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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100664/rab1-interacts-with-golph3-and-controls-golgi-structure-and-contractile-ring-constriction-during-cytokinesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Stefano Sechi, Anna Frappaolo, Roberta Fraschini, Luisa Capalbo, Marco Gottardo, Giorgio Belloni, David M Glover, Alan Wainman, Maria Grazia Giansanti
Cytokinesis requires a tight coordination between actomyosin ring constriction and new membrane addition along the ingressing cleavage furrow. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vesicle trafficking to the equatorial site and how this process is coupled with the dynamics of the contractile apparatus are poorly defined. Here we provide evidence for the requirement of Rab1 during cleavage furrow ingression in cytokinesis. We demonstrate that the gene omelette (omt) encodes the Drosophila orthologue of human Rab1 and is required for successful cytokinesis in both mitotic and meiotic dividing cells of Drosophila melanogaster We show that Rab1 protein colocalizes with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex Cog7 subunit and the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate effector GOLPH3 at the Golgi stacks...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098556/genetic-defects-in-%C3%AE-spectrin-and-tau-sensitize-c-elegans-axons-to-movement-induced-damage-via-torque-tension-coupling
#2
Michael Krieg, Jan Stühmer, Juan G Cueva, Richard Fetter, Kerri A Spliker, Daniel Cremers, Kang Shen, Alexander R Dunn, Miriam B Goodman
Our bodies are in constant motion and so are the neurons that invade each tissue. Motion-induced neuron deformation and damage are associated with several neurodegenerative conditions. Here, we investigated the question of how the neuronal cytoskeleton protects axons and dendrites from mechanical stress, exploiting mutations in UNC-70 β-spectrin, PTL-1 tau/MAP2-like and MEC-7 β-tubulin proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that mechanical stress induces supercoils and plectonemes in the sensory axons of spectrin and tau double mutants...
January 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096469/super-resolution-visualization-of-caveolae-deformation-in-response-to-osmotic-stress
#3
Lu Yang, Suzanne Scarlata
Caveolae are protein dense plasma membrane domains structurally composed of caveolin -1 or -3 along with other proteins. Our previous studies have shown that caveolae enhance calcium signals generated through the Gαq/phospholipase Cβ signaling pathway, and that subjecting cells to hypo-osmotic stress reverses this enhancement. In this study, we have used super-resolution fluorescence microscopy supplemented by fluorescence correlation studies to determine the structural factors that underlie this behavior...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095792/multi-contrast-brain-magnetic-resonance-image-super-resolution-using-the-local-weight-similarity
#4
Hong Zheng, Xiaobo Qu, Zhengjian Bai, Yunsong Liu, Di Guo, Jiyang Dong, Xi Peng, Zhong Chen
BACKGROUND: Low-resolution images may be acquired in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to limited data acquisition time or other physical constraints, and their resolutions can be improved with super-resolution methods. Since MRI can offer images of an object with different contrasts, e.g., T1-weighted or T2-weighted, the shared information between inter-contrast images can be used to benefit super-resolution. METHODS: In this study, an MRI image super-resolution approach to enhance in-plane resolution is proposed by exploring the statistical information estimated from another contrast MRI image that shares similar anatomical structures...
