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Thomas J Younts, Hannah R Monday, Barna Dudok, Matthew E Klein, Bryen A Jordan, István Katona, Pablo E Castillo
Long-term changes of neurotransmitter release are critical for proper brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. While protein synthesis is crucial for the consolidation of postsynaptic plasticity, whether and how protein synthesis regulates presynaptic plasticity in the mature mammalian brain remain unclear. Here, using paired whole-cell recordings in rodent hippocampal slices, we report that presynaptic protein synthesis is required for long-term, but not short-term, plasticity of GABA release from type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-expressing axons...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Nirod Kumar Sarangi, K G Ayappa, Sandhya S Visweswariah, Jaydeep Kumar Basu
Cell membranes are believed to be highly complex dynamical systems having compositional heterogeneity involving several types of lipids and proteins as the major constituents. This dynamical and compositional heterogeneity is suggested to be critical to the maintenance of active functionality and response to chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal stresses. However, delineating the various factors responsible for the spatio-temporal response of actual cell membranes to stresses can be quite challenging...
October 20, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shilpi Yadav, Jonathan K Williamson, Maria A Aronova, Andrew A Prince, Irina D Pokrovskaya, Richard D Leapman, Brian Storrie
Platelets are small, anucleate cell fragments that are central to hemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammation. They are derived from megakaryocytes from which they inherit their organelles. As platelets can synthesize proteins and contain many of the enzymes of the secretory pathway, one might expect all mature human platelets to contain a stacked Golgi apparatus, the central organelle of the secretory pathway. By thin section electron microscopy, stacked membranes resembling the stacked Golgi compartment in megakaryocytes and other nucleated cells can be detected in both proplatelets and platelets...
October 18, 2016: Platelets
Nelson F Velasco, Andrea Rueda, Cristina Santa Marta, Eduardo Romero
High-quality Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images can be hardly obtained when intrinsic noise sources are present, namely heart and breathing movements. Yet heart images may be acquired in real time, the image quality is really limited and most sequences use ECG gating to capture images at each stage of the cardiac cycle during several heart beats. This paper presents a novel super-resolution algorithm that improves the cardiac image quality using a sparse Bayesian approach. The high-resolution version of the cardiac image is constructed by combining the information of the low-resolution series -observations from different non-orthogonal series composed of anisotropic voxels- with a prior distribution of the high-resolution local coefficients that enforces sparsity...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Takahiro Ogawa, Miki Haseyama
This paper presents adaptive subspace-based inverse projections via division into multiple sub-problems (ASIP-DIMS) for missing image data restoration. In the proposed method, a target problem for estimating missing image data is divided into multiple sub-problems, and each sub-problem is iteratively solved with constraints of other known image data. By projection into a subspace model of image patches, the solution of each subproblem is calculated, where we call this procedure "subspacebased inverse projection" for simplicity...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Wen-Liang Gong, Jie Yan, Ling-Xi Zhao, Chong Li, Zhen-Li Huang, Ben Zhong Tang, Ming-Qiang Zhu
Photoswitchable fluorophores are promising in single-molecule optical devices and super-resolution fluorescence imaging, especially in single-molecule photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) or stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). However, the scarcity of current photoswitchable fluorophores stimulates researchers to develop complicated optical systems and processing software, in accordance with the limited photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and organic fluorophores. Previous efforts to develop synthetic photoswitchable fluorophores have exhibited their promising potential in super-resolution fluorescence imaging...
