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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731148/molecular-genetics-and-targeted-therapy-of-wnt-related-human-diseases-review
#1
Masuko Katoh, Masaru Katoh
Canonical WNT signaling through Frizzled and LRP5/6 receptors is transduced to the WNT/β-catenin and WNT/stabilization of proteins (STOP) signaling cascades to regulate cell fate and proliferation, whereas non-canonical WNT signaling through Frizzled or ROR receptors is transduced to the WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP), WNT/G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and WNT/receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling cascades to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and directional cell movement. WNT/β-catenin signaling cascade crosstalks with RTK/SRK and GPCR-cAMP-PKA signaling cascades to regulate β-catenin phosphorylation and β-catenin-dependent transcription...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725538/a-rare-case-of-solitary-kidney-metastasis-following-primary-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Sharon Del Vecchio, Robert Ellis, Kylie Gallagher, Keng Lim Ng, Li Ma, Geoffrey Strutton, Simon Wood
Laryngeal cancer is the 14th most common malignancy worldwide, and its common subtype squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is highly associated with tobacco use and long-term alcohol consumption. The incidence of distant metastasis from a primary laryngeal cancer has been reported to be very low, between 6.5% and 8.5%, according to published tumour registry data. Distant metastases of laryngeal SCC most commonly involve the lung, liver, bone and mediastinum, seldom involving the kidney. Renal metastasis has been well established in many other cancers such as lymphoma, lung, breast and gastric carcinoma...
2017: Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725489/bmp-2-induces-emt-and-breast-cancer-stemness-through-rb-and-cd44
#3
Peide Huang, Anan Chen, Weiyi He, Zhen Li, Guanglin Zhang, Zhong Liu, Ge Liu, Xueting Liu, Shuilian He, Gang Xiao, Feicheng Huang, Jan Stenvang, Nils Brünner, An Hong, Ju Wang
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has been reported to facilitate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and bone metastasis in breast cancer xenograft models. To investigate the role of BMP-2 in the development of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), and to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying its influence on breast cancer metastasis, we conducted a comprehensive molecular study using breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Our results showed that downregulation of Rb by BMP-2 was associated with ubiquitin-mediated degradation activated by phosphorylation of Rb via the PI3K/AKT signal pathway...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720841/novel-immunohistochemistry-based-signatures-to-predict-metastatic-site-of-triple-negative-breast-cancers
#4
Sergey Klimov, Padmashree Cg Rida, Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Andrew R Green, Ian O Ellis, Emiel Am Janssen, Emad A Rakha, Ritu Aneja
BACKGROUND: Although distant metastasis (DM) in breast cancer (BC) is the most lethal form of recurrence and the most common underlying cause of cancer related deaths, the outcome following the development of DM is related to the site of metastasis. Triple negative BC (TNBC) is an aggressive form of BC characterised by early recurrences and high mortality. Athough multiple variables can be used to predict the risk of metastasis, few markers can predict the specific site of metastasis...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714574/a-humanised-tissue-engineered-bone-model-allows-species-specific-breast-cancer-related-bone-metastasis-in-vivo
#5
V M C Quent, A V Taubenberger, J C Reichert, L C Martine, J A Clements, D W Hutmacher, D Loessner
Bone metastases frequently occur in the advanced stages of breast cancer. At this stage, the disease is deemed incurable. To date, the mechanisms of breast cancer-related metastasis to bone are poorly understood. This may be attributed to the lack of appropriate animal models to investigate the complex cancer cell-bone interactions. In this study, two established tissue-engineered bone constructs (TEBCs) were applied to a breast cancer-related metastasis model. A cylindrical medical-grade polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold produced by fused deposition modelling (scaffold 1) was compared with a tubular calcium phosphate-coated polycaprolactone scaffold fabricated by solution electrospinning (scaffold 2) for their potential to generate ectopic humanised bone in NOD/SCID mice...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710714/disseminated-tumor-cells-are-not-associated-with-established-risk-factors-l1cam-immunoreactivity-and-outcome-in-endometrial-carcinoma
#6
Stefan Kommoss, Andreas D Hartkopf, Bernhard Krämer, Anne-Kathrin Bunz, Friederike Grevenkamp, Felix Kommoss, Jana Pasternak, Sabine M Arbabi, Markus Wallwiener, Annette Staebler, Sigurd F Lax, Sara Y Brucker, Florin-Andrei Taran
PURPOSE: The presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone marrow of endometrial carcinoma patients has been demonstrated previously. In contrast to breast cancer, no prognostic significance or association with clinicopathological features was revealed for endometrial carcinoma so far. The aim of this study was to investigate DTC in a large patient cohort with in-depth pathology review data available and to study DTC occurrence in the context of L1CAM and long-term disease specific follow-up...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706892/primary-osteosarcoma-of-the-breast-a-case-report
#7
Chan Seok Yoon, Sung Soo Kang
Primary osteosarcomas of the breast are extremely uncommon. Here we describe a case of a 77-year-old woman who presented with a hard mass on her right breast. Mammography and breast ultrasound demonstrated a round-shaped calcified mass on the right breast but the features were not definitely diagnostic. For diagnostic purposes, an excisional biopsy was performed and the mass proved to be a primary osteosarcoma of the breast by pathologic findings. PET-CT and whole body bone scan showed neither evidence of metastasis nor underlying bone lesions...