January 17, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094292/chromatin-organization-revealed-by-nanostructure-of-irradiation-induced-%C3%AE-h2ax-53bp1-and-rad51-foci
#5
Judith Reindl, Stefanie Girst, Dietrich W M Walsh, Christoph Greubel, Benjamin Schwarz, Christian Siebenwirth, Guido A Drexler, Anna A Friedl, Günther Dollinger
The spatial distribution of DSB repair factors γH2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51 in ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF) in HeLa cells using super resolution STED nanoscopy after low and high linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation was investigated. 53BP1 and γH2AX form IRIF with same mean size of (540 ± 40) nm after high LET irradiation while the size after low LET irradiation is significantly smaller. The IRIF of both repair factors show nanostructures with partial anti-correlation. These structures are related to domains formed within the chromatin territories marked by γH2AX while 53BP1 is mainly situated in the perichromatin region...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093559/gradation-approx-10-size-states-of-synaptic-strength-by-quantal-addition-of-structural-modules
#6
Kang K L Liu, Michael F Hagan, John E Lisman
Memory storage involves activity-dependent strengthening of synaptic transmission, a process termed long-term potentiation (LTP). The late phase of LTP is thought to encode long-term memory and involves structural processes that enlarge the synapse. Hence, understanding how synapse size is graded provides fundamental information about the information storage capability of synapses. Recent work using electron microscopy (EM) to quantify synapse dimensions has suggested that synapses may structurally encode as many as 26 functionally distinct states, which correspond to a series of proportionally spaced synapse sizes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093558/glutamatergic-synapses-are-structurally-and-biochemically-complex-because-of-multiple-plasticity-processes-long-term-potentiation-long-term-depression-short-term-potentiation-and-scaling
#7
REVIEW
John Lisman
Synapses are complex because they perform multiple functions, including at least six mechanistically different forms of plasticity. Here, I comment on recent developments regarding these processes. (i) Short-term potentiation (STP), a Hebbian process that requires small amounts of synaptic input, appears to make strong contributions to some forms of working memory. (ii) The rules for long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in CA3 have been clarified: induction does not depend obligatorily on backpropagating sodium spikes but, rather, on dendritic branch-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) spikes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093299/freeze-concentration-induced-plga-and-polystyrene-nanoparticle-aggregation-imaging-and-rational-design-of-lyoprotection
#8
Lin Niu, Jayanth Panyam
Long-term storage of stable nanoparticulate systems is critical to the utilization of nanotechnology in biomedical applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is the most commonly used approach to preparing stable injectable nano formulations. A detailed understanding of the freezing stress on nanoparticles is essential to the successful preservation of original particle attributes and to the development of reliable lyophilization processes. However, visualization of the freezing process and the underlying mechanisms that result in particle aggregation remains challenging...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092557/single-image-super-resolution-using-global-regression-based-on-multiple-local-linear-mappings
#9
Jae-Seok Choi, Munchurl Kim
Super-resolution (SR) has become more vital, because of its capability to generate high-quality ultra-high definition (UHD) high-resolution (HR) images from low-resolution (LR) input images. Conventional SR methods entail high computational complexity, which makes them difficult to be implemented for up-scaling of full-high-definition (FHD) input images into UHD-resolution images. Nevertheless, our previous super-interpolation (SI) method showed a good compromise between PSNR performances and computational complexity...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092535/super-resolution-person-re-identification-with-semi-coupled-low-rank-discriminant-dictionary-learning
#10
Xiao-Yuan Jing, Xiaoke Zhu, Fei Wu, Ruimin Hu, Xinge You, Yunhong Wang, Hui Feng, Jing-Yu Yang
Person re-identification has been widely studied due to its importance in surveillance and forensics applications. In practice, gallery images are high-resolution (HR) while probe images are usually low-resolution (LR) in the identification scenarios with large variation of illumination, weather or quality of cameras. Person re-identification in this kind of scenarios, which we call super-resolution (SR) person re-identification, has not been well studied. In this paper, we propose a semi-coupled low-rank discriminant dictionary learning (SLD2L) approach for SR person re-identification task...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081069/photoacoustic-imaging-of-sub-diffraction-objects-with-spectral-contrast
#11
Sophinese Iskander-Rizk, Pieter Kruizinga, Geert Springeling, Hendrik J Vos, Antonius F W van der Steen, Gijs van Soest
Photoacoustic imaging couples the chemical specificity of optical absorption with the viewing depth of ultrasound. Systems based on linear array transducers have the versatility to be applied in various (pre-) clinical scenarios but face a trade-off between viewing depth and image resolution depending on transducer frequency and aperture. We propose here a method to disentangle, with precision, small, closely spaced targets with optical spectral contrast, without impairing the imaging depth. Photoacoustic data sets were recorded at two different optical wavelengths...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079054/local-dimensionality-determines-imaging-speed-in-localization-microscopy
#12
Patrick Fox-Roberts, Richard Marsh, Karin Pfisterer, Asier Jayo, Maddy Parsons, Susan Cox
Localization microscopy allows biological samples to be imaged at a length scale of tens of nanometres. Live-cell super-resolution imaging is rare, as it is generally assumed to be too slow for dynamic samples. The speed of data acquisition can be optimized by tuning the density of activated fluorophores in each time frame. Here, we show that the maximum achievable imaging speed for a particular structure varies by orders of magnitude, depending on the sample dimensionality (that is, whether the sample is more like a point, a strand or an extended structure such as a focal adhesion)...
