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Hepatic disease in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636651/yield-of-yearly-routine-physical-examination-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-is-limited-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-the-netherlands
#1
Marleen A van Amsterdam, Sander van Assen, Herman G Sprenger, Kasper R Wilting, Ymkje Stienstra, Wouter F W Bierman
BACKGROUND: Routine physical examinations might be of value in HIV-infected patients, but the yield is unknown. We determined the diagnoses that would have been missed without performing annual routine physical examinations in HIV-infected patients with stable disease. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of 299 HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 if not using combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), or CD4 count >100 cells/mm3 and undetectable viral load if using cART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583709/imported-malaria-in-pregnant-women-experienced-in-japan
#2
Mikio Kimura, Michiko Koga, Chihiro Hasegawa, Yoshikazu Mutoh, Yasuyuki Kato, Haruhiko Maruyama
INTRODUCTION: With ever-growing global exchanges, the number of travelers, including pregnant women, to the tropics is increasing, which poses a risk of contracting malaria. Although there are several reports on imported malaria in pregnancy from Western countries, those focusing on cases experienced in Japan are very limited. METHODS: We searched for cases of malaria in pregnancy in the treatment records submitted to the Research Group on Chemotherapy of Tropical Diseases, Japan, during the period 1993-2016...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583150/prevalence-of-pregnancy-relevant-infections-in-a-rural-setting-of-ghana
#3
Fabian Völker, Paul Cooper, Oliver Bader, Angela Uy, Ortrud Zimmermann, Raimond Lugert, Uwe Groß
BACKGROUND: Although infectious diseases still account for a high burden of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, simultaneous investigations on multiple infections affecting maternal and child health are missing. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, single-centre pilot study in a rural area of Ghana to assess the infectiological profile during pregnancy. Screening of 180 expectant mothers was done by vaginal swabs and serology to detect the most common pregnancy-relevant infections...
June 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569254/maternal-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-affects-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-early-life-of-offspring-rat
#4
Yanhong Huang, Tingting Ye, Chongxiao Liu, Fang Fang, Yuanwen Chen, Yan Dong
We investigated whether maternal over-nutrition during pregnancy and lactation affects the offspring's lipid metabolism at weaning by assessing liver lipid metabolic gene expressions and analysing its mechanisms on the development of metabolic abnormalities. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, and then continued feeding during gestation and lactation. The offspring whose dams were fed with HFD had a lower birth weight but an increased body weight with impaired glucose tolerance, higher serum cholesterol, and hepatic steatosis at weaning...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553027/a-ten-year-audit-of-maternal-mortality-millennium-development-still-a-distant-goal
#5
Anshuja Singla, Shalini Rajaram, Sumita Mehta, Gita Radhakrishnan
OBJECTIVE: To assess various causes of maternal mortality over a ten year period. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of hospital case records. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. POPULATION: Pregnant women who expired in the premises of GTB Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective audit of case records of maternal deaths was conducted for a ten year period (January 2005 to December 2014). RESULTS: There were a total of 647 maternal deaths out of 1,16,641 live births...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544232/peripartum-cytokine-flares-in-a-multiethnic-cohort-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers-does-not-correlate-with-hepatitis-b-virus-suppression-or-increased-risk-of-liver-disease
#6
Shivali S Joshi, Daniel Wong, Eliana Castillo, Mark G Swain, Carla S Coffin
PROBLEM: In chronic hepatitis B (CHB) carriers, alanine transaminase (ALT) flares are common in the peripartum period. There are limited data on immunological changes of pregnancy in CHB. We hypothesize that in pregnant CHB carriers, the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio is altered resulting in changes in biochemical/virological and liver fibrosis markers. STUDY METHODS: Serum from 38 pregnant/post-partum CHB carriers (median age 32 years, 53% Asian, 8 HBeAg(+) ) was tested for HBV DNA, quantitative HBV surface antigen, ALT and liver fibrosis by transient elastography (TE)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539842/a-review-of-antiviral-use-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women
#7
Ariel Jaffe, Robert S Brown
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains high even with the proper use of active-passive immunoprophylaxis in newborns. Mothers with significant viremia are at a much higher risk of MTCT; therefore, treatments aimed at lowering HBV DNA levels during pregnancy may ultimately decrease global disease burden. The exact threshold for treatment remains controversial; however, most studies have accepted levels greater than 2 × 5 log10 IU/mL as significant viremia. We reviewed the most recent literature on antiviral efficacy, maternal and fetal safety, and viral resistance patterns when used for short-duration therapy in pregnancy...
