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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914080/immobilization-techniques-of-bacteria-for-live-super-resolution-imaging-using-structured-illumination-microscopy
#1
Amy L Bottomley, Lynne Turnbull, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Elizabeth J Harry
Advancements in optical microscopy technology have allowed huge progression in the ability to understand protein structure and dynamics in live bacterial cells using fluorescence microscopy. Paramount to high-quality microscopy is good sample preparation to avoid bacterial cell movement that can result in motion blur during image acquisition. Here, we describe two techniques of sample preparation that reduce unwanted cell movement and are suitable for application to a number of bacterial species and imaging methods...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909248/regulation-of-chemokine-receptor-ccr2-recycling-by-filamin-a-phosphorylation
#2
Mònica Pons, Ismael Izquierdo, Mireia Andreu-Carbó, Georgina Garrido, Jesús Planagumà, Olivia Muriel, M Isabel Geli, Anna M Aragay
Proper endosomal trafficking of ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is essential to spatiotemporally tune their physiological responses. For the monocyte chemoattractant receptor 2 (CCR2B), endocytic recycling is important to sustain monocyte migration; while filamin A (FLNa) is essential for CCL2-induced monocyte migration. Here, we analyze the role of FLNa in the trafficking of CCR2B along the endocytic pathway. In FLNa knockdown cells, activated CCR2B accumulated in enlarged EEA-1-positive endosomes, which exhibited slow movement and fast fluorescence recovery, suggesting an imbalance between receptor entry and exit rates...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906373/efficient-homogeneous-illumination-and-optical-sectioning-for-quantitative-single-molecule-localization-microscopy
#3
Joran Deschamps, Andreas Rowald, Jonas Ries
Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) relies on the switching of fluorescent molecules between a fluorescent and a dark state to achieve super resolution. This process is inherently dependent on the intensity distribution of the laser light used for both activation from the dark state and excitation of the bright state. Typically, laser light is coupled directly or via a single-mode fiber into the microscope, which leads to a Gaussian intensity profile in total internal reflection (TIR) or epi illumination...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906367/cultivation-of-lemon-fields
#4
Sushanta Kumar Pal, P Senthilkumaran
The sign rule requires that adjacent singularities on a contour have opposite signs and hence cultivation of lemon only fields poses problem as all lemons have positive index. In this paper we show that the interference of three linearly polarized plane waves can create regions of ellipse and vector fields in 2-dimensions (2D) in which a lemon lattice is interlaced in a V-point lattice. The lemons appear at intensity maxima of the lattice structure while the V-points take care of index conservation by sitting at intensity minima...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906223/axial-super-resolution-evanescent-wave-tomography
#5
Sarang Pendharker, Swapnali Shende, Ward Newman, Stephen Ogg, Neda Nazemifard, Zubin Jacob
Optical tomographic reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope beyond surface imaging and achieve a tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of 3D fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905498/super-resolution-imaging-using-the-spatial-frequency-filtered-intensity-fluctuation-correlation
#6
Jane Sprigg, Tao Peng, Yanhua Shih
We report an experimental demonstration of a nonclassical imaging mechanism with super-resolving power beyond the Rayleigh limit. When the classical image is completely blurred out due to the use of a small imaging lens, by taking advantage of the intensity fluctuation correlation of thermal light, the demonstrated camera recovered the image of the resolution testing gauge. This method could be adapted to long distance imaging, such as satellite imaging, which requires large diameter camera lenses to achieve high image resolution...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897207/super-resolution-imaging-at-mid-infrared-waveband-in-graphene-nanocavity-formed-on-meta-surface
#7
Jingzhong Yang, Taisheng Wang, Zuolong Chen, Bingliang Hu, Weixing Yu
