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Juvenile Cartilage

Sarah L Pownder, Kei Hayashi, Brian G Caserto, Mary Lou Norman, Hollis G Potter, Matthew F Koff
OBJECTIVES:  The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional differences of canine stifle articular cartilage using the quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique of T2 mapping. METHODS:  Fourteen stifle joints from seven juvenile male Beagle dogs with no evidence or prior history of pelvic limb lameness were imaged ex vivo using standard of care fast spin echo MRI and quantitative T2 mapping protocols. Regions of interest were compared between the femoral, patellar and tibial cartilages, as well as between the lateral and medial femorotibial compartments...
February 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Kristina Linnea Welton, Stephanie Logterman, Justin H Bartley, Armando F Vidal, Eric C McCarty
Focal cartilage defects in the knee are commonly found on MRI and arthroscopically. When these lesions are symptomatic and fail nonoperative management several surgical strategies are available. Common surgical techniques include reparative (ie, microfracture) and restorative procedures (ie, autologous chondrocyte implantation, particulated juvenile allograft cartilage, osteochondral autograft transfer, and osteochondral allograft). Each of these surgical procedures have shared and novel complications associated with their use...
April 2018: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Naito Kurio, Cheri Saunders, Till E Bechtold, Imad Salhab, Hyun-Duck Nah, Sayantani Sinha, Paul C Billings, Maurizio Pacifici, Eiki Koyama
Condylar articular cartilage in mouse temporomandibular joint develops from progenitor cells near the articulating surface that proliferate, undergo chondrogenesis and mature into hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, it remains unclear how these processes are regulated, particularly postnatally. Here we focused on the apical polymorphic layer rich in progenitors and asked whether the phenotype and fate of the cells require signaling by Indian hedgehog (Ihh) previously studied in developing long bones. In condyles in newborn mice, the apical polymorphic/progenitor cell layer was ~10 cell layer-thick and expressed the articular matrix marker Tenascin-C (Tn-C), and the underlying thick cell layer expressed Tn-C as well as the chondrogenic master regulator Sox9...
February 12, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
M Pinheiro, C A Dobson, D Perry, M J Fagan
OBJECTIVES: Legg-Calvé-Perthes' disease (LCP) is an idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head that is most common in children between four and eight years old. The factors that lead to the onset of LCP are still unclear; however, it is believed that interruption of the blood supply to the developing epiphysis is an important factor in the development of the condition. METHODS: Finite element analysis modelling of the blood supply to the juvenile epiphysis was investigated to understand under which circumstances the blood vessels supplying the femoral epiphysis could become obstructed...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Saliha Yilmaz, Dilek Uludağ Alkaya, Özgür Kasapçopur, Kenan Barut, Ekin S Akdemir, Cemre Celen, Mark W Youngblood, Katsuhito Yasuno, Kaya Bilguvar, Murat Günel, Beyhan Tüysüz
BACKGROUND: The camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome (CACP) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by camptodactyly, noninflammatory arthropathy, coxa vara, and pericarditis. CACP is caused by mutations in the proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) gene, which encodes a lubricating glycoprotein present in the synovial fluid and at the surface of articular cartilage. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the clinical and molecular findings of CACP syndrome in 35 patients from 11 unrelated families...
February 4, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Tim Wang, Nicole S Belkin, Alissa J Burge, Brenda Chang, Mollyann Pais, Gregory Mahony, Riley J Williams
PURPOSE: To analyze the functional outcomes of patients treated with particulated juvenile articular cartilage (PJAC) for symptomatic articular cartilage lesions in the patellofemoral joint, correlates clinical outcomes with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the repair tissue using cartilage-sensitive quantitative T2-mapping. METHODS: All patients treated with PJAC for patellofemoral lesions were identified and prospectively followed with clinical outcome scores (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living [KOS-ADL], and Marx Activity Scale [MAS])...
