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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330019/facial-nerve-tractography-a-new-tool-to-detect-perineural-invasion-in-parotid-cancers
#1
René-Charles Rouchy, Arnaud Attyé, Irène Troprès, Maud Medici, Adrian Kastler, Christian Righini, Alexandre Krainik
PURPOSE: To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) tractography of facial nerve (VIIn) is useful to detect perineural invasion in case of parotid cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients, aged 18 or over, were enrolled in this prospective study between December 2013 and March 2016 (IRB 5891), with a diagnosis of parotid tumors (15 malignant, 15 benign). They have undergone preoperative MR scans (3.0-T) before surgical management. The parameters of the diffusion-weighted (DW) sequence were b-value of 1000s/mm(2); 32 directions; voxel size: 2mm isotropic; scan time: 9' The post-processing generates whole-neck constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based tractography data and super-resolution track-weighted imaging (TWI) technique...
March 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328539/polarization-sensitive-localization-based-super-resolution-microscopy-with-a-birefringent-wedge
#2
József Sinkó, Tamás Gajdos, Elvira Czvik, Gábor Szabó, Miklós Erdélyi
A practical method has been presented for polarization sensitive localization based super-resolution microscopy using a birefringent dual wedge. The measurement of the polarization degree at the single molecule level can reveal the chemical and physical properties of the local environment of the fluorescent dye molecule and can hence provide information about the sub-diffraction sized structure of biological samples. Polarization sensitive STORM imaging of the F-Actins proved correlation between the orientation of fluorescent dipoles and the axis of the fibril...
March 22, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324607/sted-imaging-in-drosophila-brain-slices
#3
Sandra Fendl, Jesús Pujol-Martí, Joel Ryan, Alexander Borst, Robert Kasper
Super-resolution microscopy is a very powerful tool to investigate fine cellular structures and molecular arrangements in biological systems. For instance, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy has been successfully used in recent years to investigate the arrangement and colocalization of different protein species in cells in culture and on the surface of specimens. However, because of its extreme sensitivity to light scattering, super-resolution imaging deep inside tissues remains a challenge. Here, we describe the preparation of thin slices from the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) brain, subsequent immunolabeling and imaging with STED microscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324598/introduction-to-modern-methods-in-light-microscopy
#4
Joel Ryan, Abby R Gerhold, Vincent Boudreau, Lydia Smith, Paul S Maddox
For centuries, light microscopy has been a key method in biological research, from the early work of Robert Hooke describing biological organisms as cells, to the latest in live-cell and single-molecule systems. Here, we introduce some of the key concepts related to the development and implementation of modern microscopy techniques. We briefly discuss the basics of optics in the microscope, super-resolution imaging, quantitative image analysis, live-cell imaging, and provide an outlook on active research areas pertaining to light microscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323277/an-alternative-polysaccharide-uptake-mechanism-of-marine-bacteria
#5
Greta Reintjes, Carol Arnosti, Bernhard M Fuchs, Rudolf Amann
Heterotrophic microbial communities process much of the carbon fixed by phytoplankton in the ocean, thus having a critical role in the global carbon cycle. A major fraction of the phytoplankton-derived substrates are high-molecular-weight (HMW) polysaccharides. For bacterial uptake, these substrates must initially be hydrolysed to smaller sizes by extracellular enzymes. We investigated polysaccharide hydrolysis by microbial communities during a transect of the Atlantic Ocean, and serendipitously discovered-using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy-that up to 26% of total cells showed uptake of fluorescently labelled polysaccharides (FLA-PS)...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320682/deformable-registration-based-super-resolution-for-isotropic-reconstruction-of-4d-mri-volumes
#6
Geetha Soujanya Chilla, Cher Heng Tan, Chueh Loo Poh
Multi-plane super-resolution (SR) has been widely employed for resolution improvement of MR images. However, this has mostly been limited to MRI acquisitions with rigid motion. In cases of non-rigid motion, volumes are usually pre-registered using deformable registration methods before SR reconstruction. The pre-registered images are then used as input for the SR reconstruction. Since deformable registration involves smoothening of the inputs, using pre-registered inputs could lead to loss in information in SR reconstructions...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319616/dna-probes-for-monitoring-dynamic-and-transient-molecular-encounters-on-live-cell-membranes
#7
Mingxu You, Yifan Lyu, Da Han, Liping Qiu, Qiaoling Liu, Tao Chen, Cuichen Sam Wu, Lu Peng, Liqin Zhang, Gang Bao, Weihong Tan
Cells interact with the extracellular environment through molecules expressed on the membrane. Disruption of these membrane-bound interactions (or encounters) can result in disease progression. Advances in super-resolution microscopy have allowed membrane encounters to be examined, however, these methods cannot image entire membranes and cannot provide information on the dynamic interactions between membrane-bound molecules. Here, we show a novel DNA probe that can transduce transient membrane encounter events into readable cumulative fluorescence signals...
