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Preventive care

Marit Hegg Reime, Tone Johnsgaard, Fred Ivan Kvam, Morten Aarflot, Marit Breivik, Janecke Merethe Engeberg, Guttorm Brattebø
Poor teamwork is an important factor in the occurrence of critical incidents because of a lack of non-technical skills. Team training can be a key to prevent these incidents. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of nursing and medical students after a simulation-based interprofessional team training (SBITT) course and its impact on professional and patient safety practices, using a concurrent mixed-method design. The participants (n = 262) were organized into 44 interprofessional teams...
October 13, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Cremildo João Baptista, Ines Dourado, Sandra Brignol, Tarcísio de Matos Andrade, Francisco Inácio Bastos
BACKGROUND: The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, is higher in low-income countries, with serious consequences and profound impact on sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Syphilis prevalence tend to be higher among people who misuse drugs than in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To assess syphilis and associated factors among polydrug users (PDU) in the city of Salvador, Northeast Brazil...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jane Desborough, Nasser Bagheri, Michelle Banfield, Jane Mills, Christine Phillips, Rosemary Korda
BACKGROUND: The numbers of nurses in general practice in Australia tripled between 2004 and 2012. However, evidence on whether nursing care in general practice improves patient outcomes is scarce. Although patient satisfaction and enablement have been examined extensively as outcomes of general practitioner care, there is little research into these outcomes from nursing care in general practice. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between specific general practice characteristics and nurse consultation characteristics, and patient satisfaction and enablement METHODS: A mixed methods study examined a cross-section of patients from 21 general practices in the Australian Capital Territory...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Marion Tegethoff, Esther Stalujanis, Angelo Belardi, Gunther Meinlschmidt
BACKGROUND: The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities. METHODS: This article bases upon weighted data (N = 6483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (participant age: 13-18 years), a nationally representative United States cohort. Onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition lifetime mental disorders was assessed with the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report...
2016: PloS One
Helga Naburi, Phares Mujinja, Charles Kilewo, Till Bärnighausen, Nicola Orsini, Karim Manji, Gunnel Biberfeld, David Sando, Pascal Geldsetzer, Guerino Chalamila, Anna Mia Ekström
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major source of new HIV infections in children. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) using lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV (Option B+) is the major strategy for eliminating paediatric HIV. Ensuring that patients are satisfied with PMTCT services is important for optimizing uptake, adherence and retention in treatment. METHODS: We conducted a facility based quantitative cross-sectional survey in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, between March and April 2014, when the country was transitioning to the implementation of PMTCT Option B+...
2016: PloS One
Diane Gu, Yurong Mao, Zhenzhu Tang, Julio Montaner, Zhiyong Shen, Qiuying Zhu, Roger Detels, Xia Jin, Ran Xiong, Juan Xu, Walter Ling, Lynda Erinoff, Robert Lindblad, David Liu, Paul Van Veldhuisen, Albert Hasson, Zunyou Wu
BACKGROUND: Patients who are newly screened HIV positive by EIA are lost to follow-up due to complicated HIV testing procedures. Because this is the first step in care, it affects the entire continuum of care. This is a particular concern in rural China. OBJECTIVE(S): To assess the routine HIV testing completeness and treatment initiation rates at 18 county-level general hospitals in rural Guangxi. METHODS: We reviewed original hospital HIV screening records...
2016: PloS One
Joseph K Maddry, Alejandra G Mora, Shelia Savell, Lauren K Reeves, Crystal A Perez, Vikhyat S Bebarta
BACKGROUND: Medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) is the movement and en route care of injured and medically compromised patients by medical care providers via helicopter. Military MEDEVAC platforms provide lifesaving interventions that improve survival in combat. There is limited evidence to support decision making related to en route care and allocation of resources. The association between provider type and en route care is not well understood. Our objective was to describe MEDEVAC providers and identify associations between provider type, procedures performed, and outcomes...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Hardeep Singh, Mark L Graber, Timothy P Hofer
Timely and accurate diagnosis is foundational to good clinical practice and an essential first step to achieving optimal patient outcomes. However, a recent Institute of Medicine report concluded that most of us will experience at least one diagnostic error in our lifetime. The report argues for efforts to improve the reliability of the diagnostic process through better measurement of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic process is a dynamic team-based activity that involves uncertainty, plays out over time, and requires effective communication and collaboration among multiple clinicians, diagnostic services, and the patient...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Koen Huysentruyt, Jean De Schepper, Patrick Bontems, Philippe Alliet, Ellen Peeters, Mathieu Roelants, Stephanie Van Biervliet, Bruno Hauser, Yvan Vandenplas
The prevalence of disease-related undernutrition in hospitalized children has not decreased significantly in the last decades in Europe. A recent large multicentric European study reported a percentage of underweight children ranging across countries from 4.0% to 9.3%. Nutritional screening has been put forward as a strategy to detect and prevent undernutrition in hospitalized children. It allows timely implementation of adequate nutritional support and prevents further nutritional deterioration of hospitalized children...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Eva Carlsson, Jeanette Fingren, Anne-Marie Hallén, Charlotta Petersén, Elisabet Lindholm