January 29, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Youn Hee Jee, Jinhee Wang, Shanna Yue, Melissa Jennings, Samuel J H Clokie, Ola Nilsson, Julian Lui, Jeffrey Baron
Growth plate chondrocytes undergo sequential differentiation to form the resting (RZ), proliferative (PZ), and hypertrophic zones (HZ). The important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the growth plate was previously revealed by cartilage-specific ablation of Dicer, an enzyme essential for biogenesis of many miRNAs. To identify specific miRNAs that regulate differentiation of PZ chondrocytes to HZ chondrocytes, we microdissected individual growth plate zones from juvenile rats and performed miRNA profiling using a solution hybridization method and also miRNA-seq...
January 30, 2018: Endocrinology
Kathryn L Bauer
Osteochondral injuries in pediatric patients may occur as a result of a traumatic injury or secondary to an osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesion. Lateral patella dislocation is a common traumatic cause of osteochondral injury that typically occurs at the medial facet of the patella or at the lateral aspect of the distal femur. Multiple theories have been proposed for the cause of an OCD lesion in the knee, including trauma or repetitive microtrauma, local vascular insufficiency, and family history. The most "classic" location for OCD lesions of the knee is the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle of the distal femur...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Wen-Zhe Guo, Hui Di, Guo-Hua Chu, Lu Lu
The healing of Bone tissue consists of a complex process. Hence, we designed our study to evaluate chondrial diseases, which are as they have a very low healing capacity. Seventy two elderly osteoarthritis (OA) and 54-paediatric juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients were included. The group was divided as 24 OA patients and 18 JIA patients in each group. Group I received Hyualuronic acid and glucocorticoides. Group II received platelet rich plasma and fibrin glue. Group III received PRP, fibrin glue, and MSC...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Sydney C Karnovsky, Bridget DeSandis, Amgad M Haleem, Carolyn M Sofka, Martin O'Malley, Mark C Drakos
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the functional and radiographic outcomes of patients who received juvenile allogenic chondrocyte implantation with autologous bone marrow aspirate (JACI-BMAC) for treatment of talar osteochondral lesions with those of patients who underwent microfracture (MF). METHODS: A total of 30 patients who underwent MF and 20 who received DeNovo NT for JACI-BMAC treatment between 2006 and 2014 were included. Additionally, 17 MF patients received supplemental BMAC treatment...
January 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Bridget A DeSandis, Amgad M Haleem, Carolyn M Sofka, Martin J O'Malley, Mark C Drakos
Juvenile allogenic chondrocyte implantation (JACI; DeNovo NT Natural Tissue Graft®; Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) with autologous bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) is a relatively new all-arthroscopic procedure for treating critical-size osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the talus. Few studies have investigated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of this procedure. We collected the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients who had undergone JACI-BMAC for talar OCLs to assess treatment efficacy and cartilage repair tissue quality using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Agneza Marija Pasini, Josip Marjanović, Goran Roić, Nikola Dukarić, Ana Tripalo Batoš, Zoran Bahtijarević, Alenka Gagro
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preschool children is often challenging due to excessive motion artifacts. Sedation or general anesthesia (GA) is commonly used to prevent children from moving in the MRI scanner, with increased risk for cardiopulmonary complications and requirement for skilled personnel. Herein, we investigated whether oral melatonin, a natural hormone implicated in circadian rhythm regulation, could be used as an alternative sedation method prior to the MRI in preschool children with musculoskeletal problems...
December 16, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
Shalini M Mahendran, Katerina Oikonomopoulou, Eleftherios P Diamandis, Vinod Chandran
Synovial fluid (SF) is a protein-rich fluid produced into the joint cavity by cells of the synovial membrane. Due to its direct contact with articular cartilage, surfaces of the bone, and the synoviocytes of the inner membrane, it provides a promising reflection of the biochemical state of the joint under varying physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This property of SF has been exploited within numerous studies in search of unique biomarkers of joint pathologies with the ultimate goal of developing minimally invasive clinical assays to detect and/or monitor disease states...