October 14, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Manuel Maidorn, Silvio O Rizzoli, Felipe Opazo
The synapse is densely packed with proteins involved in various highly regulated processes. Synaptic protein copy numbers and their stoichiometric distribution have a drastic influence on neuronal integrity and function. Therefore, the molecular analysis of synapses is a key element to understand their architecture and function. The overall structure of the synapse has been revealed with an exquisite amount of details by electron microscopy. However, the molecular composition and the localization of proteins are more easily addressed with fluorescence imaging, especially with the improved resolution achieved by super-resolution microscopy techniques...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Mako Kamiya
 Fluorescence imaging is one of the most powerful techniques currently available for continuous observation of intracellular processes in living cells and tissues, and so it would be useful to have a large toolset of fluorescence probes suitable for visualizing bioactive molecules or biological phenomena. However, design strategies for small molecule-based fluorescence probes have been limited. Therefore, we are interested in establishing novel rational design strategies for developing functional fluorescence probes...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Hefei Ruan, Jianqiang Yu, Jinghe Yuan, Nan Li, Xiaohong Fang
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type II receptor (TβRII) plays a critical role in the initiation of TGF-β signaling pathway, therefore the study of its synthesis and transport processes is of great important. In this work, we have achieved the super-resolution imaging of a new type of TβRII-containing post-Golgi vesicle by our home-built stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope. We visualized the ring-shaped structure of these vesicles containing newly synthesized TβRII in the cytoplasm, and characterized their size distribution from 300 nm to 1000 nm...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Sebastián A Díaz, Florencia Gillanders, Kimihiro Susumo, Eunkeu Oh, Igor L Medintz, Thomas M Jovin
Photoswitchable probes are of great utility in fluorescence microscopy, permitting numerous determinations, including molecular localization for super-resolution, based on their modifiable emission intensity and spectra. We have coated a blue (425 nm) emitting quantum dot (QD) with a diheteroarylethene photochrome (PCf), the closed form isomer of which has absorption and emission maxima at 440 and 520-530 nm, respectively, and thus functions as a fluorescent acceptor for the QD donor in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
October 9, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Adam S Backer, Maurice Y Lee, W E Moerner
Single-molecule orientation measurements provide unparalleled insight into a multitude of biological and polymeric systems. We report a simple, high-throughput technique for measuring the azimuthal orientation and rotational dynamics of single fluorescent molecules, which is compatible with localization microscopy. Our method involves modulating the polarization of an excitation laser, and analyzing the corresponding intensities emitted by single dye molecules and their modulation amplitudes. To demonstrate our approach, we use intercalating and groove-binding dyes to obtain super-resolved images of stretched DNA strands through binding-induced turn-on of fluorescence...
2016: Optica
Christian Schou Oxvig, Thomas Arildsen, Torben Larsen
The use of compressed sensing in atomic force microscopy (AFM) can potentially speed-up image acquisition, lower probe-specimen interaction, or enable super resolution imaging. The idea in compressed sensing for AFM is to spatially undersample the specimen, i.e. only acquire a small fraction of the full image of it, and then use advanced computational techniques to reconstruct the remaining part of the image whenever this is possible. Our initial experiments have shown that it is possible to leverage inherent structure in acquired AFM images to improve image reconstruction...
September 21, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
Guido Wabnitz, Emre Balta, Yvonne Samstag
T-cells need to be tightly regulated during their activation and effector phase to assure an appropriate defence against cancer or pathogens and - vice versa - to avoid autoimmune reactions. Regulatory signals are provided via the immune synapse between T-cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or target cells. The stability and kinetics of immune synapse formation is critical for proper T-cell functions. It requires dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton necessary for organized spatio-temporal redistribution of receptors and adhesion molecules...
