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Juvenile Cartilage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696851/us-evaluation-of-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-and-osteoarticular-infection
#1
Jie C Nguyen, Kenneth S Lee, Mahesh M Thapa, Humberto G Rosas
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and osteoarticular infection can cause nonspecific articular and periarticular complaints in children. Although contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is the reference standard imaging modality, musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) is emerging as an important adjunct imaging modality that can provide valuable information relatively quickly without use of radiation or the need for sedation. However, diagnostic accuracy requires a systemic approach, familiarity with various US techniques, and an understanding of maturation-related changes...
July 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639852/osteochondritis-dissecans-etiology-pathology-and-imaging-with-a-special-focus-on-the-knee-joint
#2
Juergen Bruns, Mathias Werner, Christian Habermann
This article is a review of the current understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and how to diagnose and treat knee osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) followed by an analysis of and outcomes of the treatments available. OCD is seen in children and adolescents with open growth plates (juvenile OCD) and adults with closed growth plates (adult OCD). The etiology of OCD lesions remains unclear and is characterized by an aseptic necrosis in the subchondral bone area. Mechanical factors seem to play an important role...
June 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612188/direct-quantification-of-solute-diffusivity-in-agarose-and-articular-cartilage-using-correlation-spectroscopy
#3
Janty S Shoga, Brian T Graham, Liyun Wang, Christopher Price
Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue; diffusive transport is critical for its homeostasis. While numerous techniques have been used to quantify diffusivity within porous, hydrated tissues and tissue engineered constructs, these techniques have suffered from issues regarding invasiveness and spatial resolution. In the present study, we implemented and compared two separate correlation spectroscopy techniques, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), for the direct, and minimally-invasive quantification of fluorescent solute diffusion in agarose and articular cartilage...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604062/cartilage-regeneration-in-full-thickness-patellar-chondral-defects-treated-with-particulated-juvenile-articular-allograft-cartilage-an-mri-analysis
#4
Brian Grawe, Alissa Burge, Joseph Nguyen, Sabrina Strickland, Russell Warren, Scott Rodeo, Beth ShubinStein
Background Full-thickness cartilage lesions of the patella represent a common source of pain and dysfunction. Previously reported surgical treatment options include marrow stimulation, cell-based treatments, and osteochondral transfer. Minced juvenile allograft cartilage is a novel treatment option that allows for a single stage approach for these lesions. Hypothesis Particulated juvenile allograft cartilage (PJAC) for the treatment of chondral defects of the patella would offer acceptable lesion fill rates, mature over time, and not be associated with any negative biologic effects on the surrounding tissue...
June 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600846/ectopic-implantation-of-juvenile-osteochondral-tissues-recapitulates-endochondral-ossification
#5
Johnathan Ng, Yiyong Wei, Bin Zhou, Sarindr Bhumiratana, Aonnicha Burapachaisri, Edward Guo, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Subcutaneous implantation in a mouse can be used to investigate tissue maturation in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that this simple model can recapitulate endochondral ossification associated with native skeletal development. By histological and μCT analysis, we investigated morphological changes of immature bovine osteochondral tissues over the course of subcutaneous implantation in immunocompromised mice for up to 10 weeks. We observed multiple similarities between the ectopic process and native endochondral ossification: (i) permanent cartilage retention in the upper zones, (ii) progressive loss of transient cartilage accompanied by bone formation at the interface, and (iii) remodeling of nascent endochondral bone into mature cancellous bone...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594507/management-of-osteochondral-lesions-of-the-talus
#6
Michael Isiah Sandlin, Timothy P Charlton, Cyrus E Taghavi, Eric Giza
Management strategies for symptomatic osteochondral lesions of the talus are primarily surgical. Treatment options for symptomatic osteochondral lesions of the talus most commonly include bone marrow stimulation techniques, osteochondral autograft transplantation, osteochondral allograft transplantation, autologous chondrocyte implantation, matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation, and particulated juvenile articular cartilage. The selection of the most appropriate treatment option should be based on the specifics of a talar lesion, in particular, lesion size...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577786/restorative-tissue-transplantation-options-for-osteochondral-lesions-of-the-talus-a-review
#7
REVIEW
John Chao, Andrew Pao
Symptomatic osteochondral lesions of the talus remain a challenging problem due to inability for cartilage lesions to heal. Numerous treatment options exist, including nonoperative management, marrow stimulating techniques, and autograft-allograft. Arthroscopic marrow stimulation forms fibrocartilage that has been shown to be biomechanically weaker than hyaline cartilage. Restorative tissue transplantation options are being used more for larger and cystic lesions. Newer biologics and particulated juvenile cartilage are currently under investigation for possible clinical efficacy...
