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Kidney stones

Naoto Tominaga, Stephen J Fernandez, Mihriye Mete, Nawar M Shara, Joseph G Verbalis
Kidney stones impose a large and increasing public health burden. Previous studies showed that hyponatremia is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures, which are also known to be associated with kidney stones. However, the relation between hyponatremia and kidney stones is not known. To assess the relation between hyponatremia and kidney stones, we designed a matched case-control study by using the electronic health records of the MedStar Health system with more than 3.4 million unique patient records as of March 2016...
2018: PloS One
Corrado Vitale, Alberto Tricerri, Francesca Bermond, Laura Fabbrini, Cristina Guiotto, Martino Marangella
INTRODUCTION: In this paper we investigated whether cholecalciferol supplementation, prescribed to treat vitamin D deficiency in patients with nephrolithiasis, increased the risk of stone recurrence. METHODS: Calcium excretion and urine supersaturation with calcium oxalate (βCaOx) and brushite (βbsh) were evaluated in 33 kidney stone formers (aged 56±17; 12 males), both before and after therapy with cholecalciferol, prescribed as oral bolus of 100.000-200.000 UI, followed by maintenance doses, repeated every week (5...
September 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Jia-Sheng Hu, Guo-Hai Xie, He-Sheng Yuan, Guan-Lin Liu, Xiao-Long Jia, Zhong Zheng, Yue Cheng
The present study assessed the clinical efficacy of guide sheath-assisted ureteroscope lithotripsy in the treatment of upper ureteral calculi. A total of 81 patients with upper ureteral calculi underwent ureteroscope lithotripsy assisted by a guide sheath between January 2012 and June 2014; of these, 63 patients were successfully treated with simple rigid ureteroscope lithotripsy assisted by a ureteral access sheath, and 18 patients were successfully treated with rigid and flexible ureteroscope lithotripsy assisted by a guide sheath...
October 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Teresa Arcidiacono, Marco Simonini, Chiara Lanzani, Lorena Citterio, Erika Salvi, Cristina Barlassina, Donatella Spotti, Daniele Cusi, Paolo Manunta, Giuseppe Vezzoli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Claudin-16 and -19 are proteins forming pores for the paracellular reabsorption of divalent cations in the ascending limb of Henle loop; conversely, claudin-14 decreases ion permeability of these pores. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in gene coding for claudin-14 were associated with kidney stones and calcium excretion. This study aimed to explore the association of claudin-14 , claudin-16 , and claudin-19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with calcium excretion...
September 19, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Alice Odenrick, Nikolaos Kartalis, Nikolaos Voulgarakis, Fabian Morsbach, Louiza Loizou
PURPOSE: To investigate the detectability of renal stones in corticomedullary and nephrographic phases on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). METHODS: All consecutive patients between January 2012 and February 2016 undergoing CT of the kidneys according to our department's standard four-phase protocol and having at least one stone in the NC-phase (NCP) were included. Fifty patients with altogether 136 stones were eligible. Two radiologists in consensus evaluated the NCP from each examination and documented the number, location, and size of stones...
September 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Anna Lee, Hyo-Cheol Kim, Sung Il Hwang, Ho Jun Chin, Ki Young Na, Dong-Wan Chae, Sejoong Kim
Background: Unenhanced computed tomography (UCT) may be useful for evaluating acute pyelonephritis; however, no study has compared UCT with enhanced computed tomography (ECT) as a diagnostic tool. We evaluated a clinical usefulness of UCT versus ECT in acute pyelonephritis (APN). Methods: We reviewed the clinical and radiological data from 183 APN-suspected patients who underwent UCT and ECT simultaneously at emergency room (ER) over a two-year period. Demographic, clinical parameters and computed tomography (CT) parameters of 149 patients were compared...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Mario Diplomatico, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Daniela Capalbo, Michela Stanco, Rosaria Marotta, Stefano Guarino
: A 12-year-old boy, with intermittent abdominal pain from 3 years of age, presented with increased frequency of right lower quadrant pain (at least three episodes per week over the past six months) and pain during micturition affecting school attendance. His family history included referred urolithiasis. An abdominal ultrasound performed 1 year before our visit showed a small stone of 4 mm in the right renal pelvis for which he did not receive any therapy. The patient brought 25 hard stones with irregular outline, 2-8 mm in diameter, of deep brown/grey colour that he claimed to have found in his underwear (figure 1)...