Despite advancements in the creation and care of stomas, ostomy and peristomal skin complications are common immediately following surgery as well as in the months and years thereafter. A prospective study to determine the prevalence of ostomy and peristomal skin complications and the influence of ostomy configuration on such complications was conducted 1 year after ostomy surgery among all patients at a university hospital in Sweden. All participants received regular (10 to 14 days post discharge, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year post surgery) ostomy follow-up care by a wound ostomy continence (WOC) nurse...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Jill Cox, Loretta Kaes, Miguel Martinez, Daniel Moles
Skin temperature may help prospectively determine whether an area of skin discoloration will evolve into necrosis. A prospective, observational study was conducted in 7 skilled nursing facilities to determine if skin temperature measured using infrared thermography could predict the progression of discolored intact skin (blanchable erythema, Stage 1 pressure ulcer, or sus- pected deep tissue injury [sDTI]) to necrosis and to evaluate if nurses could effectively integrate thermography into the clinical setting...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Laura Coco, Craig A Champlin, Robert H Eikelboom
Purpose: Sections of the community face barriers to accessing audiology services. The aim of this study was to assess the barriers faced by people in typically underserved community settings and to provide audiology services in their natural environment. Information gathered by questionnaire was used to determine each site's candidacy as a potential tele-audiology site. Method: Sixty-three participants were recruited across 3 community sites that were identified as gathering places for individuals who experience barriers to accessing traditional clinical audiology services...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Kathryn L Kreicher, Jeremy S Bordeaux
Importance: Cutaneous surgery is performed by otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, oculoplastic surgeons, dermatologic surgeons, and some primary care physicians. Practice gaps exist among cutaneous surgeons, as do differences in how different physicians approach preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative decision-making. Objective: To present the newest and best evidence to close common practice gaps in cutaneous surgery. Evidence Review: We performed a detailed search of peer-reviewed publications that were identified through a search of PubMed/MEDLINE (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2016) using the literature search terms "cutaneous surgery," "Mohs micrographic surgery," "plastic surgery," in combination with "safety," "cost," "anesthesia," "anti-coagulation," "bleeding," "pain," "analgesia," "anxiety," or "infection," among others...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Valentina Talarico, Monica Aloe, Alice Monzani, Roberto Miniero, Gianni Bona
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy defined by thrombocytopenia, non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. HUS is typically classified into two primary types: 1) HUS due to infections, often associated with diarrhea (D+HUS, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia Coli-HUS), with the rare exception of HUS due to a severe disseminated infection caused by Streptococcus; 2) HUS related to complement, such HUS is also known as "atypical HUS" and is not diarrhea associated (D-HUS, aHUS); but recent studies have shown other forms of HUS, that can occur in the course of systemic diseases or physiopathological conditions such as pregnancy, after transplantation or after drug assumption...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Giuseppe Ruggiero, Claudia Carnevale, Andrea Diociaiuti, Fabio Arcangeli, May El Hachem
BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis can be defined as an inflammatory process affecting the skin surface and induced by contact with chemical, physical and/or biotic agents in the environment. It causes lesions to skin, mucosae and semi-mucosae by means of allergic and irritant pathogenic mechanisms. Among the main triggers of contact dermatitis in the pediatric age are chemical or physical agents, which cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), and sensitizers, which cause a tissue damage through an allergic mechanism (allergic contact dermatitis [ACD])...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Kathleen W Gorman, Beth Ann Hatkevich
Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
David Altschul, Andrew Kobets, Jonathan Nakhla, Ajit Jada, Rani Nasser, Merritt D Kinon, Reza Yassari, John Houten
OBJECTIVE Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a common problem leading to morbidity and an increased hospital stay. There are limited data regarding its baseline incidence in patients undergoing spinal surgery and the risk factors with which it may be associated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of POUR in elective spine surgery patients and determine the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had undergone elective spine surgery and had been prospectively monitored for POUR during an 18-month period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Michael D Cusimano, Iryna Pshonyak, Michael Y Lee, Gabriela Ilie
OBJECTIVE The 30-day readmission rate has emerged as an important marker of the quality of in-hospital care in several fields of medicine. This review aims to summarize available research reporting readmission rates after cranial procedures and to establish an association with demographic, clinical, and system-related factors and clinical outcomes. METHODS The authors conducted a systematic review of several databases; a manual search of the Journal of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery, Acta Neurochirurgica, Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences; and the cited references of the selected articles...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Sylvia Spivakovsky
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Ganesh Veerasekar, Krishnan Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: Using technology to track endemic areas of communicable diseases is possible nowadays. Effectual use of such facilities, especially in developing countries, will increase earlier detection of cases as well as aid in the formulation of effective prevention strategies. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis was carried out by collecting the details of patients presented with positive dengue serology, during the outbreak season in the second half of 2012, at Kovai Medical Center and Hospital, Coimbatore, India...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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