July 2017: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572469/magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-of-the-knee-as-an-outcome-measure-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-an-omeract-reliability-study-on-mri-scales
#8
Robert Hemke, Nikolay Tzaribachev, Charlotte M Nusman, Marion A J van Rossum, Mario Maas, Andrea S Doria
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that early therapeutic intervention improves longterm joint outcome in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Given the existence of highly effective treatments, there is an urgent need for reliable and accurate measures of disease activity and joint damage in JIA. Our objective was to assess the reliability of 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring methods: the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system and the International Prophylaxis Study Group (IPSG) consensus score, for evaluating disease status of the knee in patients with JIA...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459103/meckel-s-cartilage-breakdown-offers-clues-to-mammalian-middle-ear-evolution
#9
Neal Anthwal, Daniel J Urban, Zhe Xi Luo, Karen E Sears, Abigail S Tucker
A key transformation in mammalian ear evolution was incorporation of the primary jaw joint of premammalian synapsids into the definitive mammalian middle ear of living mammals. This evolutionary transition occurred in two-steps, starting with a partial or "transitional" mammalian middle ear in which the ectotympanic and malleus were still connected to the mandible by an ossified Meckel's Cartilage (MC), as observed in many Mesozoic mammals. This was followed by MC breakdown, freeing the ectotympanic and the malleus from the mandible and creating the definitive mammalian middle ear...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438606/cell-origin-volume-and-arrangement-are-drivers-of-articular-cartilage-formation-morphogenesis-and-response-to-injury-in-mouse-limbs
#10
Rebekah S Decker, Hyo-Bin Um, Nathaniel A Dyment, Naiga Cottingham, Yu Usami, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Mark S Kronenberg, Peter Maye, David W Rowe, Eiki Koyama, Maurizio Pacifici
Limb synovial joints are composed of distinct tissues, but it is unclear which progenitors produce those tissues and how articular cartilage acquires its functional postnatal organization characterized by chondrocyte columns, zone-specific cell volumes and anisotropic matrix. Using novel Gdf5(CreERT2) (Gdf5-CE), Prg4-CE and Dkk3-CE mice mated to R26-Confetti or single-color reporters, we found that knee joint progenitors produced small non-migratory progenies and distinct local tissues over prenatal and postnatal time...
April 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414616/biphasic-finite-element-modeling-reconciles-mechanical-properties-of-tissue-engineered-cartilage-constructs-across-testing-platforms
#11
Gregory R Meloni, Matthew B Fisher, Brendan D Stoeckl, George R Dodge, Robert L Mauck
Cartilage tissue engineering is emerging as a promising treatment for osteoarthritis, and the field has progressed toward utilizing large animal models for proof of concept and preclinical studies. Mechanical testing of the regenerative tissue is an essential outcome for functional evaluation. However, testing modalities and constitutive frameworks used to evaluate in vitro grown samples differ substantially from those used to evaluate in vivo derived samples. To address this, we developed finite element (FE) models (using FEBio) of unconfined compression and indentation testing, modalities commonly used for such samples...
April 14, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392152/how-exercise-influences-equine-joint-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Nikae C R Te Moller, P René van Weeren
The maintenance of joint homeostasis is integral to joint health. Knowledge of the influence of exercise on joint homeostasis is not only relevant for determining sustainable levels of equine athletic training, but also for the study of early development of osteoarthritis or cartilage repair in animal models. This review provides an overview of findings derived from in vivo studies and postmortem analyses investigating exercise effects on various joint tissue components in the horse, supplemented where appropriate with data from small animal models...
April 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351221/understanding-the-spatiotemporal-degradation-behavior-of-aggrecanase-sensitive-poly-ethylene-glycol-hydrogels-for-use-in-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#13
Stanley Chu, Shankar Lalitha Sridhar, Umut Akalp, Stacey C Skaalure, Franck J Vernerey, Stephanie J Bryant
Enzyme-sensitive hydrogels are promising cell delivery vehicles for cartilage tissue engineering. However, a better understanding of their spatiotemporal degradation behavior and its impact on tissue growth is needed. The goal of this study was to combine experimental and computational approaches to provide new insights into spatiotemporal changes in hydrogel crosslink density and extracellular matrix (ECM) growth and how these changes influence the evolving macroscopic properties as a function of time. Hydrogels were designed from aggrecanase-sensitive peptide crosslinks using a simple and robust thiol-norbornene photoclick reaction...
