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Juvenile Cartilage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459103/meckel-s-cartilage-breakdown-offers-clues-to-mammalian-middle-ear-evolution
#1
Neal Anthwal, Daniel J Urban, Zhe Xi Luo, Karen E Sears, Abigail S Tucker
A key transformation in mammalian ear evolution was incorporation of the primary jaw joint of premammalian synapsids into the definitive mammalian middle ear of living mammals. This evolutionary transition occurred in two-steps, starting with a partial or "transitional" mammalian middle ear in which the ectotympanic and malleus were still connected to the mandible by an ossified Meckel's Cartilage (MC), as observed in many Mesozoic mammals. This was followed by MC breakdown, freeing the ectotympanic and the malleus from the mandible and creating the definitive mammalian middle ear...
March 6, 2017: Nat Ecol Evol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438606/cell-origin-volume-and-arrangement-are-drivers-of-articular-cartilage-formation-morphogenesis-and-response-to-injury-in-mouse-limbs
#2
Rebekah S Decker, Hyo-Bin Um, Nathaniel A Dyment, Naiga Cottingham, Yu Usami, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Mark S Kronenberg, Peter Maye, David W Rowe, Eiki Koyama, Maurizio Pacifici
Limb synovial joints are composed of distinct tissues, but it is unclear which progenitors produce those tissues and how articular cartilage acquires its functional postnatal organization characterized by chondrocyte columns, zone-specific cell volumes and anisotropic matrix. Using novel Gdf5(CreERT2) (Gdf5-CE), Prg4-CE and Dkk3-CE mice mated to R26-Confetti or single-color reporters, we found that knee joint progenitors produced small non-migratory progenies and distinct local tissues over prenatal and postnatal time...
April 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414616/biphasic-finite-element-modeling-reconciles-mechanical-properties-of-tissue-engineered-cartilage-constructs-across-testing-platforms
#3
Gregory R Meloni, Matthew B Fisher, Brendan D Stoeckl, George R Dodge, Robert L Mauck
Cartilage tissue engineering is emerging as a promising treatment for osteoarthritis, and the field has progressed toward utilizing large animal models for proof of concept and preclinical studies. Mechanical testing of the regenerative tissue is an essential outcome for functional evaluation. However, testing modalities and constitutive frameworks used to evaluate in vitro grown samples differ substantially from those used to evaluate in vivo derived samples. To address this, we developed finite element (FE) models (using FEBio) of unconfined compression and indentation testing, modalities commonly used for such samples...
April 14, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392152/how-exercise-influences-equine-joint-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Nikae C R Te Moller, P René van Weeren
The maintenance of joint homeostasis is integral to joint health. Knowledge of the influence of exercise on joint homeostasis is not only relevant for determining sustainable levels of equine athletic training, but also for the study of early development of osteoarthritis or cartilage repair in animal models. This review provides an overview of findings derived from in vivo studies and postmortem analyses investigating exercise effects on various joint tissue components in the horse, supplemented where appropriate with data from small animal models...
April 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351221/understanding-the-spatiotemporal-degradation-behavior-of-aggrecanase-sensitive-poly-ethylene-glycol-hydrogels-for-use-in-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#5
Stanley Chu, Shankar Lalitha Sridhar, Stacey C Skaalure, Franck J Vernerey, Stephanie J Bryant
Enzyme-sensitive hydrogels are promising cell delivery vehicles for cartilage tissue engineering. However, a better understanding of their spatiotemporal degradation behavior and its impact on tissue growth is needed. The goal of this study is to combine experimental and computational approaches to provide new insights into spatiotemporal changes in hydrogel crosslink density and extracellular matrix (ECM) growth and how these changes influence the evolving macroscopic properties as a function of time. Hydrogels were designed from aggrecanase-sensitive peptide crosslinks using a simple and robust thiol:norbornene photoclick reaction...