July 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698809/p-rex1-expression-in-invasive-breast-cancer-in-relation-to-receptor-status-and-distant-metastatic-site
#8
Jonathan D Marotti, Kristen E Muller, Laura J Tafe, Eugene Demidenko, Todd W Miller
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1 (P-Rex1) has been implicated in cancer growth, metastasis, and response to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether P-Rex1 expression differs between primary and metastatic human breast tumors and between breast cancer subtypes. DESIGN: P-Rex1 expression was measured in 133 specimens by immunohistochemistry: 40 and 42 primary breast tumors from patients who did versus did not develop metastasis, respectively, and 51 breast-derived tumors from metastatic sites (36 of which had matching primary tumors available for analysis)...
2017: International Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698458/integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-signaling-in-tumor-induced-bone-disease
#9
REVIEW
Kristin A Kwakwa, Julie A Sterling
Tumor-induced bone disease is common among patients with advanced solid cancers, especially those with breast, prostate, and lung malignancies. The tendency of these cancers to metastasize to bone and induce bone destruction is, in part, due to alterations in integrin expression and signaling. Substantial evidence from preclinical studies shows that increased expression of integrin αvβ3 in tumor cells promotes the metastatic and bone-invasive phenotype. Integrin αvβ3 mediates cell adhesion to several extracellular matrix proteins in the bone microenvironment which is necessary for tumor cell colonization as well as the transmission of mechanical signals for tumor progression...
July 8, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695563/bone-targeted-therapies-in-advanced-breast-cancer
#10
Ewelina Biskup, Fengfeng Cai, Marcus Vetter
Bone targeted therapies are of increasing importance, not only for bone health in the clinical course of breast cancer, but recently also in the adjuvant setting as preventative, anticancer and prognosis-improving agents. It is well established that women with advanced breast cancer receive bisphosphonates or denosumab to prevent therapy-related osteoporosis. As many as 70% of these patients suffer from bone metastases and receive bone targeted agents in order to prevent skeletal related events (SREs), which are debilitating or diminish the quality of life...
July 11, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694161/cxcr4-targeted-dendrimer-for-anti-cancer-drug-delivery-and-breast-cancer-cell-migration-inhibition
#11
Chuda Chittasupho, Songyot Anuchapreeda, Narong Sarisuta
CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 play a critical role in the metastasis of various types of cancer including breast cancer. Breast tumors preferentially metastasize to the lung, bones and distant lymph nodes, secreting high levels of CXCL12. We hypothesized that targeted inhibition of CXCR4 in breast cancer cells should suppress CXCR4-positive tumor cells toward secondary metastatic sites. In the present study, the efficacy of CXCR4 targeted dendrimers carrying DOX (LFC131-DOX-D4) on cellular binding, cytotoxicity, and migration of BT-549-Luc and T47D breast cancer cells was investigated...
July 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693897/connexins-important-players-in-the-dissemination-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan Boucher, Arnaud Monvoisin, Justine Vix, Marc Mesnil, Dominique Thuringer, Françoise Debiais, Laurent Cronier
Over the past 50 years, increasing experimental evidences have established that connexins (Cxs) and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) ensure an important role in both the onset and development of cancerous processes. In the present review, we focus on the impact of Cxs and GJIC during the development of prostate cancer (PCa), from the primary growth mainly localized in acinar glands and ducts to the distant metastasis mainly concentrated in bone. As observed in several other types of solid tumours, Cxs and especially Cx43 exhibit an ambivalent role with a tumour suppressor effect in the early stages and, conversely, a rather pro-tumoral profile for most of invasion and dissemination steps to secondary sites...
July 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692257/targeting-osteocytes-to-attenuate-early-breast-cancer-bone-metastasis-by-theranostic-upconversion-nanoparticles-with-responsive-plumbagin-release
#13
Han Qiao, Zhaowen Cui, Shengbing Yang, Dingkun Ji, Yugang Wang, Ying Yang, Xiuguo Han, Qiming Fan, An Qin, Tingyu Wang, Xiao-Peng He, Wenbo Bu, Tingting Tang
The early detection and thus treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis remain a big challenge clinically. As the most abundant cells within bone tissue, osteocytes have been found to manipulate the activity of early cancer bone metastasis by its crosstalk with cancer cells and osteoclasts. However, conventional bone-targeting nanomedicine has limited bone-lesion specificity and ignores the vital role of osteocytes during breast cancer bone metastasis. Also, it lacks detailed insight into the therapeutic mechanisms, which hinders the following translational practice...