January 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074833/shifting-molecular-localization-by-plasmonic-coupling-in-a-single-molecule-mirage
#13
Mario Raab, Carolin Vietz, Fernando Daniel Stefani, Guillermo Pedro Acuna, Philip Tinnefeld
Over the last decade, two fields have dominated the attention of sub-diffraction photonics research: plasmonics and fluorescence nanoscopy. Nanoscopy based on single-molecule localization offers a practical way to explore plasmonic interactions with nanometre resolution. However, this seemingly straightforward technique may retrieve false positional information. Here, we make use of the DNA origami technique to both control a nanometric separation between emitters and a gold nanoparticle, and as a platform for super-resolution imaging based on single-molecule localization...
January 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073939/nanoscale-molecular-reorganization-of-the-inhibitory-postsynaptic-density-is-a-determinant-of-gabaergic-synaptic-potentiation
#14
Francesca Pennacchietti, Sebastiano Vascon, Thierry Nieus, Christian Rosillo, Sabyasachi Das, Shiva Tyagarajan, Alberto Diaspro, Alessio Del Bue, Enrica Maria Petrini, Andrea Barberis, Francesca Cella Zanacchi
: Gephyrin is a key scaffold protein mediating the anchoring of GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses. Here we exploited super-resolution techniques combined with proximity-based clustering analysis and model simulations to investigate the single molecule gephyrin reorganization during plasticity of inhibitory synapses in mouse hippocampal cultured neurons. This approach revealed that during the expression of inhibitory long-term potentiation the increase of gephyrin density at postsynaptic sites is associated with the promoted formation of gephyrin nano-domains...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073262/fluorescence-self-quenching-from-reporter-dyes-informs-on-the-structural-properties-of-amyloid-clusters-formed-in-vitro-and-in-cells
#15
WeiYue Chen, Laurence J Young, Meng Lu, Alessio Zaccone, Florian Ströhl, Na Yu, Gabriele S Kaminski Schierle, Clemens F Kaminski
The characterization of the aggregation kinetics of protein amyloids and the structural properties of the ensuing aggregates are vital in the study of the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases and the discovery of therapeutic targets. In this article, we show that the fluorescence lifetime of synthetic dyes covalently attached to amyloid proteins informs on the structural properties of amyloid clusters formed both in vitro and in cells. We demonstrate that the mechanism behind such a "lifetime sensor" of protein aggregation is based on fluorescence self-quenching and that it offers a good dynamic range to report on various stages of aggregation without significantly perturbing the process under investigation...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072383/reconstructing-contralateral-fiber-tracts-methodological-aspects-of-cerebello-thalamocortical-pathway-reconstruction
#16
Fulvia Palesi, Jacques-Donald Tournier, F Calamante, Nils Muhlert, Gloria Castellazzi, Declan Chard, E D'Angelo, Claudia Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
The identification of pathways connecting the cerebral cortex with subcortical structures is critical to understanding how large-scale brain networks operate. The cerebellum, for example, is known to project numerous axonal bundles to thecerebral cortex passing through the thalamus. This paper focuses on the technical details of cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway reconstruction using advanced diffusion MRI techniques in humans in vivo. Pathways reconstructed using seed/target placement on super-resolution maps, created with track density imaging (TDI), were compared with those reconstructed by defining regions of interest (ROIs) on non-diffusion weighted images (b0)...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069705/multilevel-analyses-of-scn5a-mutations-in-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-dysplasia-cardiomyopathy-suggest-non-canonical-mechanisms-for-disease-pathogenesis
