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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779260/fifteen-years-of-pmtct-hiv-and-syphilis-outcomes-in-haiti-from-monotherapy-to-option-b
#1
Marie Marcelle Deschamps, Deanna Jannat-Khah, Vanessa Rouzier, Jerry Bonhomme, Julma Pierrot, Myung Hee Lee, Elaine Abrams, Jean Pape, Margaret L McNairy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mother and infant outcomes in the largest prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) program in Haiti in order to identify gaps towards elimination of HIV and syphilis. METHODS: Based on retrospective data from HIV+ pregnant women and their infants enrolled in PMTCT care from 1999-2014, we assessed maternal enrolment in PMTCT, receipt of antiretrovirals before delivery, maternal retention through delivery, as well as infant enrolment in PMTCT, HIV testing, and HIV infection...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776928/enrichment-of-clinically-relevant-organisms-in-spontaneous-preterm-delivered-placenta-and-reagent-contamination-across-all-clinical-groups-in-a-large-uk-pregnancy-cohort
#2
Lydia J Leon, Ronan Doyle, Ernest Diez-Benavente, Taane G Clark, Nigel Klein, Philip Stanier, Gudrun E Moore
In this study differences in the placental microbiota of term and preterm deliveries from a large UK pregnancy cohort were studied using 16S targeted amplicon sequencing. The impact of contamination from DNA extraction, PCR reagents, as well as those from delivery itself were also examined. A total of 400 placental samples from 256 singleton pregnancies were analysed and differences investigated between spontaneous preterm, non-spontaneous preterm, and term delivered placenta. DNA from recently delivered placenta was extracted, and screening for bacterial DNA was carried out using targeted sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774074/placenta-specific-drug-delivery-by-trophoblast-targeted-nanoparticles-in-mice
#3
Baozhen Zhang, Lunbo Tan, Yan Yu, Baobei Wang, Zhilong Chen, Jinyu Han, Mengxia Li, Jie Chen, Tianxia Xiao, Balamurali K Ambati, Lintao Cai, Qing Yang, Nihar R Nayak, Jian Zhang, Xiujun Fan
Rationale: The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking, mainly due to the risk of harm to the fetus. In placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) on the surfaces of trophoblasts. Based on this principle, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta using a synthetic placental CSA-binding peptide (plCSA-BP) derived from VAR2CSA, a CSA-binding protein expressed on IEs...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773977/journey-to-the-center-of-the-fetal-brain-environmental-exposures-and-autophagy
#4
REVIEW
Jun Lei, Pilar Calvo, Richard Vigh, Irina Burd
Fetal brain development is known to be affected by adverse environmental exposures during pregnancy, including infection, inflammation, hypoxia, alcohol, starvation, and toxins. These exposures are thought to alter autophagy activity in the fetal brain, leading to adverse perinatal outcomes, such as cognitive and sensorimotor deficits. This review introduces the physiologic autophagy pathways in the fetal brain. Next, methods to detect and monitor fetal brain autophagy activity are outlined. An additional discussion explores possible mechanisms by which environmental exposures during pregnancy alter fetal brain autophagy activity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773406/dynamics-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-infants-during-the-first-six-months-of-life
#5
José S Merino, Liliana Araneda, Paulina Lincoñir-Campos, Cristian Parra, Katia Sáez, Apolinaria García
INTRODUCTION: Mainly due to the high percentage of infection and the ineffectiveness of treatments, Helicobacter pylori is a global health problem. Knowing the age at acquisition is key to preventing the infection. PATIENTS: Sixty-seven mothers and their respective children participated. To evaluate the presence of H. pylori, the faeces of the mother and her child were analysed using the HpSA antigen test. RESULTS: 71.6% (48/67) of pregnant mothers were positive for H...
May 14, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772814/chronic-and-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-in-botswana
#6
Tshepiso Mbangiwa, Ishmael Kasvosve, Motswedi Anderson, Prisca K Thami, Wonderful T Choga, Austen Needleman, Bonolo B Phinius, Sikhulile Moyo, Melvin Leteane, Jean Leidner, Jason T Blackard, Gloria Mayondi, Betsy Kammerer, Rosemary M Musonda, Max Essex, Shahin Lockman, Simani Gaseitsiwe
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global problem; however, the burden of HBV infection in pregnant women in Botswana is unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of chronic and occult HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Botswana. Samples from 752 pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBsAg-positive samples were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA load. Samples that were HBsAg negative were screened for occult HBV infection by determining the HBV DNA load...
