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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936282/metabolomic-data-suggest-regulation-of-black-howler-monkey-alouatta-pigra-diet-composition-at-the-molecular-level
#1
Katherine R Amato, Alexander Ulanov, Kou-San Ju, Paul A Garber
In addition to macronutrients, foods consist of a complex set of chemical compounds that can influence dietary selectivity and consumer physiology. Metabolomics allow us to describe this complexity by quantifying all small molecules, or metabolites, in a food item. In this study we use GC-MS based metabolomics to describe the metabolite profiles of foods consumed by one population of Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) over a 10-month period. Our data indicate that each food exhibited a distinct metabolite profile, and the average weekly intake of metabolites such as neochlorogenic acid and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) was correlated with the consumption of certain plant parts...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933671/causal-inference-in-obesity-research
#2
REVIEW
P W Franks, N Atabaki-Pasdar
Obesity is a risk factor for a plethora of severe morbidities and premature death. Most supporting evidence comes from observational studies that are prone to chance, bias and confounding. Even data on the protective effects of weight loss from randomized controlled trials will be susceptible to confounding and bias if treatment assignment cannot be masked, which is usually the case with lifestyle and surgical interventions. Thus, whilst obesity is widely considered the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, its causes and consequences are often difficult to determine...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933480/alternatives-to-the-baseline-kub-for-ctkub-detected-calculi-evaluation-of-ct-scout-and-average-and-maximum-intensity-projection-images
#3
Hin-Boon Matthew Lew, James Han-Su Seow, Chandra Padmini Hewavitharana, Sally Burrows
PURPOSE: A CT of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder (CTKUB) is the investigation of choice in suspected renal colic. Plain kidney, ureter, and bladder radiographs (KUB) can be used to monitor the progress of a stone if radiographically visible on a baseline KUB. This study aims to determine if a low-dose CT Scout, thick-slab average intensity projection (AIP), or maximum intensity projection (MIP) images are suitable as substitutes for a baseline KUB. METHOD: A retrospective review of patients from a tertiary adult institute that had a positive CTKUB and a KUB within 4 h of the CT was performed...
December 8, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932514/long-term-therapy-with-wu-ling-san-a-popular-antilithic-chinese-herbal-formula-did-not-prevent-subsequent-stone-surgery-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#4
San-Yuan Wu, Huey-Yi Chen, Kao-Sung Tsai, Jen-Huai Chiang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Fung-Chang Sung, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Wen-Chi Chen
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), which is widely used to treat pain and urolithiasis, is a promising therapy for urinary stone prevention. This study investigated the clinical efficacy of a popular CHM, Wu-Ling-San (WLS), in Taiwan for the prophylaxis of recurrent nephrolithiasis as assessed by surgical stone treatment via a nationwide population-based cohort study. The National Health Insurance Research Database, 2000-2010, which included one million patient records. All patients diagnosed with stone disease at the beginning of the study...
2016: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931114/factors-associated-with-compliance-in-submitting-24-hour-urine-collections-in-an-underserved-community
#5
Eric Ghiraldi, Madhumitha Reddy, Tianyu Li, Andrew C Lawler, Justin Friedlander
PURPOSE: Patients living in underserved areas do regularly express an interest in stone prevention; however, factors limiting participation, aside from obvious cost considerations, are largely unknown. To better understand factors associated with compliance with submitting 24-hour urine collections, we reviewed our patient experience at the kidney stone clinic at a hospital that provides care for an underserved urban community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients treated for kidney and/or ureteral stones between August 2014 and May 2016 was performed...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928810/the-association-of-stone-opacity-in-plain-radiography-with-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-outcomes-and-complications
#6
Robab Maghsoudi, Masoud Etemadian, Amir Hossein Kashi, Alireza Ranjbaran
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of stone opacity in plain radiography on stone free rate and complications ofpercutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A number of 101 patients who underwent PCNL between July-September 2015 wereprospectively included. Stone opacity was judged on preoperative plain Kidney-Ureter-Bladder X-ray. Stone freerate was evaluated two weeks after the operation by ultrasonography and KUB. RESULTS: There were 61 patients with opaque stones and 40 patients with non-opaque stones...