March 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521326/the-yield-of-abdominal-ultrasound-in-the-evaluation-of-elevated-liver-enzymes-during-the-second-and-the-third-trimester-of-pregnancy
#8
Aya Mohr-Sasson, Eyal Schiff, Ramy Rahamim Suday, Zehava Hayman, Yeruham Kleinbaum, Anat Kalter-Farber, Roy Mashiach, Yoav Yinon, Moti Dulitzki, Eyal Sivan, Shali Mazaki-Tovi
AIMS: To determine the clinical yield of abdominal ultrasound in the evaluation of elevated liver enzymes (ELEs) in the second and the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including all pregnant women admitted to a single tertiary care center was conducted between April 2011 and January 2015 with ELE. Inclusion criteria included gestational age above 24 weeks and ELEs, abdominal ultrasound report, and live fetus. Exclusion criteria included known maternal liver disease, structural or chromosomal fetal anomalies, and positive serology for viral hepatitis...
May 19, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492929/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-reproductive-aged-women-and-children-in-the-united-states-2006-to-2014
#9
Kathleen N Ly, Ruth B Jiles, Eyasu H Teshale, Monique A Foster, Rick L Pesano, Scott D Holmberg
Background: In the United States, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has increased among young persons who inject drugs, but the extent of this epidemic among reproductive-aged women and their children is unknown. Objective: To estimate numbers and describe characteristics of reproductive-aged women with HCV infection and of their offspring. Design: Analysis of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) from 2006 to 2014 and the Quest Diagnostics Health Trends national database from 2011 to 2014...
June 6, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406735/capture-recapture-using-existing-data-sources-to-improve-perinatal-hepatitis-b-surveillance-philadelphia-2008-2014
#10
Danica E Kuncio, E Claire Newbern, Liyuan Ma, Robbie Madera, Bruce Barlow, S Ginny Robison, Kendra M Viner, Caroline C Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the capture-recapture method used by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health to enhance surveillance of perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV), report on results and limitations of the process, and determine why some HBV-positive mother-infant pairs were not initially identified by Philadelphia's Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP). METHODS: We performed capture-recapture retrospectively for births in 2008 and 2009 in Philadelphia and prospectively for births from 2010 to 2014 by independently matching annual birth certificate data to PHBPP and HBV surveillance data...
May 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397205/assessment-of-the-implementation-of-the-infectious-diseases-screening-programmes-among-pregnant-women-in-the-lesser-poland-region-and-comparison-with-similar-programmes-conducted-in-other-european-union-countries
#11
Małgorzata Radoń-Pokracka, Maciej Piasecki, Alicja Lachowska, Sebastian Baczkowski, Joanna Spaczyńska, Magdalena Górecka, Magdalena Nowak, Hubert Huras
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the level of implementation of recommendations of the Ministry of Health regarding infectious disease screening during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 477 patients who were admitted to the delivery room between December 2015 and February 2016. Data on screening test results were collected based on medical records covering the period before the admission. RESULTS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening was conducted in 410 (86%)...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383615/seroprevalence-of-hev-antibodies-in-a-sample-of-pregnant-women-in-the-city-of-messina
#12
V La Fauci, A Facciolà, R Riso, S Calimeri, D Lo Giudice, R Squeri
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is widespread in developing countries and the disease is also increasing in the developed ones. This infection in pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and neonatal death in 56% of newborns. STUDY DESIGN: The study was conducted on a sample of 352 pregnant women, 326 Italian and 26 foreign, in order to confirm the presence of HEV in our territory, to analyze wrong habits of the population and to suggest preventive actions against the risk to contract the infection during pregnancy...
May 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376740/maternal-27-hydroxycholesterol-concentrations-during-the-course-of-pregnancy-and-in-pregnancy-pathologies
#13
Brigitte Sophia Winkler, Ulrich Pecks, Laila Najjari, Nicola Kleine-Eggebrecht, Nicolai Maass, Markus Mohaupt, Geneviève Escher
BACKGROUND: The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Pregnancy pathologies like preeclampsia (PE), HELLP-syndrome (HELLP), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy (ICP) are linked to disturbances in lipid metabolism. In the present study, we hypothesized a specific gestational regulation of 27-OHC and compromised 27-OHC levels due to placental and hepatic diseases in pregnancy resulting in a dysregulation of lipid metabolism...