September 27, 2016: Advances in Biological Regulation
Yuanzhao Ding, Yufan Zhou, Juan Yao, Craig Szymanski, James K Fredrickson, Liang Shi, Bin Cao, Zihua Zhu, Xiao-Ying Yu
Molecular mapping of live biofilms at submicron resolution presents a grand challenge. Here, we present the first chemical mapping results of biofilm extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) components in biofilms using correlative imaging be-tween super resolution florescence microscopy and liquid time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). She-wanella oneidensis is used as a model organism. Heavy metal anions chromate (Cr2O72-) consisting of chromium Cr (VI) was a model environmental stressor used to treat the biofilms...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Ruslan Stanika, Marta Campiglio, Alexandra Pinggera, Amy Lee, Jörg Striessnig, Bernhard E Flucher, Gerald J Obermair
Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic compartments of glutamatergic synapses in the brain. Their number and shape are subject to change in synaptic plasticity and neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease. The L-type calcium channel CaV1.3 constitutes an important calcium entry pathway implicated in the regulation of spine morphology. Here we investigated the importance of full-length CaV1.3L and two C-terminally truncated splice variants (CaV1.342A and CaV1.343S) and their modulation by densin-180 and shank1b for the morphology of dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jason Yi, Asit Manna, Valarie A Barr, Jennifer Hong, Keir C Neuman, Lawrence E Samelson
Investigation of heterogeneous cellular structures using single molecule localization microscopy has been limited by poorly defined localization accuracy and inadequate multiplexing capacity. Utilizing fluorescent nano-diamonds as fiducial markers, we define and achieve localization precision required for single molecule accuracy in dSTORM images. Coupled with this advance, our new multiplexing strategy, madSTORM allows accurate targeting of multiple molecules using sequential binding and elution of fluorescent antibodies...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Sebastian Malkusch, Mike Heilemann
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revolutionizes cell biology research and provides novel insights on how proteins are organized at the nanoscale and in the cellular context. In order to extract a maximum of information, specialized tools for image analysis are necessary. Here, we introduce the LocAlization Microscopy Analyzer (LAMA), a comprehensive software tool that extracts quantitative information from single-molecule super-resolution imaging data. LAMA allows characterizing cellular structures by their size, shape, intensity, distribution, as well as the degree of colocalization with other structures...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Haie Zhu, Wen Fan, Shuxue Zhou, Min Chen, Limin Wu
Optical microscope is widely used real-time investigation tool, but usually suffers from low resolution due to Abbe diffraction limit. Herein, we design and successfully synthesize ZrO2/polymer hybrid colloidal microspheres with as high as 47.5 wt% inorganic nanoparticles by suspension polymerization of 9,9'-bis[4-(2-acryloyloxyethyloxy) phenyl] fluorene (BAEPF). Owing to the homogeneous dispersion, high density and high refractive index of inorganic nanoparticles and deformability of polymer, the obtained ZrO2/poly(BAEPF) hybrid colloidal microspheres have high refractive index, optical transparency and controllable curvature, and thus can be directly used as a hybrid solid immersion lens (hSIL) for optical microscope, achieving super-resolution imaging of 50 nm even 45 nm under a standard white light or blue light optical microscopes, which is far beyond the diffraction limit for visible light optical microscopes...
October 4, 2016: ACS Nano
Julie Hamaide, Geert De Groof, Gwendolyn Van Steenkiste, Ben Jeurissen, Johan Van Audekerke, Maarten Naeyaert, Lisbeth Van Ruijssevelt, Charlotte Cornil, Jan Sijbers, Marleen Verhoye, Annemie Van der Linden
Zebra finches are an excellent model to study the process of vocal learning, a complex socially-learned tool of communication that forms the basis of spoken human language. So far, structural investigation of the zebra finch brain has been performed ex vivo using invasive methods such as histology. These methods are highly specific, however, they strongly interfere with performing whole-brain analyses and exclude longitudinal studies aimed at establishing causal correlations between neuroplastic events and specific behavioral performances...
September 30, 2016: NeuroImage
Emily J Guggenheim, Abdullah Khan, Jeremy Pike, Lynne Chang, Iseult Lynch, Joshua Z Rappoport
The potential for human exposure to manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in recent years, in part through the incorporation of engineered particles into a wide range of commercial goods and medical applications. NP are ideal candidates for use as therapeutic and diagnostic tools within biomedicine, however concern exists regarding their efficacy and safety. Thus, developing techniques for the investigation of NP uptake into cells is critically important. Current intracellular NP investigations rely on the use of either Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which provides ultrahigh resolution, but involves cumbersome sample preparation rendering the technique incompatible with live cell imaging, or fluorescent labelling, which suffers from photobleaching, poor bioconjugation and, often, alteration of NP surface properties...
2016: PloS One
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