March 20, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317930/achromatic-light-patterning-and-improved-image-reconstruction-for-parallelized-resolft-nanoscopy
#8
Andriy Chmyrov, Marcel Leutenegger, Tim Grotjohann, Andreas Schönle, Jan Keller-Findeisen, Lars Kastrup, Stefan Jakobs, Gerald Donnert, Steffen J Sahl, Stefan W Hell
Fluorescence microscopy is rapidly turning into nanoscopy. Among the various nanoscopy methods, the STED/RESOLFT super-resolution family has recently been expanded to image even large fields of view within a few seconds. This advance relies on using light patterns featuring substantial arrays of intensity minima for discerning features by switching their fluorophores between 'on' and 'off' states of fluorescence. Here we show that splitting the light with a grating and recombining it in the focal plane of the objective lens renders arrays of minima with wavelength-independent periodicity...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315485/quantifying-transcription-factor-binding-dynamics-at-the-single-molecule-level-in-live-cells
#9
Diego M Presman, David A Ball, Ville Paakinaho, Jonathan B Grimm, Luke D Lavis, Tatiana S Karpova, Gordon L Hager
Progressive, technological achievements in the quantitative fluorescence microscopy field are allowing researches from many different areas to start unraveling the dynamic intricacies of biological processes inside living cells. From super-resolution microscopy techniques to tracking of individual proteins, fluorescence microscopy is changing our perspective on how the cell works. Fortunately, a growing number of research groups are exploring single-molecule studies in living cells. However, no clear consensus exists on several key aspects of the technique such as image acquisition conditions, or analysis of the obtained data...
March 14, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306243/optical-super-resolution-imaging-of-surface-reactions
#10
Tao Chen, Bin Dong, Kuangcai Chen, Fei Zhao, Xiaodong Cheng, Changbei Ma, Seungah Lee, Peng Zhang, Seong Ho Kang, Ji Won Ha, Weilin Xu, Ning Fang
Optical super-resolution imaging has gained momentum in investigations of heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions at the single-molecule level. Thanks to its exceptional spatial resolution and ability to monitor dynamic systems, much detailed information on single-molecule reaction/adsorption processes and single-particle catalytic processes has been revealed, including chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics; active-site distributions on single-particle surfaces; and size-, shape-, and facet-dependent catalytic activities of individual nanocatalysts...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303936/all-passive-pixel-super-resolution-of-time-stretch-imaging
#11
Antony C S Chan, Ho-Cheung Ng, Sharat C V Bogaraju, Hayden K H So, Edmund Y Lam, Kevin K Tsia
Based on image encoding in a serial-temporal format, optical time-stretch imaging entails a stringent requirement of state-of-the-art fast data acquisition unit in order to preserve high image resolution at an ultrahigh frame rate - hampering the widespread utilities of such technology. Here, we propose a pixel super-resolution (pixel-SR) technique tailored for time-stretch imaging that preserves pixel resolution at a relaxed sampling rate. It harnesses the subpixel shifts between image frames inherently introduced by asynchronous digital sampling of the continuous time-stretch imaging process...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301741/mechanisms-of-autophagy-initiation
#12
James H Hurley, Lindsey N Young
Autophagy is the process of cellular self-eating by a double-membrane organelle, the autophagosome. A range of signaling processes converge on two protein complexes to initiate autophagy: the ULK1 (unc51-like autophagy activating kinase 1) protein kinase complex and the PI3KC3- C1 (class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I) lipid kinase complex. Some 90% of the mass of these large protein complexes consists of noncatalytic domains and subunits, and the ULK1 complex has essential noncatalytic activities...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301563/nicolase-an-open-source-diode-laser-combiner-fiber-launch-and-sequencing-controller-for-fluorescence-microscopy
#13
Philip R Nicovich, James Walsh, Till Böcking, Katharina Gaus
Modern fluorescence microscopy requires software-controlled illumination sources with high power across a wide range of wavelengths. Diode lasers meet the power requirements and combining multiple units into a single fiber launch expands their capability across the required spectral range. We present the NicoLase, an open-source diode laser combiner, fiber launch, and software sequence controller for fluorescence microscopy and super-resolution microscopy applications. Two configurations are described, giving four or six output wavelengths and one or two single-mode fiber outputs, with all CAD files, machinist drawings, and controller source code openly available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297674/nanoscale-structural-plasticity-of-the-active-zone-matrix-modulates-presynaptic-function
#14
Oleg O Glebov, Rachel E Jackson, Christian M Winterflood, Dylan M Owen, Ellen A Barker, Patrick Doherty, Helge Ewers, Juan Burrone
The active zone (AZ) matrix of presynaptic terminals coordinates the recruitment of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and synaptic vesicles to orchestrate neurotransmitter release. However, the spatial organization of the AZ and how it controls vesicle fusion remain poorly understood. Here, we employ super-resolution microscopy and ratiometric imaging to visualize the AZ structure on the nanoscale, revealing segregation between the AZ matrix, VGCCs, and putative release sites. Long-term blockade of neuronal activity leads to reversible AZ matrix unclustering and presynaptic actin depolymerization, allowing for enrichment of AZ machinery...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293874/diversity-of-actin-architecture-in-human-osteoclasts-network-of-curved-and-branched-actin-supporting-cell-shape-and-intercellular-micrometer-level-tubes
#15
Paula Pennanen, Maria Helena Alanne, Elnaz Fazeli, Takahiro Deguchi, Tuomas Näreoja, Sirkku Peltonen, Juha Peltonen
Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells with a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Osteoclasts are derived from circulating mononuclear precursors. Confocal and stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy was used to investigate peripheral blood-derived human osteoclasts cultured on glass surfaces. STED and confocal microscopy demonstrated that the actin was curved and branched, for instance, in the vicinity of membrane ruffles. The overall architecture of the curved actin network extended from the podosomes to the top of the cell...