#17
Anneline S J M Te Riele, Esperanza Agullo-Pascual, Cynthia A James, Alejandra Leo-Macias, Marina Cerrone, Mingliang Zhang, Xianming Lin, Bin Lin, Nara L Sobreira, Nuria Amat-Alarcon, Roos F Marsman, Brittney Murray, Crystal Tichnell, Jeroen F van der Heijden, Dennis Dooijes, Toon A B van Veen, Harikrishna Tandri, Steven J Fowler, Richard N W Hauer, Gordon Tomaselli, Maarten P van den Berg, Matthew R G Taylor, Francesca Brun, Gianfranco Sinagra, Arthur A M Wilde, Luisa Mestroni, Connie R Bezzina, Hugh Calkins, J Peter van Tintelen, Lei Bu, Mario Delmar, Daniel P Judge
AIMS: Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is often associated with desmosomal mutations. Recent studies suggest an interaction between the desmosome and sodium channel protein Nav1.5. We aimed to determine the prevalence and biophysical properties of mutations in SCN5A (the gene encoding Nav1.5) in ARVD/C. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in six ARVD/C patients (33% male, 38.2 ± 12.1 years) without a desmosomal mutation...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069429/the-nuclear-rna-binding-protein-rbp33-influences-mrna-and-spliced-leader-rna-abundance-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#18
Olivera Cirovic, Roman Trikin, Anneliese Hoffmann, Nicholas Doiron, Martin Jakob, Torsten Ochsenreiter
RNA recognition motif (RRM) containing proteins are important regulators of gene expression in trypanosomes. Here we expand our current knowledge on the exclusively nuclear localized RRM domain containing protein RBP33 of Trypanosoma brucei. Overexpression of RBP33 leads to a quick growth arrest in G2/M in bloodstream form cells likely due to an overall mRNA- and spliced leader abundance decrease while the ribosomal RNAs remain unaffected. The recombinant RBP33 binds to poly(A) and random sequence RNA in vitro confirming its role as a RNA binding protein...
January 6, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067354/heparin-acts-as-a-structural-component-of-%C3%AE-endorphin-amyloid-fibrils-rather-than-a-simple-aggregation-promoter
#19
N Nespovitaya, P Mahou, R F Laine, G S Kaminski Schierle, C F Kaminski
The aggregation promoter heparin is commonly used to study the aggregation kinetics and biophysical properties of protein amyloids. However, the underlying mechanism for amyloid promotion by heparin remains poorly understood. In the case of the neuropeptide β-endorphin that can reversibly adopt a functional amyloid form in nature, aggregation in the presence of heparin leads to a loss of function. Applying correlative optical super-resolution microscopy methods, we show that heparin incorporates into emerging β-endorphin fibrils forming an integral component and is essential for amyloid templating...
January 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066844/tight-graph-framelets-for-sparse-diffusion-mri-q-space-representation
#20
Pew-Thian Yap, Bin Dong, Yong Zhang, Dinggang Shen
In diffusion MRI, the outcome of estimation problems can often be improved by taking into account the correlation of diffusion-weighted images scanned with neighboring wavevectors in q-space. For this purpose, we propose in this paper to employ tight wavelet frames constructed on non-flat domains for multi-scale sparse representation of diffusion signals. This representation is well suited for signals sampled regularly or irregularly, such as on a grid or on multiple shells, in q-space. Using spectral graph theory, the frames are constructed based on quasi-affine systems (i...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
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