September 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Bhavna Bhasin, Mohammed Alzubaidi, Juan Carlos Q Velez
Gross hematuria is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). It is an alarming symptom and may be the first manifestation of ADPKD. Cyst hemorrhage is a frequent cause of hematuria in ADPKD while other differential diagnoses include cyst infection, urinary tract infection, renal stones and an underlying malignancy. Knowledge of the precipitating factors and clinical presentation of these conditions will help practicing internists in performing an appropriate evaluation and management of these entities and their complications, as well as executing timely referrals to subspecialists when indicated...
August 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Allison L O'Kell, Archana C Lovett, Benjamin K Canales, Laurie B Gower, Saeed R Khan
Idiopathic stone formers often form calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones that are attached to calcium phosphate (CaP) deposits in the renal tissue, known as Randall's plaques (RP). Plaques are suggested to originate in the renal tubular basement membrane and spread into the interstitial regions where collagen fibrils and vesicles become mineralized; if the epithelium is breached, the RP becomes overgrown with CaOx upon exposure to urine. We have developed a two-stage model system of CaP-CaOx composite stones, consisting of Stage (1) CaP mineralized plaque, followed by Stage (2) CaOx overgrowth into a stone...
September 14, 2018: Urolithiasis
Mayandi Sivaguru, Jessica J Saw, James C Williams, John C Lieske, Amy E Krambeck, Michael F Romero, Nicholas Chia, Andrew L Schwaderer, Reinaldo E Alcalde, William J Bruce, Derek E Wildman, Glenn A Fried, Charles J Werth, Richard J Reeder, Peter M Yau, Robert A Sanford, Bruce W Fouke
More than 10% of the global human population is now afflicted with kidney stones, which are commonly associated with other significant health problems including diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Nearly 70% of these stones are primarily composed of calcium oxalate, a mineral previously assumed to be effectively insoluble within the kidney. This has limited currently available treatment options to painful passage and/or invasive surgical procedures. We analyze kidney stone thin sections with a combination of optical techniques, which include bright field, polarization, confocal and super-resolution nanometer-scale auto-fluorescence microscopy...
September 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Larisa Kovacevic, Hong Lu, Joseph A Caruso, Natalija Kovacevic, Yegappan Lakshmanan
PURPOSE: To study (1) the differences in the relative abundance of urinary proteins between children with kidney stones (RS) and hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, normal metabolic work-up, and healthy controls (HC); (2) the association of these proteins with various diseases. METHODS: Quantitative proteomic comparison of pooled urine from RS (N = 30, 24 females, mean age 12.95 ± 4.03 years) versus age- and gender-matched HC, using mass spectrometry. Relative protein abundance was estimated using spectral counting...
September 12, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Shuaishuai Huang, Yu Ren, Xue Wang, Lissy Lazar, Suya Ma, Guobin Weng, Jinshun Zhao
Chronic renal disease or acute renal injury could result in end-stage renal disease or renal failure. Sonoporation, induced by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD), evolved as a new technology for gene delivery. It increased the transfection efficiency of the genes into target kidney tissues. Moreover, UTMD-mediated gene delivery can directly repair the damaged tissues or improve the recruitment and homing of stem cells in the recovery of injured tissues, which has the potential to act as a non-viral and effective method to current gene therapy...
