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Infections in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644549/a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-symptoms-and-course-of-dengue-infection-during-pregnancy
#1
Kavita Agarwal, Sunita Malik, Pratima Mittal
OBJECTIVE: To assess outcomes among pregnant women diagnosed with dengue infection. METHODS: In a retrospective study, the medical records of all pregnant women with dengue infection admitted to Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India, from July to December 2015 were reviewed. Maternal and fetal outcomes were compared by pregnancy length and stage of disease at diagnosis. RESULTS: Overall, 62 pregnant women with dengue infection were identified...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644338/committee-opinion-no-706-sexual-health
#2
(no author information available yet)
Sexuality involves a broad range of expressions of intimacy and is fundamental to self-dentification, with strong cultural, biologic, and psychologic components. Obstetrician-gynecologists often are consulted by patients about sexual health and are in a unique position to open a dialogue on sexual health issues. Several obstacles to frank conversations with patients about sexual health exist, including a lack of adequate training and confidence in the topic, a perception that there are few treatment options, a lack of adequate clinical time to obtain a sexual history, patients' reluctance to initiate the conversation, and the underestimation of the prevalence of sexual dysfunction...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644337/committee-opinion-no-705-mental-health-disorders-in-adolescents
#3
(no author information available yet)
Mental health disorders in adolescence are a significant problem, relatively common, and amenable to treatment or intervention. Obstetrician-gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders. Some of these disorders may interfere with a patient's ability to understand or articulate her health concerns and appropriately adhere to recommended treatment. Some disorders or their treatments will affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing anovulatory cycles and various menstrual disturbances...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644331/committee-opinion-no-706-summary-sexual-health
#4
(no author information available yet)
Sexuality involves a broad range of expressions of intimacy and is fundamental to self-dentification, with strong cultural, biologic, and psychologic components. Obstetrician-gynecologists often are consulted by patients about sexual health and are in a unique position to open a dialogue on sexual health issues. Several obstacles to frank conversations with patients about sexual health exist, including a lack of adequate training and confidence in the topic, a perception that there are few treatment options, a lack of adequate clinical time to obtain a sexual history, patients' reluctance to initiate the conversation, and the underestimation of the prevalence of sexual dysfunction...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644330/committee-opinion-no-705-summary-mental-health-disorders-in-adolescents
#5
(no author information available yet)
Mental health disorders in adolescence are a significant problem, relatively common, and amenable to treatment or intervention. Obstetrician-gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders. Some of these disorders may interfere with a patient's ability to understand or articulate her health concerns and appropriately adhere to recommended treatment. Some disorders or their treatments will affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing anovulatory cycles and various menstrual disturbances...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643663/delivery-outcomes-of-term-pregnancy-complicated-by-idiopathic-polyhydramnios
#6
S Zeino, L Carbillon, I Pharisien, A Tigaizin, M Benchimol, R Murtada, J Boujenah
OBJECTIVE: Polyhydramnios is associated with an increased risk of cesarean section. The aetiology of polyhydramnios and the characteristics of the labour may be confounding factors. The objective was to study the characteristics and mode of delivery in case of pregnancy complicated with idiopathic polyhydramnios. METHODS: This retrospective matched and controlled study included all pregnant women with idiopathic polyhydramnios (amniotic index>25cm or single deepest pocket>8cm) diagnosed at the 2nd or 3rd trimester and persistent at term delivery (>37weeks of pregnancy) in our institution...