December 8, 2016: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924845/caffeine-prevents-kidney-stone-formation-by-translocation-of-apical-surface-annexin-a1-crystal-binding-protein-into-cytoplasm-in-vitro-evidence
#7
Paleerath Peerapen, Visith Thongboonkerd
Recent large 3 cohorts have shown that caffeinated beverage consumption was associated with lower risk of kidney stone disease. However, its protective mechanisms remained unknown and had not been previously investigated. We thus evaluated protective effects of caffeine (1 μM-10 mM) on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stone formation, using crystallization, crystal growth, cell-crystal adhesion, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence assays. The results showed that caffeine reduced crystal number but, on the other hand, increased crystal size, resulting in unchanged crystal mass, consistent with crystal growth that was not affected by caffeine...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924508/ultrasonography-guided-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-with-chinese-one-shot-tract-dilation-technique-based-on-stimulated-diuresis-a-report-of-67-cases
#8
Ying Shi, Hua-Geng Liang, Xiong Yang, Bo Hai, Liang Wang, Yi-Fei Xing, Wen Ju, Fu-Qing Zeng, Xiao-Ping Zhang, Wen-Cheng Li
The safety and effectiveness of a novel Chinese one-shot dilation technique based on stimulated diuresis for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) were investigated. After the feasibility of the Chinese one-shot dilation based on stimulated diuresis was verified by an animal study, this technique was applied in the clinical practice. A total of 67 patients in our department underwent the modified PCNL from July 2014 to June 2015. After the renal infundibulum was distended by stimulated diuresis, the kidney was punctured under the ultrasonographic guidance via the fornix of the target calyx...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921141/kidney-stones-diseases-and-glycaemic-statuses-focus-on-the-latest-clinical-evidences
#9
REVIEW
Leonardo Spatola, Claudio Angelini, Salvatore Badalamenti, Silvio Maringhini, Giovanni Gambaro
Diabetes and obesity are already recognized as potential risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially for uric acid stones. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia actively contribute to impaired ability to excrete an acid load and altered ammonium production, leading to a lower urinary pH compared to non-diabetic controls. All these electrolytic disorders play an important role in stone formation and aggregation, especially in uric acid stones. There are still missing points in scientific evidence if the increased risk in stone formation is already existing even in the prediabetic statuses (isolated impaired glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, and associated impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose) as well as it is worth to consider the same level of risk...
December 5, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921023/effects-of-hydrophilic-extract-of-nasturtium-officinale-on-prevention-of-ethylene-glycol-induced-renal-stone-in-male-wistar-rats
#10
Sadrollah Mehrabi, Eslam Askarpour, Farhad Mehrabi, Ramin Jannesar
BACKGROUND: Nasturtium officinale is a traditional herb that is used for diuresis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of hydrophilic extract of Nasturtium officinale on ethylene glycol-induced renal stone in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 32 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in six groups and studied during 30 days. Two groups of negative and healthy control received 1% ethylene glycol in water respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915449/common-variants-in-cldn14-are-associated-with-differential-excretion-of-magnesium-over-calcium-in-urine
#11
REVIEW
Tanguy Corre, Eric Olinger, Sarah E Harris, Michela Traglia, Sheila Ulivi, Stefania Lenarduzzi, Hendrica Belge, Sonia Youhanna, Natsuko Tokonami, Olivier Bonny, Pascal Houillier, Ozren Polasek, Ian J Deary, John M Starr, Daniela Toniolo, Paolo Gasparini, Peter Vollenweider, Caroline Hayward, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
The nature and importance of genetic factors regulating the differential handling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) by the renal tubule in the general population are poorly defined. We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio to identify associated common genetic variants. We included 9320 adults of European descent from four genetic isolates and three urban cohorts. Urinary magnesium and calcium concentrations were measured centrally in spot urine, and each study conducted linear regression analysis of urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio on ~2...
December 3, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915396/accurate-stone-analysis-the-impact-on-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Neil S Mandel, Ian C Mandel, Ann M Kolbach-Mandel
This manuscript reviews the requirements for acceptable compositional analysis of kidney stones using various biophysical methods. High-resolution X-ray powder diffraction crystallography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are the only acceptable methods in our labs for kidney stone analysis. The use of well-constructed spectral reference libraries is the basis for accurate and complete stone analysis. The literature included in this manuscript identify errors in most commercial laboratories and in some academic centers...
