criteria were acceptable to transgender individuals and health care providers; 3) compare results between two countries with two different healthcare systems to see if these differences influence opinions regarding the GIC diagnosis; and 4) determine whether healthcare providers from high-income countries feel that the proposed criteria are clinically useful and easy to use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077758/inter-rater-agreement-in-radiographic-canine-hip-dysplasia-evaluation
#4
U Geissbühler, S Drazovic, J Lang, J Howard
The objective was to determine the agreement between scrutineers assessing canine hip dysplasia (CHD) within and between the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) and the Swiss (CH) grading schemes, and between first-opinion and second-opinion scrutineers using the CH scheme. 62 scrutineers, participating in a quality assessment programme, were asked to evaluate 12 sets of hip radiographs. All radiographs had been previously evaluated by a first-opinion and 7 by both a first-opinion and second-opinion scrutineers using the CH scheme...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077348/user-centered-design-of-serious-games-for-older-adults-following-3-years-of-experience-with-exergames-for-seniors-a-study-design
#5
Ellen Brox, Stathis Th Konstantinidis, Gunn Evertsen
BACKGROUND: Seniors need sufficient balance and strength to manage in daily life, and sufficient physical activity is required to achieve and maintain these abilities. This can be a challenge, but fun and motivational exergames can be of help. However, most commercial games are not suited for this age group for several reasons. Many usability studies and user-centered design (UCD) protocols have been developed and applied, but to the best of our knowledge none of them are focusing on seniors' use of games for physical activity...
January 11, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073996/estimate-of-false-positive-breast-cancer-diagnoses-from-accuracy-studies-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Nereo Segnan, Silvia Minozzi, Antonio Ponti, Cristina Bellisario, Sara Balduzzi, Marien González-Lorenzo, Silvia Gianola, Paola Armaroli
BACKGROUND: False-positive histological diagnoses have the same consequences of overdiagnosis in terms of unnecessary treatment. The aim of this systematic review is to assess their frequency at needle core biopsy (CB) and/or surgical excision of the breast. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library were systematically searched up to 30 October 2015. Eligibility criteria: cross-sectional studies assessing diagnostic accuracy of CB compared with surgical excision; studies assessing reproducibility of pathologists reading the same slides...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045650/reduction-in-alert-fatigue-in-an-assisted-electronic-prescribing-system-through-the-lean-six-sigma-methodology
#7
Mª Jesús Cuéllar Monreal, Jorge Reig Aguado, Isabel Font Noguera, José Luis Poveda Andrés
OBJECTIVE: To reduce the alert fatigue in our Assisted Electronic Prescribing System (AEPS), through the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology. METHOD: An observational (transversal) and retrospective study, in a general hospital with 850 beds and AEPS. The LSS methodology was followed in order to evaluate the alert fatigue situation in the AEPS system, to implement improvements, and to assess outcomes. The alerts generated during two trimesters studied (before and after the intervention) were analyzed...
January 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044019/resolving-the-neural-dynamics-of-visual-and-auditory-scene-processing-in-the-human-brain-a-methodological-approach
#8
REVIEW
Radoslaw Martin Cichy, Santani Teng
In natural environments, visual and auditory stimulation elicit responses across a large set of brain regions in a fraction of a second, yielding representations of the multimodal scene and its properties. The rapid and complex neural dynamics underlying visual and auditory information processing pose major challenges to human cognitive neuroscience. Brain signals measured non-invasively are inherently noisy, the format of neural representations is unknown, and transformations between representations are complex and often nonlinear...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043166/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-atezolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-urothelial-carcinoma
#9
Rutveej Patel, Megan Bock, Charles F Polotti, Sammy Elsamra
Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is difficult to manage for patients who progress during or after initial chemotherapy regimens. Current regimens offer low response rates with high toxicities. The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors may represent a new opportunity for effective management of these patients. Areas covered: Atezolizumab is an engineered humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 antibody that binds selectively to PD-L1 and prevents its interaction with PD-1 and B7-1. It is administered intravenously and is given every 3 weeks as long as there is no evidence of tumor progression...