April 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640799/screening-for-syphilis-and-other-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-pregnant-women-guam-2014
#7
Susan Cha, Tasneem Malik, Winston E Abara, Mia S DeSimone, Bernadette Schumann, Esther Mallada, Michael Klemme, Vince Aguon, Anne Marie Santos, Thomas A Peterman, Gail Bolan, Mary L Kamb
Prenatal screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can prevent adverse perinatal outcomes. In Guam, the largest of the three U.S. territories in the Pacific, primary and secondary syphilis rates among women increased 473%, from 1.1 to 6.3 per 100,000 during 2009-2013 (1). In 2013, the first congenital syphilis case after no cases since 2008 was reported (1,2). Little is known about STI screening coverage and factors associated with inadequate screening among pregnant women in Guam. This study evaluated the prevalence of screening for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chlamydia, and gonorrhea, and examined correlates of inadequate screening among pregnant women in Guam...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640798/evaluation-of-placental-and-fetal-tissue-specimens-for-zika-virus-infection-50-states-and-district-of-columbia-january-december-2016
#8
Sarah Reagan-Steiner, Regina Simeone, Elizabeth Simon, Julu Bhatnagar, Titilope Oduyebo, Rebecca Free, Amy M Denison, Demi B Rabeneck, Sascha Ellington, Emily Petersen, Joy Gary, Gillian Hale, M Kelly Keating, Roosecelis B Martines, Atis Muehlenbachs, Jana Ritter, Ellen Lee, Alexander Davidson, Erin Conners, Sarah Scotland, Kayleigh Sandhu, Andrea Bingham, Elizabeth Kassens, Lou Smith, Kirsten St George, Nina Ahmad, Mary Tanner, Suzanne Beavers, Brooke Miers, Kelley VanMaldeghem, Sumaiya Khan, Ingrid Rabe, Carolyn Gould, Dana Meaney-Delman, Margaret A Honein, Wun-Ju Shieh, Denise J Jamieson, Marc Fischer, Sherif R Zaki
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and detection of Zika virus RNA in clinical and tissue specimens can provide definitive laboratory evidence of recent Zika virus infection. Whereas duration of viremia is typically short, prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in placental, fetal, and neonatal brain tissue has been reported and can provide key diagnostic information by confirming recent Zika virus infection (2). In accordance with recent guidance (3,4), CDC provides Zika virus testing of placental and fetal tissues in clinical situations where this information could add diagnostic value...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640002/trends-in-diagnoses-among-hospitalizations-of-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-the-us-2003-2012
#9
Stacey A Hurst, Alexander C Ewing, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis
OBJECTIVE: Using data from 2003-2012, we updated a previous analysis of trends in hospitalizations of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the US. METHODS: We used data from the Kids´ Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to derive nationally representative estimates of the number of hospitalizations and the rates per 1000 hospitalizations of select discharge diagnoses and procedures in 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and adolescents ≤18 years, excluding hospitalizations for conditions related to pregnancy/delivery and neonatal diagnoses...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639838/provider-perceptions-of-stigma-and-discrimination-experienced-by-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-phiv-while-accessing-sexual-and-reproductive-health-care
#10
Cynthia D Fair, Meredith Berk
Historically, children with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) were viewed as the "innocent victims" as their HIV infection was not acquired through sexual/drug related means. Today, adolescents with PHIV are surviving into young adulthood and are engaging in developmentally expected behaviors such as establishing intimate, sexual relationships. Like other youth, those living with PHIV often need to access sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Previous research has documented stigma and discrimination experienced by adult women living with HIV as they try to access SRH care...
June 22, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639423/emergency-contraceptive-pill-users-risk-perceptions-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-future-unintended-pregnancy
#11
Mary T Hickey, Michele G Shedlin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The availability of emergency contraception pills (ECP) over the counter (OTC) has the potential to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancy; however, the increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition, related to unprotected intercourse, has not been adequately addressed. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into risk perceptions for STIs and subsequent unintended pregnancy in women who have purchased ECP OTC. METHODS: Twenty-one women, aged 18-24, attending a private university in an urban setting, who purchased and used ECP OTC participated in 1-h, individual interviews...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638960/comparative-diagnostic-evaluation-of-omp31-gene-based-taqman%C3%A2-real-time-pcr-assay-with-visual-lamp-assay-and-indirect-elisa-for-caprine-brucellosis
#12
Suman Saini, V K Gupta, K Gururaj, D D Singh, R V S Pawaiya, N K Gangwar, A K Mishra, Deepak Dwivedi, Dimple Andani, Ashok Kumar, T K Goswami
Brucellosis is one of the leading causes of abortion in domestic animals that imposes costs on both economy and society. The disease is highly zoonotic and poses risk to animal handlers due to its zoonotic nature. It causes stillbirth, loss of kids and abortion in last term of pregnancy. Reproductive damage includes infertility in does and orchitis and epididymitis in breeding bucks, which result in high financial losses to farmers and the agriculture industry as a whole. It requires highly sensitive and specific assays to diagnose the disease at field level...