July 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684961/natural-history-of-invasive-papillary-breast-carcinoma-followed-for-10-years-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Yong Joon Suh, Hyukjai Shin, Tae Jung Kwon
Diachronic research on untreated breast cancer completely depends on past medical records when no more recent, advanced methods are available. Herein, we report a case of invasive papillary breast carcinoma followed for 10 years in a 59-year-old woman who refused any treatment. The diagnosis was based on core needle biopsies. At the patient's first visit in July 2006, the tumor measured 10.4 × 7.2 × 3.5 cm. It was staged as IIIB (T4bN1). In May 2016, the tumor was staged as IIIC (T4bN3a). In the past 10 years, the tumor has increased to 12...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684728/a-rare-case-of-sarcomatoid-carcinoma-of-the-lung-with-spine-metastasis-including-a-literature-review
#15
Hafiza Sobia Arshad, Rizwan Ahmed Dudekula, Masooma Niazi, Sandeep Malik, Misbahuddin Khaja
BACKGROUND Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare, aggressive, malignant cancer composed of sarcoma and sarcoma-like components, and can occur in different organs such as the thyroid gland, bone, skin, breast, pancreas, liver, urinary tract, and lung. Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma accounts for only a small percentage of lung cancers and has histological variants that include pleomorphic carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, and pulmonary blastoma. CASE REPORT Here, we present a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma in a 63-year-old HIV-positive Hispanic male who presented with back pain, dry cough, and weight loss...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666187/evaluation-of-the-prognostic-value-of-rank-opg-and-rankl-mrna-expression-in-early-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-anthracycline-based-adjuvant-chemotherapy
#16
Eleni Timotheadou, Konstantine T Kalogeras, Georgia-Angeliki Koliou, Ralph M Wirtz, Flora Zagouri, Angelos Koutras, Elke Veltrup, Christos Christodoulou, George Pentheroudakis, Aris Tsiftsoglou, Pavlos Papakostas, Gerasimos Aravantinos, Vasilios Venizelos, Dimitrios Pectasides, Paris Kosmidis, Charisios Karanikiotis, Christos Markopoulos, Helen Gogas, George Fountzilas
BACKGROUND: Prevention of bone metastases is a major issue for breast cancer patients, as it would improve quality of life in a population where long survival is anticipated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Early breast cancer patients, who had been treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy within two randomized trials, were included in the study. We evaluated, by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, 819 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples for mRNA expression of RANK, OPG, and RANKL, as well as their ratios, for potential prognostic significance for the development of bone metastases and also for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival...
June 27, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659546/focused-ultrasound-treatment-present-and-future
#17
Keiichi Abe, Takaomi Taira
The discovery that ultrasound waves could be focused inside the skull and heated to high temperatures at a focal point goes back to 1944. However, because the skull causes the ultrasound waves to attenuate and scatter, it was believed that application of this technology would be difficult, and that it would be impossible to use this approach in the surgical treatment of intracranial diseases. Eventually, magnetic resonance image guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery began being used to treat uterine fibroids, breast cancer and bone metastasis and locally confined prostate cancer...
June 28, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656060/pet-tracer-18-f-fluciclovine-can-detect-histologically-proven-bone-metastatic-lesions-a-preclinical-study-in-rat-osteolytic-and-osteoblastic-bone-metastasis-models
#18
Shuntaro Oka, Masaru Kanagawa, Yoshihiro Doi, David M Schuster, Mark M Goodman, Hirokatsu Yoshimura
(18)F-Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-(18)F-fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid; anti-(18)F-FACBC) is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for diagnosing cancers (e.g., prostate and breast cancer). The most frequent metastatic organ of these cancers is bone. Fluciclovine-PET can visualize bony lesions in clinical practice; however, such lesions have not been described histologically. Methods: We investigated the potential of (14)C-fluciclovine in aiding the visualization of osteolytic and osteoblastic bone metastases (with histological analyses), compared with (3)H-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ((3)H-FDG), (3)H-choline chloride ((3)H-choline), and (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-HMDP) by using triple-tracer autoradiography in rat breast cancer osteolytic (on day 12 ± 1 postinjection of MRMT-1) and prostate cancer osteoblastic (on day 20 ± 3 postinjection of AT6...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653449/the-value-of-biomarkers-in-bone-metastasis
#19
Stella D'Oronzo, Janet Brown, Robert Coleman
The worst complication of cancer is represented by its spread to distant sites. In particular, bone provides a fertile soil for several cancer types, especially those derived from breast, prostate and lung tumours. Despite the progress in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, bone metastases (BM) still impact on quality of life and overall survival, making it necessary to identify the "high-risk" patients at an earlier stage. Since BM affect physiological bone turnover, measurement of bone turnover markers (BTM) has been widely investigated for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as well as to support the development of anti-cancer drugs...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645722/circulating-bone-related-markers-and-ykl-40-versus-her2-and-topo2a-in-bone-metastatic-and-nonmetastatic-breast-cancer-diagnostic-implications
#20
Olfat Gamil Shaker, Hebatullah Samy Helmy
BACKGROUND: The bone represents one of the most common sites of metastases in breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of several circulating markers to detect metastasis to bones in patients with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Receptor activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa β (NF-Kβ) ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegrin (OPG), vitamin D (VIT D), Chitinase-3-like protein 1; also known as YKL-40, topoisomerase IIα (TOPO2a), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) were measured in blood samples obtained from 122 patients with breast cancer and 25 healthy controls...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
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