December 3, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914711/proteomic-based-research-strategy-identified-laminin-subunit-alpha-2-as-a-potential-urinary-specific-biomarker-for-the-medullary-sponge-kidney-disease
#13
Antonia Fabris, Maurizio Bruschi, Laura Santucci, Giovanni Candiano, Simona Granata, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Nadia Antonucci, Andrea Petretto, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Giovanni Gambaro, Antonio Lupo, Gianluigi Zaza
Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) disease, a rare kidney malformation featuring recurrent renal stones and nephrocalcinosis, continues to be diagnosed using expensive and time-consuming clinical/instrumental tests (mainly urography). Currently, no molecular diagnostic biomarkers are available. To identify such we employed a proteomic-based research strategy utilizing urine from 22 patients with MSK and 22 patients affected by idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN) as controls. Notably, two patients with ICN presented cysts...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913855/what-can-the-microstructure-of-stones-tell-us
#14
REVIEW
James C Williams, Elaine Worcester, James E Lingeman
How stones are retained within the kidney while small in size is still not fully understood. In this paper, we show two examples of how stones are retained during early growth: one is growth on Randall's (interstitial) plaque, and the other is growth on mineral that has formed as a luminal plug in a terminal collecting duct. These two mechanisms of stone retention during early growth have distinctive morphologic features that can be seen by methods that show the microscopic structure of the stones. Stones growing on Randall's plaque display an apatite region that is typically not large in size (<0...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913854/the-role-of-macromolecules-in-the-formation-of-kidney-stones
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Rimer, Ann M Kolbach-Mandel, Michael D Ward, Jeffrey A Wesson
The formation of crystal aggregates, one of the critical processes in kidney stone pathogenesis, involves interactions between crystals (predominantly calcium oxalate monohydrate, COM) and urinary constituents (e.g., proteins), which serve as an adhesive "glue" between crystals in stones. To develop a better understanding of the protein-crystal interactions that lead to crystal aggregation, we have measured the effect of model proteins on bulk COM crystal properties as well as their adsorption on crystal surfaces using three synthetic polyanions: poly(aspartic acid) (polyD), poly(glutamic acid) (polyE), and poly(acrylic acid) (polyAA)...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913853/the-role-of-intestinal-oxalate-transport-in-hyperoxaluria-and-the-formation-of-kidney-stones-in-animals-and-man
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan M Whittamore, Marguerite Hatch
The intestine exerts a considerable influence over urinary oxalate in two ways, through the absorption of dietary oxalate and by serving as an adaptive extra-renal pathway for elimination of this waste metabolite. Knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for oxalate absorption and secretion by the intestine therefore have significant implications for understanding the etiology of hyperoxaluria, as well as offering potential targets for future treatment strategies for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. In this review, we present the recent developments and advances in this area over the past 10 years, and put to the test some of the new ideas that have emerged during this time, using human and mouse models...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913238/contemporary-ureteroscopic-management-of-renal-stones
#17
S Proietti, T Knoll, G Giusti
The advancements in the endourological armamentarium and the evolution of ureteroscopes with the advent of fiberoptic first and then digital technology, the introduction of holmium laser lithotripters, together with the increasing number of requests for minimally invasive procedures has ameliorated outcomes, patients' safety and comfort, making the use of flexible ureteroscopy for urinary calculi increasingly attractive and widespread among urological community. Due to its high stone-free rates and low morbidity, flexible ureteroscopy has become a viable option for the treatment of renal stones...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909619/the-role-of-ultra-mini-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-in-the-treatment-of-kidney-stones
#18
Abdulkadir Tepeler, İsmail Başıbüyük, Muhammed Tosun, Abdullah Armağan
OBJECTIVE: In our study we aimed to evaluate outcomes of ultra-mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (UMP) performed for the treatment of kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between October 2014 and September 2015, a single surgeon performed UMP on a total of 49 consecutive patients with symptomatic kidney stones at our center. Pregnants, anticogulant users, patients with bleeding diathesis pyonephrosis, and partial/complete staghorn stones were excluded from the study...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900407/do-inhibitors-of-crystallisation-play-any-role-in-the-prevention-of-kidney-stones-a-critique
#19
REVIEW
William G Robertson
A critical examination of data in the literature and in as yet unpublished laboratory records on the possible role of so-called inhibitors of crystallisation in preventing the formation of calcium-containing kidney stones leads to the following conclusions. So-called inhibitors of spontaneous "self-nucleation" are unlikely to play any role in the initiation of the crystallisation of CaOx or CaP in urine because excessive urinary supersaturation of urine with respect to these salts dominates the onset of "self-nucleation" within the normal time frame of the transit of tubular fluid through the nephron (3-4 min)...
November 29, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900406/what-does-the-crystallography-of-stones-tell-us-about-their-formation
#20
REVIEW
Peter Rez
The mineral phase makes up most of the mass of a kidney stone. Minerals all come in the form of crystals that are regular arrangements of atoms or molecular groupings at the atomic scale, bounded macroscopically by well-defined crystal faces. Pathologic nephroliths are a polycrystalline aggregate of submicron crystals. Organic macromolecules clearly have an important role in either promoting or preventing aggregation and in altering the morphology of individual submicron crystals by influencing the surface energies of different faces...
November 29, 2016: Urolithiasis
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