June 21, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637041/the-effects-of-fungicides-on-human-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-and-aromatase-in-human-placental-cell-line-jeg-3
#13
Shuyan Cao, Leping Ye, Ying Wu, Baiping Mao, Lanlan Chen, Xiudi Wang, Ping Huang, Ying Su, Ren-Shan Ge
Placenta secretes a large amount of progesterone and estradiol, which are critical for maintaining pregnancy. In human placenta, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1) catalyzes pregnenolone to form progesterone, and aromatase (CYP19A1) catalyzes testosterone into estradiol. Fungicides display antifungal activities and are widely used to prevent fungal infections in agricultural plants. These chemicals include azoles, such as tebuconazole (TEB), triadimefon (TRI), and vinclozolin (VCZ) or organotins, such as tributyltin (TBT) and tetrabutyltin (TTBT)...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636952/human-leukocyte-antigen-f-presents-peptides-and-regulates-immunity-through-interactions-with-nk-cell-receptors
#14
Charles L Dulberger, Curtis P McMurtrey, Angelique Hölzemer, Karlynn E Neu, Victor Liu, Adriana M Steinbach, Wilfredo F Garcia-Beltran, Michael Sulak, Bana Jabri, Vincent J Lynch, Marcus Altfeld, William H Hildebrand, Erin J Adams
Evidence is mounting that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule HLA-F (human leukocyte antigen F) regulates the immune system in pregnancy, infection, and autoimmunity by signaling through NK cell receptors (NKRs). We present structural, biochemical, and evolutionary analyses demonstrating that HLA-F presents peptides of unconventional length dictated by a newly arisen mutation (R62W) that has produced an open-ended groove accommodating particularly long peptides. Compared to empty HLA-F open conformers (OCs), HLA-F tetramers bound with human-derived peptides differentially stained leukocytes, suggesting peptide-dependent engagement...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636866/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-trichomonas-vaginalis-and-other-sexually-transmissible-infections-among-women-attending-antenatal-clinics-in-three-provinces-in-papua-new-guinea-a-cross-sectional-survey
#15
Lisa M Vallely, Pamela Toliman, Claire Ryan, Glennis Rai, Johanna Wapling, Carolyn Tomado, Savarina Huliafi, Gloria Munnull, Patricia Rarau, Suparat Phuanukoonnon, Handan Wand, Peter Siba, Glen D L Mola, John M Kaldor, Andrew J Vallely
Background Papua New Guinea (PNG) is estimated to have among the highest prevalences of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) of any Asia-Pacific country, and one of the highest burdens of maternal syphilis globally. The prevalence of curable STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), among pregnant women in PNG is relatively unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional bio-behavioural survey to investigate the epidemiology of CT, NG, TV and other STIs among pregnant women in three provinces of PNG was undertaken...
October 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636651/yield-of-yearly-routine-physical-examination-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-is-limited-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-the-netherlands
#16
Marleen A van Amsterdam, Sander van Assen, Herman G Sprenger, Kasper R Wilting, Ymkje Stienstra, Wouter F W Bierman
BACKGROUND: Routine physical examinations might be of value in HIV-infected patients, but the yield is unknown. We determined the diagnoses that would have been missed without performing annual routine physical examinations in HIV-infected patients with stable disease. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of 299 HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 if not using combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), or CD4 count >100 cells/mm3 and undetectable viral load if using cART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635531/drug-exposure-in-early-pregnancy-might-be-related-to-the-effects-of-increased-maternal-progesterone-in-implantation-period
#17
Necip Girit, Ibrahim Tugrul, Buket Demirci, Ozlem Bozkurt, Turhan Dost, Mustafa Birincioglu, H Alper Tanriverdi
AIM: This short communication aims to evaluate the relation in between drug exposure time and early pregnancy regarding gestational weeks. METHODS: The study covers the referrals made to the Department of Pharmacology for a teratogenic consultation in a 3-year period. From the recordings of pregnant women, the last menstrual period and the starting date of medication were used to determine the time of prescription with regard to gestational weeks. RESULTS: In all of the three years, potentially teratogenic medication was prescribed more frequently in the 3rd, 4th and 5th gestational weeks (in between 15-35 days of pregnancy)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633705/household-food-insecurity-is-associated-with-low-interferon-gamma-levels-in-pregnant-indian-women
#19
A Vaidya, R Bhosale, P Sambarey, N Suryavanshi, S Young, V Mave, S Kanade, V Kulkarni, P Deshpande, U Balasubramanian, J Elf, N Gupte, A Gupta, J S Mathad
SETTING: Over 20% of tuberculosis (TB) cases during pregnancy occur in India. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between household food insecurity and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels in pregnancy. DESIGN: Pregnant women in India were administered the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) questionnaire and underwent an IFN-γ release assay. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with food insecurity. RESULTS: Of 538 women, 60 (11%) had household food insecurity, 47 (78%) of which were moderate or severe food insecure...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633549/an-update-on-zika-vaccine-developments
#20
Anna Durbin, Annelies Wilder-Smith
The devastating consequences of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection led to a global response directed toward a better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of ZIKV and to efforts at vaccine development. As a result, there are currently 45 ZIKV vaccine candidates in development. Areas covered: Both traditional (purified inactivated, live attenuated, viral-vectored, recombinant sub-unit) and novel (DNA, self-replicating RNA, mRNA) vaccine platforms are being utilized. For emergency use, vaccines that are appropriate for women of child-bearing age (including pregnant women) are being developed...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
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