March 29, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337445/rapid-chondrocyte-isolation-for-tissue-engineering-applications-the-effect-of-enzyme-concentration-and-temporal-exposure-on-the-matrix-forming-capacity-of-nasal-derived-chondrocytes
#6
Srujana Vedicherla, Conor Timothy Buckley
Laboratory based processing and expansion to yield adequate cell numbers had been the standard in Autologous Disc Chondrocyte Transplantation (ADCT), Allogeneic Juvenile Chondrocyte Implantation (NuQu®), and Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (MACI). Optimizing cell isolation is a key challenge in terms of obtaining adequate cell numbers while maintaining a vibrant cell population capable of subsequent proliferation and matrix elaboration. However, typical cell yields from a cartilage digest are highly variable between donors and based on user competency...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224070/combined-particulated-juvenile-cartilage-allograft-transplantation-and-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-reconstruction-for-symptomatic-chondral-defects-in-the-setting-of-recurrent-patellar-instability
#7
Armin Arshi, Dean Wang, Kristofer J Jones
Successful management of patellar osteochondral lesions has proved difficult, with unreliable outcomes reported using traditional cartilage repair and restoration procedures. Unique considerations for this type of defect include the multiplanar contours of the articular surface of the patella, high compressive and shear forces with knee range of motion that may disrupt graft healing, and the potential need for concomitant surgery to address patellar malalignment and instability. We describe our preferred method for treatment of a symptomatic chondral defect in the setting of recurrent patellar instability using particulated juvenile articular cartilage allograft transplantation and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with semitendinosus allograft...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203388/on-the-development-of-the-chondrocranium-and-the-histological-anatomy-of-the-head-in-perinatal-stages-of-marsupial-mammals
#8
REVIEW
Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Analía M Forasiepi
An overview of the literature on the chondrocranium of marsupial mammals reveals a relative conservatism in shape and structures. We document the histological cranial anatomy of individuals representing Monodelphis domestica, Dromiciops gliroides, Perameles sp. and Macropus eugenii. The marsupial chondrocranium is generally characterized by the great breadth of the lamina basalis, absence of pila metoptica and large otic capsules. Its most anterior portion (cupula nasi anterior) is robust, and anterior to it there are well-developed tactile sensory structures, functionally important in the neonate...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176372/development-of-the-skull-and-pectoral-girdle-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii-and-russian-sturgeon-acipenser-gueldenstaedtii-acipenseriformes-acipenseridae
#9
Peter Warth, Eric J Hilton, Benjamin Naumann, Lennart Olsson, Peter Konstantinidis
The head is considered the major novelty of the vertebrates and directly linked to their evolutionary success. Its form and development as well as its function, for example in feeding, is of major interest for evolutionary biologists. In this study, we describe the skeletal development of the cranium and pectoral girdle in Siberian (Acipenser baerii) and Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii), two species that are commonly farmed in aquaculture and increasingly important in developmental studies. This study comprises the development of the neuro-, viscero- and dermatocranium and the dermal and chondral components of the pectoral girdle, from first condensation of chondrocytes in prehatchlings to the early juvenile stage and reveals a clear pattern in formation...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124205/development-of-short-snouted-seahorse-hippocampus-hippocampus-l-1758-osteological-and-morphological-aspects
#10
B Novelli, F Otero-Ferrer, J A Socorro, M J Caballero, A Segade-Botella, L Molina Domínguez
Information about early development after male release lags behind studies of juveniles and adult seahorses, and newborn seahorses, similar in shape to adults, are considered juveniles or fry. During early life, Hippocampus hippocampus present behavioural (shift in habitat, from planktonic to benthic) and morphological changes; for this reasons, the aims of this study are to define the stage of development of H. hippocampus after they are expelled from the male brood pouch and to establish direct or indirect development through an osteological analysis...
June 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086918/atypical-monoarthritis-presentation-in-children-with-oligoarticular-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-case-series
#11
Natasha Lepore, Megan Cashin, Debra Bartley, Daniela Simona Ardelean
BACKGROUND: Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (oligoJIA), the most common chronic inflammatory arthritis of childhood, usually involves the knees and ankles. Severe oligoJIA monoarthritis presenting in a joint other than knees and ankles, is rare. FINDINGS: We report four children who presented with severe isolated arthritis of the hip, wrist or elbow and were diagnosed with oligoJIA. All four were girls with a median age of 11.5 years. Those with hip arthritis also met the classification criteria for juvenile-onset spondylarthopathy...
January 13, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080920/phaeohyphomycosis-associated-with-ossification-of-the-skull-and-cervical-vertebrae-in-a-swell-shark-cephaloscyllium-ventriosum
#12
Claire D Erlacher-Reid, Hendrik H Nollens, Todd L Schmitt, Judy St Leger, Sarena Sunico
A female, captive bred, juvenile swell shark ( Cephaloscyllium ventriosum ) was observed swimming in tight circles and rolling. Radiographs and computed tomography of this individual revealed extensive cartilage mineralization of the skull and cranial cervical vertebrae compared with diagnostic images of clinically healthy conspecifics. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed ossification and fibrosis of the cartilaginous matrix of the skull and cervical vertebrae with deep invasion by a pigmented hyphal fungus...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033680/calcification-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract-in-relation-to-flight-development-in-jamaican-fruit-bats-phyllostomidae-artibeus-jamaicensis
#13
Richard T Carter
The production of echolocation calls in bats along with forces produced by contraction of thoracic musculature used in flight presumably puts relatively high mechanical loads on the lower respiratory tract (LRT). Thus, there are likely adaptations to prevent collapse or distortion of the bronchial tree and trachea during flight in echolocating bats. By clearing and staining (Alcian blue and Alizarin red) LRTs removed from nonvolant neonates, semivolant juveniles, volant subadults, and adult Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis), I found that calcification of the tracheal, primary bronchial, and secondary bronchial (lobar) cartilage rings occurs over the span of about 3 days and coincides with later developmental stages of flight and the increased production of echolocation calls...