March 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292851/new-insights-into-protein-secretion-tango1-runs-rings-around-the-copii-coat
#16
Benjamin S Glick
In this issue, Liu et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201611088) and Raote et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201608080) use super-resolution microscopy to visualize large COPII-coated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export carriers. Rings of TANGO1 surround COPII, implicating TANGO1 in organizing ER exit sites and in regulating COPII coat dynamics and geometry.
March 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289085/the-small-protein-sgrt-controls-transport-activity-of-the-glucose-specific-phosphotransferase-system
#17
Chelsea R Lloyd, Seongjin Park, Jingyi Fei, Carin K Vanderpool
The bacterial small RNA (sRNA) SgrS has been a fruitful model for discovery of novel RNA-based regulatory mechanisms and new facets of bacterial physiology and metabolism. SgrS is one of only a few characterized dual-function sRNAs. SgrS can control gene expression post-transcriptionally via sRNA-mRNA base pairing interactions. Its second function is coding for the small protein SgrT. Previous work demonstrated that both functions contribute to relief of growth inhibition caused by glucose-phosphate stress, a condition characterized by disrupted glycolytic flux and accumulation of sugar-phosphates...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288122/genetically-encoded-biosensors-for-visualizing-live-cell-biochemical-activity-at-super-resolution
#18
Gary C H Mo, Brian Ross, Fabian Hertel, Premashis Manna, Xinxing Yang, Eric Greenwald, Chris Booth, Ashlee M Plummer, Brian Tenner, Zan Chen, Yuxiao Wang, Eileen J Kennedy, Philip A Cole, Karen G Fleming, Amy Palmer, Ralph Jimenez, Jie Xiao, Peter Dedecker, Jin Zhang
Compartmentalized biochemical activities are essential to all cellular processes, but there is no generalizable method to visualize dynamic protein activities in living cells at a resolution commensurate with cellular compartmentalization. Here, we introduce a new class of fluorescent biosensors that detect biochemical activities in living cells at a resolution up to threefold better than the diffraction limit. These 'FLINC' biosensors use binding-induced changes in protein fluorescence dynamics to translate kinase activities or protein-protein interactions into changes in fluorescence fluctuations, which are quantifiable through stochastic optical fluctuation imaging...
March 13, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287710/single-molecule-localization-microscopy-in-eukaryotes
#19
Markus Sauer, Mike Heilemann
Super-resolution fluorescence imaging by photoactivation or photoswitching of single fluorophores and position determination (single-molecule localization microscopy, SMLM) provides microscopic images with subdiffraction spatial resolution. This technology has enabled new insights into how proteins are organized in a cellular context, with a spatial resolution approaching virtually the molecular level. A unique strength of SMLM is that it delivers molecule-resolved information, along with super-resolved images of cellular structures...
March 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287167/quantum-correlation-enhanced-super-resolution-localization-microscopy-enabled-by-a-fibre-bundle-camera
#20
Yonatan Israel, Ron Tenne, Dan Oron, Yaron Silberberg
Despite advances in low-light-level detection, single-photon methods such as photon correlation have rarely been used in the context of imaging. The few demonstrations, for example of subdiffraction-limited imaging utilizing quantum statistics of photons, have remained in the realm of proof-of-principle demonstrations. This is primarily due to a combination of low values of fill factors, quantum efficiencies, frame rates and signal-to-noise characteristic of most available single-photon sensitive imaging detectors...
March 13, 2017: Nature Communications
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