February 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041689/video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-and-anatomical-lung-resections-where-do-we-stand-national-survey-by-the-spanish-society-of-thoracic-surgery
#10
Raul Embun, Néstor Martínez Hernández, Sergi Call, Beatriz de Olaiz Navarro, Jon Zabaleta, Ricard Ramos, Jose Galbis, Nicolás Moreno
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this survey is to find out the cumulated experience and the current situation of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for anatomical lung resections in Spain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive study performed from two independent surveys designed through the Survey Monkey(®) web platform. The first survey was aimed at 53 thoracic surgery departments from the public and state-assisted national health system. The second survey, of a personal nature, was directed at 315 thoracic surgeons in active service, including physicians at their residency program...
December 29, 2016: Cirugía Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040330/quality-assurance-of-anatomic-pathology-diagnoses-comparison-of-alternate-approaches
#11
Lester J Layfield, Shellaine R Frazier
OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, a 10% review has been the basis for quality assurance programs in anatomic pathology. The effectiveness of such reviews has been questioned and alternative methodologies suggested. The study investigates the error detection rates for four quality assurance protocols. METHODS: The detection rate for diagnostic errors in surgical pathology was calculated over a one year period using four different review procedures comprising: random 10% review, correlation of internal and external diagnoses following solicited external expert opinion, correlation of internal diagnoses with outside diagnoses in cases sent for review at a second institution treating the patient along with a focused review of dermatopathology cases over a 3 month period...
November 11, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035436/six-year-activity-on-approval-of-compassionate-use-of-medicines-by-the-ethics-committee-of-the-university-hospital-of-bologna-italy-time-to-update-rules-and-recommendations
#12
Nicola Montanaro, Mauro Melis, Stefania Proni, Giacomo Chiabrando, Domenico Motola
PURPOSE: Compassionate use of forthcoming drugs has become an increasing pathway through which patients can take advantage of promising medicines. We aimed to analyse the main features of the requests of compassionate use submitted to the Independent Ethics Committee (IEC) of the University Hospital of Bologna in the period 2010-2015. METHODS: The present analysis concerns the requests of compassionate use received by the IEC in the period 2010-2015. For each requested drug, we paired the date of the first request to our IEC with the date(s) of (a) submission to EMA, (b) CHMP positive opinion, and (c) European marketing authorization (if issued)...
December 29, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033448/second-opinions-from-medical-oncologists-for-early-stage-breast-cancer-prevalence-correlates-and-consequences
#13
Allison W Kurian, Christopher R Friese, Irina Bondarenko, Reshma Jagsi, Yun Li, Ann S Hamilton, Kevin C Ward, Steven J Katz
Importance: Advances in the evaluation and treatment of breast cancer have made the clinical decision-making context much more complex. A second opinion from a medical oncologist may facilitate decision making for women with breast cancer, yet little is known about second opinion use. Objective: To investigate the patterns and correlates of second opinion use and the effect on chemotherapy decisions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 1901 women newly diagnosed with stages 0 to II breast cancer between July 2013 and September 2014 (response rate, 71...
December 29, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029407/management-of-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-in-routine-clinical-practice-a-delphi-method-questionnaire-among-specialists-to-test-agreement-with-current-european-guidelines-statements
#14
A Giménez-Arnau, M Ferrer, J Bartra, I Jáuregui, M Labrador-Horrillo, J Ortiz de Frutos, J F Silvestre, J Sastre, M Velasco, A Valero
BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a frequent clinical entity that often presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. OBJECTIVE: To explore the degree of agreement that exists among the experts caring for patients with CSU diagnosis, evaluation, and management. METHODS: An online survey was conducted to explore the opinions of experts in CSU, address controversial issues, and provide recommendations regarding its definition, natural history, diagnosis, and treatment...