April 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994721/particulated-juvenile-articular-cartilage-allograft-transplantation-for-osteochondral-talar-lesions
#14
Bryan M Saltzman, Johnny Lin, Simon Lee
OBJECTIVE: To report on our institution's early results from juvenile particulate cartilage allograft transplantation of the talus. DESIGN: Because of the relative rarity of the procedure at the talus, it was decided to provide a comprehensive understanding of the currently available evidence via a 2-part study with (1) a systematic review of the literature and (2) a retrospective single-center cohort study of the authors' patients, their demographics, and their early outcomes...
January 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989341/juvenile-particulate-osteochondral-allograft-for-treatment-of-osteochondral-lesions-of-the-talus-detection-of-altered-repair-tissue-biochemical-composition-using-7-tesla-mri-and-t2-mapping
#15
Shaleen Vira, Austin J Ramme, Cary Chapman, Ding Xia, Ravinder R Regatte, Gregory Chang
During the previous 2 decades, numerous surgical procedures have become available to treat osteochondral lesions of the talus. The objective of the present study was to use 7 Tesla (7T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify and compare T2 values (a marker of collagen architecture) of native tibiotalar cartilage and cartilage repair tissue in patients treated with a juvenile particulate allograft for osteochondral lesions of the talus. The institutional review board approved the present study, and all subjects provided written informed consent...
January 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965322/superficial-cells-are-self-renewing-chondrocyte-progenitors-which-form-the-articular-cartilage-in-juvenile-mice
#16
Lei Li, Phillip T Newton, Thibault Bouderlique, Marie Sejnohova, Tomas Zikmund, Elena Kozhemyakina, Meng Xie, Jan Krivanek, Jozef Kaiser, Hong Qian, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Andrew B Lassar, Matthew L Warman, Björn Barenius, Igor Adameyko, Andrei S Chagin
Articular cartilage has little regenerative capacity. Recently, genetic lineage tracing experiments have revealed chondrocyte progenitors at the articular surface. We further characterized these progenitors by using in vivo genetic approaches. Histone H2B-green fluorescent protein retention revealed that superficial cells divide more slowly than underlying articular chondrocytes. Clonal genetic tracing combined with immunohistochemistry revealed that superficial cells renew their number by symmetric division, express mesenchymal stem cell markers, and generate chondrocytes via both asymmetric and symmetric differentiation...
March 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955675/cd24-enrichment-protects-while-its-loss-increases-susceptibility-of-juvenile-chondrocytes-towards-inflammation
#17
Jieun Lee, Piera Smeriglio, Jason Dragoo, William J Maloney, Nidhi Bhutani
BACKGROUND: Diseases associated with human cartilage, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) have manifested age, mechanical stresses and inflammation as the leading risk factors. Although inflammatory processes are known to be upregulated upon aging, we sought to gain a molecular understanding of how aging affects the tissue-specific response to inflammation. In this report, we explored the role of cluster of differentiation 24 (CD24) in regulating differential inflammatory responses in juvenile and adult human chondrocytes...
December 12, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921292/cranial-joint-histology-in-the-mallard-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-new-insights-on-avian-cranial-kinesis
#18
Alida M Bailleul, Lawrence M Witmer, Casey M Holliday
The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919119/-osteochondritis-dissecans-of-the-talus-a-critical-review
#19
J Bruns, C R Habermann, J P Petersen
The etiology remains unclear. Mechanical factors seem to play an important role. Most histologies report clefts between the cartilage and bone and necrotic areas. Several classifications have been published based on observations from imaging techniques or on intraoperative findings. Clinical symptoms are unspecific. Imaging techniques are of great importance: X-rays of the ankle joint enable a quick diagnostic overview. MRT is the imaging-technique of choice for diagnosing OCDT-lesions. Regarding treatment, a tremendous number of retrospective publications exist...
April 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903929/a-comparison-of-outcomes-of-particulated-juvenile-articular-cartilage-and-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate-for-articular-cartilage-lesions-of-the-talus
#20
Nathan S Lanham, John J Carroll, Minton T Cooper, Venkat Perumal, Joseph S Park
Background Articular cartilage lesions of the talus remain a challenging clinical problem because of the lack of natural regeneration and limited treatment options. Microfracture is often the first-line therapy, however lesions larger than 1.5 cm(2) have been shown to not do as well with this treatment method. Methods The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate concentrate/collagen scaffold (ICBMA) and particulated juvenile articular cartilage (PJAC) for larger articular cartilage lesions of the talus...
November 30, 2016: Foot & Ankle Specialist
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