April 4, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372806/multiple-immune-disorders-after-natalizumab-discontinuation-after-the-ciris-the-siris
#14
E K Van Obberghen, M Cohen, F Rocher, C Lebrun-Frenay
Natalizumab (NTZ) is an effective treatment for patients with highly active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). However, when the therapy must be interrupted, it is important to anticipate the withdrawal to avoid reactivation or disease rebound. Described here is the case of a 35-year-old woman, with a past history of beta thalassemia, bulimia and asthma, who was diagnosed with MS at age 26. She was treated initially with first-line subcutaneous (sc) immunomodulatory treatments. However, due to liver toxicity, interferon beta-1a sc was interrupted and replaced by glatiramer acetate treatment, which was well tolerated and used for several years...
March 31, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352303/paediatric-virology-a-rapidly-increasing-educational-challenge
#15
Ioannis N Mammas, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Prakash Thiagarajan, Sharryn Gardner, Georgia Papaioannou, Angeliki Melidou, Maria Koutsaki, Georgia Kostagianni, Vassilis Achtsidis, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Marcos Calachanis, Apostolos Zaravinos, Anne Greenough, Demetrios A Spandidos
The '2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology', which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346343/lifetime-exposure-to-a-constant-environment-amplifies-the-impact-of-a-fructose-rich-diet-on-glucose-homeostasis-during-pregnancy
#16
Aleida Song, Stuart Astbury, Abha Hoedl, Brent Nielsen, Michael E Symonds, Rhonda C Bell
The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a short period of acclimation are investigated (Gen0). We demonstrate that female offspring (Gen1) show an exaggerated hyperinsulinemic response to pregnancy when fed a standard diet and with high fructose intake, which continues throughout pregnancy...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318080/hepatitis-e-and-pregnancy-current-state
#17
REVIEW
María Teresa Pérez-Gracia, Beatriz Suay-García, María Luisa Mateos-Lindemann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for more than 50% of acute viral hepatitis cases in endemic countries. Approximately 2 billion individuals live in hepatitis E-endemic areas and, therefore, are at risk of infection. According to World Health Organization, HEV causes about 20.1 million infections and 70 000 deaths every year. In developing countries with poor sanitation, this disease is transmitted through contaminated water and is associated with large outbreaks, affecting hundreds or thousands of people...
March 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270873/predictors-of-fetal-and-maternal-outcome-in-the-crucible-of-hepatic-dysfunction-during-pregnancy
#18
Indrajit Suresh, Vijaykumar Tr, Nandeesh Hp
BACKGROUND: Hepatic dysfunction during pregnancy places both the mother and the fetus at risk. Investigations which are efficient, cost effective and easily available for prognostication are required to tackle this global problem. We studied the etiologies and evaluated investigations for predictive efficiency. METHODS: One hundred ninety-seven pregnant women with hepatic dysfunction during pregnancy were identified. All patients were followed up till 8 weeks after termination of pregnancy or death...
February 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256911/paroxysmal-nocturnal-haemoglobinuria-in-a-patient-with-primary-budd-chiari-syndrome-a-contraceptive-challenge
#19
Isabel Friedmann, Jacques Balayla
CASE REPORT: In this report, we describe the unique case of a 21 year-old woman, gravida 1, para 1, with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) and Budd-Chiari syndrome, as well as severe vaginismus and cervical stenosis, in need of contraception. Herein, we present the clinical considerations and implications taken to arrive at the right contraceptive choice for the patient. DISCUSSION: Budd-Chiari syndrome is defined by the presence of hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, which may be due to a number of underlying causes...
April 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237319/epilepsy-treatment-in-adults-and-adolescents-expert-opinion-2016
#20
REVIEW
Jerry J Shih, Julia B Whitlock, Nicole Chimato, Emily Vargas, Steven C Karceski, Ryan D Frank
INTRODUCTION: There are over twenty anti-seizure medications and anti-seizure devices available commercially in the United States. The multitude of treatment options for seizures can present a challenge to clinicians, especially those who are not subspecialists in the epilepsy field. Many clinical questions are not adequately answered in double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the presence of a knowledge gap, many clinicians consult a respected colleague with acknowledged expertise in the field...
April 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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