November 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Kenneth A Philbrick, Stephen A Martin, Amy R Colagiovanni, Adam J Branscum, Russell T Turner, Urszula T Iwaniec
Impaired resorption of cartilage matrix deposited during endochondral ossification is a defining feature of juvenile osteopetrosis. Growing, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit a mild form of osteopetrosis. However, the extent to which the disease is (1) self-limiting and (2) reversible by leptin treatment is unknown. We addressed the first question by performing histomorphometric analysis of femurs in rapidly growing (2-month-old), slowly growing (4-month-old) and skeletally mature (6-month-old) wild-type (WT) and ob/ob male mice...
February 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Samuel S Haysom, Mark H Vickers, Lennex H Yu, Clare M Reynolds, Elwyn C Firth, Sue R McGlashan
To determine if a high-fat diet (HF) from weaning would result in a pro-inflammatory state and affect joint cartilage, we fed male rats either HF or Chow diet post-weaning, and voluntary wheel exercise (EX) or cage only activity (SED) after 9 weeks of age. At 17 weeks body composition, plasma biomarkers and histomorphology scores of femoro-tibial cartilages of HF-SED, HF-EX, Chow-SED and Chow-EX groups were compared. Food intake and activity were not significantly different between groups. HF diet resulted in significantly higher weight gain, %fat, fat:lean ratio, and plasma leptin, insulin and TNFα concentrations, with significant interactions between diet and exercise...
2017: PloS One
Alan Ng, Kaitlyn Bernhard
Particulated juvenile allograft cartilage (PJAC) has significant promise and is currently supported by several studies. Potential benefits of this new technique include single-stage procedure, simplicity in the surgical technique, implantation of juvenile tissue, and a lack of donor site morbidity. This article discusses the imaging, surgical options, and postoperative management of PJAC.
January 2018: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
Bryan Van Dyke, Gregory C Berlet, Justin L Daigre, Christopher F Hyer, Terrence M Philbin
BACKGROUND: Focal damage to articular cartilage, also called an osteochondral defect (OCD), can be a cause of pain and decreased range of motion. Recent advancements have led to transplantation techniques using particulated juvenile articular cartilage allograft. This technique has been applied to the first metatarsal head to a very limited degree, with no published results to our knowledge. The aim of this study was to review the clinical results of patients who underwent particulated juvenile cartilage allograft implantation for first metatarsal head OCDs...
November 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
Bryan M Saltzman, Maximilian A Meyer, Timothy S Leroux, Matthew E Gilelis, Margot Debot, Adam B Yanke, Brian J Cole
PURPOSE: To compare a series of patients who underwent meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) with full-thickness chondral defects (FTD) with those with no chondral defect (ND) with regard to the following: change in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from baseline to 2-year follow-up and baseline to the final follow-up (including comparisons to minimal clinically important differences), complications and complication rates, reoperations and reoperation rates/timing, and failures and time to failure (revision MAT or conversion to total knee arthroplasty)...
November 2, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Jieun Lee, Piera Smeriglio, Constance R Chu, Nidhi Bhutani
BACKGROUND: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provide an unlimited patient-specific cell source for regenerative medicine. Adult cells have had limited success in cartilage repair, but juvenile chondrocytes (from donors younger than 13 years of age) have been identified to generate superior cartilage. With this perspective, the aim of these studies was to compare the human iPSC-derived chondrocytes (hiChondrocytes) to adult and juvenile chondrocytes and identify common molecular factors that govern their function...
November 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jiapei Wang, Ling Wu, Shiling Zhong, Hanchun Yu, Yazhen Di, Mengjiao Shen, Nan Sun
To explore the values of fat saturation sequence in MRI for juvenile arthritis.
 Methods: A total of 1 131 cases with juvenile arthritis and 1 601 with symptomatic arthritis were examined by MRI normal T1 weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2 weighted imaging (T2WI) sequence and spectral presaturation attenuatedinversion recovery (SPAIR) T2 fat saturation sequence. All the images were independently evaluated by two senior doctors from the Department of Radiology and the Department of Pediatric Rheumatology and Immunology respectively to confirm the types and degree of pathological changes of joint tissues...
October 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
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