September 11, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Nan Wang, Dan Zhang, Yong-Tai Zhang, Wen Xu, Ying-Shu Wang, Ping-Ping Zhong, Tian-Zhu Jia, Yan-Feng Xiu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese Medicine is preferred because of its safety and minimal/reduced side effects. Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli (ECGG) extract, a traditional Chinese drug consisting of the dried gizzard membrane of Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson, was assessed for its effects and mechanism on urolithiasis. AIMS OF STUDY: To evaluate the effects of ECGG extract on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation in vitro, and assess the anti-urolithic effects of ECGG extract in vivo and explore the underlying mechanism...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Paul R Dominguez-Gutierrez, Sergei Kusmartsev, Benjamin K Canales, Saeed R Khan
Purpose: A number of hyperoxaluric states have been associated with calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposits in the kidneys. In animal models of stone disease, these crystals interact with circulating monocytes that have migrated into the kidney as part of innate immunity. Similarly, macrophages surround CaOx crystals in kidneys of patients excreting high levels of oxalate. We investigate the effect of this exposure and subsequent human immunological response in vitro . Materials and methods: Primary human monocytes were collected from healthy donors and exposed to CaOx, potassium oxalate, and zinc oxalate (ZnOx)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dai Hee Kim, Jung Hyun Shin, Se Young Choi, Dalsan You, Choung-Soo Kim, Hyung Keun Park
Purpose: Despite advances in flexible ureteroscopy, the high cost and long repair time of ureteroscopes limit their use in the urology. We compared the performance of a novel flexible ureteroscope (fURS) 'HF-EH' with that of the two contemporary fURSs 'URF-P6' and 'COBRA'. Materials and Methods: We compared in vitro measurements of deflection angle, irrigation flow rate, and image quality between HF-EH and URF-P6 while also inspecting renal collecting systems in five female pigs...
September 2018: Investigative and Clinical Urology
John F Aloia, Subhashini Katumuluwa, Alexandra Stolberg, Gianina Usera, Mageda Mikhail, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Shahidul Islam
OBJECTIVE: It is anticipated that an intake of vitamin D found acceptable by Endocrine Society Guidelines (10,000 IU/day) with co-administered calcium supplements may result in frequent hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia. This combination may be associated with kidney stones. The objective of this study was to compare the episodes of hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia from calcium supplements co-administered with 10,000 IU or 600 IU vitamin D daily. This design allows a comparison of the Institute of Medicine recommendation for the RDA of vitamin D along with the Upper Limit of calcium intake with the high intake of vitamin D suggested by the Endocrine Society...
September 4, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Valerie E Nesser, Jennifer A Reetz, Dana L Clarke, Lillian R Aronson
OBJECTIVE: To document the distribution of ureteral stones in cats. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Seventy-eight cats. METHODS: Abdominal radiographs with ureteral stones were reviewed. The location of stones was categorized as proximal ureter (PU), midureter (MU), or ureterovesicular junction (UVJ). The number, size, and location of stones were recorded by using the kidneys and vertebral bodies as landmarks...
September 4, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Kehua Jiang, Kun Tang, Haoran Liu, Hua Xu, Zhangqun Ye, Zhiqiang Chen
PURPOSE: The relationship of ascorbic acid (AA) supplements and risk of kidney stones among men and women is controversial. This systematic evaluation was performed to obtain comprehensive evidence about the relationship of AA supplements and risk of kidney stones among men and women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of Pubmed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase was performed to identify studies that exhibited the relationship of AA supplements and risk of kidney stones among men and women were published up to Mar 2017...
August 26, 2018: Urology Journal
Adnan Gucuk, Burak Yilmaz, Sebahat Gucuk, Ugur Uyeturk
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate whether these parameters could be guiding for us in selection between retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) procedures in kidney stones that are smaller than 2 cm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients who had kidney stones smaller than two cm and were planned to undergo surgery were randomly distributed into 2 groups prospectively. RIRS was performed in the RIRS group using a 7.5-F fiberoptic flexible ureterorenoscope while mini-PNL group was dilated up to 16...
August 26, 2018: Urology Journal
Da Guo, Kai Yu, Xin-Yuan Sun, Jian-Ming Ouyang
Natural Gracilaria lemaneiformis sulfated polysaccharide (GLP0, molecular weight = 622 kDa) was degraded by H2 O2 to obtain seven degraded fragments, namely, GLP1, GLP2, GLP3, GLP4, GLP5, GLP6, and GLP7, with molecular weights of 106, 49.6, 10.5, 6.14, 5.06, 3.71, and 2.42 kDa, respectively. FT-IR and NMR results indicated that H2 O2 degradation does not change the structure of GLP polysaccharides, whereas the content of the characteristic -OSO3 H group (13.46% ± 0.10%) slightly increased than that of the natural polysaccharide (13...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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