October 28, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028831/diagnostic-concordance-of-breast-pathologists-lessons-from-the-national-health-service-breast-screening-programme-pathology-external-quality-assurance-scheme
#15
Emad A Rakha, Mohamed A Ahmed, Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Zsolt Hodi, Andrew H S Lee, Sarah E Pinder, Ian O Ellis
AIMS: Previous concordance studies examining accuracy of breast diagnosis by pathologists, typically targeting difficult, histologically challenging breast lesions using artificial and restrictive environments, have reported aberrantly high levels of diagnostic discordance. The results of these studies may be misinterpreted by non-pathologists and raise concerns relating to routine practice. This study aims to assess the diagnostic agreement among UK breast pathologists. METHODS: Two hundred and forty consecutive breast lesions, submitted by participants from their routine practice, included in the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) breast pathology EQA scheme during the last 10 years were reviewed...
November 4, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028360/dilemma-of-first-line-regimens-in-metastatic-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#16
REVIEW
Marwan Ghosn, Tony Ibrahim, Tarek Assi, Elie El Rassy, Hampig Raphael Kourie, Joseph Kattan
Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, ranking fourth among cancer-related deaths. Despite all the major molecular advances and treatment breakthroughs, mainly targeted therapies, the cornerstone treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) remains cytotoxic chemotherapy. In 2016, more than 40 years after the introduction of gemcitabine in the management of mPC, the best choice for first-line treatment has not yet been fully elucidated. Two main strategies have been adopted to enhance treatment efficacy...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026198/the-importance-of-a-second-opinion-in-the-diagnosis-of-barrett-s-esophagus-a-real-life-study
#17
Vincenzo Villanacci, Marianna Salemme, Italo Stroppa, Valerio Balassone, Gabrio Bassotti
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus is a precancerous lesion, and its identification with the early detection of dysplasia is of paramount importance to prevent adenocarcinoma onset. However, there is still debate on the correct pathological identification of Barrett's esophagus (and of associated dysplasia), and most studies have been conducted in an experimental setting. AIMS: To assess previous uncertain diagnoses of Barrett's (with and without dysplasia) via a second opinion of an expert pathologist in a real life setting...
December 27, 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018557/a-hybrid-computer-aided-diagnosis-system-for-prediction-of-breast-cancer-recurrence-hpbcr-using-optimized-ensemble-learning
#18
Mohammad R Mohebian, Hamid R Marateb, Marjan Mansourian, Miguel Angel Mañanas, Fariborz Mokarian
Cancer is a collection of diseases that involves growing abnormal cells with the potential to invade or spread to the body. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. A method for 5-year breast cancer recurrence prediction is presented in this manuscript. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 579 breast cancer patients (recurrence prevalence of 19.3%) were analyzed and discriminative features were selected using statistical feature selection methods. They were further refined by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) as the inputs of the classification system with ensemble learning (Bagged Decision Tree: BDT)...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008236/communicating-laboratory-test-results-for-rheumatoid-factor-what-do-patients-and-physicians-want
#19
Ariella Kelman, Caroline O Robinson, Elisenda Cochin, Nina J Ahluwalia, Julia Braverman, Emil Chiauzzi, Kristina Simacek
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore patient and physician perspectives on current laboratory test reporting practices and to elicit ideas for improvement. METHODS: Two independent studies were conducted. The first solicited members of an online physician community for opinions on current laboratory test reporting practices and possible improvements. The second addressed the same topic, but solicited patient feedback, and included an evaluation of a mock laboratory test report for the rheumatoid factor blood test...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007800/the-role-of-public-opinion-does-it-influence-the-diffusion-of-aca-decisions
#20
Julianna Pacheco, Elizabeth Maltby
We consider two ways that public opinion influenced the diffusion of ACA policy choices from 2010 through 2014. First, we consider the policy feedback mechanism, which suggests that policy decisions have spillover effects that influence opinions in other states; residents in the home state then influence the decisions of elected officials. We find that both gubernatorial ACA announcements and grant activity increased support for the ACA in nearby states. Consistent with our expectations, however, only gubernatorial announcements respond to shifts in ACA support, presumably because it is a more salient policy than grant activity...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
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