May 17, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771574/is-adding-maternal-vaccination-to-prevent-whooping-cough-cost-effective-in-australia
#7
Laure-Anne Van Bellinghen, Alex Dimitroff, Michael Haberl, Xiao Li, Andrew Manton, Karen Moeremans, Nadia Demarteau
Pertussis or whooping cough, a highly infectious respiratory infection, causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants. In adolescents and adults, pertussis presents with atypical symptoms often resulting in under-diagnosis and under-reporting, increasing the risk of transmission to more vulnerable groups. Maternal vaccination against pertussis protects mothers and newborns. This evaluation assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding maternal dTpa (reduced antigen diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular pertussis) vaccination to the 2016 nationally-funded pertussis program (DTPa [Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis] at 2, 4, 6, 18 months, 4 years and dTpa at 12-13 years) in Australia...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771477/serious-infections-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-offspring-exposed-to-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-inhibitors-cohort-study
#8
Évelyne Vinet, Cristiano De Moura, Christian A Pineau, Michal Abrahamowicz, Jeffrey R Curtis, Sasha Bernatsky
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of serious infections in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) offspring exposed to tumour necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNFi) in the gestational period compared to unexposed RA offspring, as well as to children from the general population. METHODS: We used US claim data (2011-2015) to identify 2 989 RA offspring and a randomly selected group of 14 596 control children, matched ≥4:1 for maternal age, year of delivery, and state of residence...
May 17, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770094/travel-related-zika-virus-cases-in-canada-october-2015-june-2017
#9
J Tataryn, L Vrbova, M Drebot, H Wood, E Payne, S Connors, J Geduld, M German, K Khan, P A Buck
Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that can cause severe birth defects if contracted congenitally. Since late 2015, there has been a large increase in the number of travel-related cases of Zika virus infection in Canada. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of travel-related Zika cases in Canada from October 2015 to June 2017 and review them in the context of the international outbreak in the Americas...
January 4, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769499/toxoplasma-gondii-seropositivity-and-its-possible-associated-risk-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-clinic-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-dhaka-bangladesh
#10
C R Naheen, S Tarafder, S Khan
Toxoplasmosis is a well-documented cause of bad obstetric history (BOH) and a major reason of congenitally acquired infection. This observational study was conducted to detect the rate of seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and observe their risk factors associated with disease transmission attending the antenatal clinic of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2015 to August 2016. The study subjects included 150 pregnant women of different gestational ages...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769344/efficient-delivery-of-hcmv-t-cell-antigens-by-attenuated-sendai-virus-vectors
#11
Richard Kiener, Markus Fleischmann, Marian Alexander Wiegand, Niels A W Lemmermann, Christiane Schwegler, Christine Kaufmann, Angelique Renzaho, Simone Thomas, Eva Felder, Hans Helmut Niller, Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents a major cause of clinical complications during pregnancy as well as immunosuppression and the licensing of a protective HCMV vaccine remains an unmet global need. Herein, we designed and validated novel Sendai virus (SeV) vectors delivering T cell immunogens IE-1 and pp65. To enhance vector safety, we used a replication-deficient strain (rdSeV) that infects target cells in a non-productive manner while retaining viral gene expression. In this study, we explored the impact that transduction with rdSeV has on human dendritic cells (DCs) by comparing it to the parental, replication-competent Sendai virus strain (rcSeV) as well as the poxvirus strain Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768662/immersion-in-water-during-labour-and-birth
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Cluett, Ethel Burns, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Water immersion during labour and birth is increasingly popular and is becoming widely accepted across many countries, and particularly in midwifery-led care settings. However, there are concerns around neonatal water inhalation, increased requirement for admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), maternal and/or neonatal infection, and obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). This is an update of a review last published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of water immersion during labour and/or birth (first, second and third stage of labour) on women and their infants...