May 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337445/rapid-chondrocyte-isolation-for-tissue-engineering-applications-the-effect-of-enzyme-concentration-and-temporal-exposure-on-the-matrix-forming-capacity-of-nasal-derived-chondrocytes
#14
Srujana Vedicherla, Conor Timothy Buckley
Laboratory based processing and expansion to yield adequate cell numbers had been the standard in Autologous Disc Chondrocyte Transplantation (ADCT), Allogeneic Juvenile Chondrocyte Implantation (NuQu®), and Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (MACI). Optimizing cell isolation is a key challenge in terms of obtaining adequate cell numbers while maintaining a vibrant cell population capable of subsequent proliferation and matrix elaboration. However, typical cell yields from a cartilage digest are highly variable between donors and based on user competency...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224070/combined-particulated-juvenile-cartilage-allograft-transplantation-and-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-reconstruction-for-symptomatic-chondral-defects-in-the-setting-of-recurrent-patellar-instability
#15
Armin Arshi, Dean Wang, Kristofer J Jones
Successful management of patellar osteochondral lesions has proved difficult, with unreliable outcomes reported using traditional cartilage repair and restoration procedures. Unique considerations for this type of defect include the multiplanar contours of the articular surface of the patella, high compressive and shear forces with knee range of motion that may disrupt graft healing, and the potential need for concomitant surgery to address patellar malalignment and instability. We describe our preferred method for treatment of a symptomatic chondral defect in the setting of recurrent patellar instability using particulated juvenile articular cartilage allograft transplantation and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with semitendinosus allograft...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203388/on-the-development-of-the-chondrocranium-and-the-histological-anatomy-of-the-head-in-perinatal-stages-of-marsupial-mammals
#16
REVIEW
Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Analía M Forasiepi
An overview of the literature on the chondrocranium of marsupial mammals reveals a relative conservatism in shape and structures. We document the histological cranial anatomy of individuals representing Monodelphis domestica, Dromiciops gliroides, Perameles sp. and Macropus eugenii. The marsupial chondrocranium is generally characterized by the great breadth of the lamina basalis, absence of pila metoptica and large otic capsules. Its most anterior portion (cupula nasi anterior) is robust, and anterior to it there are well-developed tactile sensory structures, functionally important in the neonate...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176372/development-of-the-skull-and-pectoral-girdle-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii-and-russian-sturgeon-acipenser-gueldenstaedtii-acipenseriformes-acipenseridae
#17
Peter Warth, Eric J Hilton, Benjamin Naumann, Lennart Olsson, Peter Konstantinidis
The head is considered the major novelty of the vertebrates and directly linked to their evolutionary success. Its form and development as well as its function, for example in feeding, is of major interest for evolutionary biologists. In this study, we describe the skeletal development of the cranium and pectoral girdle in Siberian (Acipenser baerii) and Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii), two species that are commonly farmed in aquaculture and increasingly important in developmental studies. This study comprises the development of the neuro-, viscero- and dermatocranium and the dermal and chondral components of the pectoral girdle, from first condensation of chondrocytes in prehatchlings to the early juvenile stage and reveals a clear pattern in formation...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124205/development-of-short-snouted-seahorse-hippocampus-hippocampus-l-1758-osteological-and-morphological-aspects
#18
B Novelli, F Otero-Ferrer, J A Socorro, M J Caballero, A Segade-Botella, L Molina Domínguez
Information about early development after male release lags behind studies of juveniles and adult seahorses, and newborn seahorses, similar in shape to adults, are considered juveniles or fry. During early life, Hippocampus hippocampus present behavioural (shift in habitat, from planktonic to benthic) and morphological changes; for this reasons, the aims of this study are to define the stage of development of H. hippocampus after they are expelled from the male brood pouch and to establish direct or indirect development through an osteological analysis...
June 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086918/atypical-monoarthritis-presentation-in-children-with-oligoarticular-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-case-series
#19
Natasha Lepore, Megan Cashin, Debra Bartley, Daniela Simona Ardelean
BACKGROUND: Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (oligoJIA), the most common chronic inflammatory arthritis of childhood, usually involves the knees and ankles. Severe oligoJIA monoarthritis presenting in a joint other than knees and ankles, is rare. FINDINGS: We report four children who presented with severe isolated arthritis of the hip, wrist or elbow and were diagnosed with oligoJIA. All four were girls with a median age of 11.5 years. Those with hip arthritis also met the classification criteria for juvenile-onset spondylarthopathy...
January 13, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080920/phaeohyphomycosis-associated-with-ossification-of-the-skull-and-cervical-vertebrae-in-a-swell-shark-cephaloscyllium-ventriosum
#20
Claire D Erlacher-Reid, Hendrik H Nollens, Todd L Schmitt, Judy St Leger, Sarena Sunico
A female, captive bred, juvenile swell shark ( Cephaloscyllium ventriosum ) was observed swimming in tight circles and rolling. Radiographs and computed tomography of this individual revealed extensive cartilage mineralization of the skull and cranial cervical vertebrae compared with diagnostic images of clinically healthy conspecifics. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed ossification and fibrosis of the cartilaginous matrix of the skull and cervical vertebrae with deep invasion by a pigmented hyphal fungus...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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