May 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768621/sexual-violence-against-women-and-care-in-the-health-sector-in-santa-catarina-brazil
#13
Carmem Regina Delziovo, Elza Berger Salema Coelho, Eleonora d'Orsi, Sheila Rubia Lindner
This is a study on sexual violence against women in the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina notified to the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) in the period 20082013. It aimed to estimate pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) resulting from sexual violence and to test the association between pregnancy, STIs and care provided in health services. In total, 1,230 pregnancy notifications and 1.316 STI notifications were analyzed. Variables were age, schooling, time to receive care, STI prophylaxis, emergency contraception, number of perpetrators and recurrent violence, which were analyzed using proportions and 95% confidence intervals...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768589/women-s-lives-in-times-of-zika-mosquito-controlled-lives
#14
Ana Rosa Linde, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira
Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital brain abnormalities. Its consequences to pregnancies has made governments, national and international agencies issue advices and recommendations to women. There is a clear need to investigate how the Zika outbreak affects the decisions that women take concerning their lives and the life of their families, as well as how women are psychologically and emotionally dealing with the outbreak. We conducted a qualitative study to address the impact of the Zika epidemic on the family life of women living in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the US, who were affected by it to shed light on the social repercussions of Zika...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767781/adolescent-condom-use-and-connectivity-in-the-social-planful-brain
#15
Justin D Caouette, Karen A Hudson, Angela D Bryan, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Objective: To reduce rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy among adolescents, it is critical to investigate brain connectivity that may underlie adolescents' sexual health decision-making in the context of intercourse. This study explored relationships between adolescent condom use frequency and the brain's resting-state functional connectivity, to identify differential patterns of social-affective processing among sexually active youth. Methods: In this study, N = 143 sexually active adolescents (68...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766840/rubella-infection-in-pregnancy-and-congenital-rubella-in-united-kingdom-2003-to-2016
#16
Antoaneta Bukasa, Helen Campbell, Kevin Brown, Helen Bedford, Mary Ramsay, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Pat Tookey
Rubella vaccination has been included in the United Kingdom's (UK) routine childhood schedule for nearly 30 years. The UK achieved World Health Organization (WHO) elimination status in 2016 and acute rubella infections are rare. In the period 2003-16, 31 rubella infections in pregnancy (0.23 per 100,000 pregnancies) were identified through routine surveillance, of which 26 were in women who were born abroad. Five of the 31 rubella infections led to congenital rubella syndrome in the infant and three had confirmed congenital rubella infection without congenital rubella syndrome...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764430/drug-prescribing-during-pregnancy-in-a-central-region-of-italy-2008-2012
#17
Martina Ventura, Alice Maraschini, Paola D'Aloja, Ursula Kirchmayer, Ilaria Lega, Marina Davoli, Serena Donati
BACKGROUND: Drug consumption during pregnancy is a matter of concern, especially regarding drugs known or suspected to be teratogens. Little is known about drug use in pregnant women in Italy. The present study is aimed at examining the prevalence, and to detect potential inappropriateness of drug prescribing among pregnant women in Latium, a region of central Italy. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted on a cohort of women aged 18-45 years who delivered between 2008 and 2012 in public hospitals...
May 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764255/knot-positioning-during-mcdonald-cervical-cerclage-does-it-make-a-difference-a-cohort-study
#18
Hytham Atia, Mohamed Ellaithy, Ahmed Altraigey, Heba Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of McDonald cerclage knot position on the different maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This historical cohort study included women with singleton pregnancy who had a prophylactic McDonald cervical cerclage between 1 May 2010 and 31 September 2017. Maternal and neonatal outcome parameters were compared between the anterior and posterior knot cerclage procedures. The primary outcome measure was the rate of term birth. RESULTS: 550 Women had a prophylactic McDonald cervical cerclage, 306 with anterior knot (Group A) and 244 with posterior knot (Group B)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764247/survey-and-analysis-for-impact-factors-of-psychological-distress-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-who-continue-pregnancy
#19
Shouxue Qin, Yanping Tan, Bingyan Lu, Yuqing Cheng, Yanli Nong
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore the psychological distress of HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy, and analyze the possible influencing factors. METHODS: A total of 194 HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy were enrolled for this study by a convenient sampling method during June 2012-August 2016. Participants completed questionnaires including Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Berger HIV Stigma Scale (BHSS), Distress Thermometer (DT) and Problem List (PL), and to determine the cut-off value of DT in the group...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762896/vertical-transmission-of-herpes-simplex-virus-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Anil Kumar Bhatta, Uma Keyal, Yeqiang Liu, Emese Gellen
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and -2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide. HSV infection during pregnancy can result in neonatal herpes infection, which is characterized by lifelong infection with periods of latency and reactivation. HSV can be acquired by an infant during one of three periods: in utero (5 %), peripartum (85 %), or postnatal (10 %). Neonatal HSV is a rare but significant infection that may be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement...
May 15, 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
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