Plasmonic structured illumination microscopy (PSIM) is one of the promising wide filed optical imaging methods, which takes advantage of the surface plasmons to break the optical diffraction limit and thus to achieve a super-resolution optical image. To further improve the imaging resolution of PSIM, we propose in this work a so called graphene nanocavity on meta-surface structure (GNMS) to excite graphene surface plasmons with a deep sub-wavelength at mid-infrared waveband. It is found that surface plasmonic interference pattern with a period of around 52 nm can be achieved in graphene nanocavity formed on structured meta-surface for a 7 μm wavelength incident light...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893705/gephyrin-binding-peptides-visualize-postsynaptic-sites-and-modulate-neurotransmission
#8
Hans Michael Maric, Torben Johann Hausrat, Franziska Neubert, Nils Ole Dalby, Sören Doose, Markus Sauer, Matthias Kneussel, Kristian Strømgaard
γ-Aminobutyric acid type A and glycine receptors are the major mediators of fast synaptic inhibition in the human central nervous system and are established drug targets. However, all drugs targeting these receptors bind to the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the receptors, which inherently is associated with perturbation of the basic physiological action. Here we pursue a fundamentally different approach, by instead targeting the intracellular receptor-gephyrin interaction. First, we defined the gephyrin peptide-binding consensus sequence, which facilitated the development of gephyrin super-binding peptides and later effective affinity probes for the isolation of native gephyrin...
November 28, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893388/sparse-representation-based-multiple-frame-video-super-resolution
#9
Qiqin Dai, Seunghwan Yoo, Armin Kappeler, Aggelos K Katsaggelos
In this paper, we propose two multiple-frame superresolution (SR) algorithms based on dictionary learning and motion estimation. First, we adopt the use of video bilevel dictionary learning which has been used for single-frame SR. It is extended to multiple frames by using motion estimation with subpixel accuracy. We propose a batch and a temporally recursive multi-frame SR algorithm, which improve over single frame SR. Finally, we propose a novel dictionary learning algorithm utilizing consecutive video frames, rather than still images or individual video frames, which further improves the performance of the video SR algorithms...
November 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890922/progress-in-imaging-methods-insights-gained-into-plasmodium-biology
#10
Mariana De Niz, Paul-Christian Burda, Gesine Kaiser, Hernando A Del Portillo, Tobias Spielmann, Freddy Frischknecht, Volker T Heussler
Over the past decade, major advances in imaging techniques have enhanced our understanding of Plasmodium spp. parasites and their interplay with mammalian hosts and mosquito vectors. Cryoelectron tomography, cryo-X-ray tomography and super-resolution microscopy have shifted paradigms of sporozoite and gametocyte structure, the process of erythrocyte invasion by merozoites, and the architecture of Maurer's clefts. Intravital time-lapse imaging has been revolutionary for our understanding of pre-erythrocytic stages of rodent Plasmodium parasites...
November 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888215/super-resolution-microscopy-reveals-the-reorganization-of-glut4-on-plasma-membrane-regulated-by-insulin-resistance
#11
Lan Gao, Junling Chen, Jing Gao, Hongda Wang, Wenyong Xiong
GLUT4 is essential for glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes, which play central roles in whole-body glucose metabolism. Here, using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to investigate the characteristics of the plasma membrane (PM) fused GLUT4 at the single-molecule level, we demonstrated that insulin and insulin resistance regulated the spatial organization of GLUT4 in adipocytes. Stimulation of insulin shifted the balance of GLUT4 on the PM toward a more dispersed configuration...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886055/identification-while-scanning-of-a-multi-aircraft-formation-based-on-sparse-recovery-for-narrowband-radar
#12
Yuan Jiang, Jia Xu, Shi-Bao Peng, Er-Ke Mao, Teng Long, Ying-Ning Peng
It is known that the identification performance of a multi-aircraft formation (MAF) of narrowband radar mainly depends on the time on target (TOT). To realize the identification task in one rotated scan with limited TOT, the paper proposes a novel identification-while-scanning (IWS) method based on sparse recovery to maintain high rotating speed and super-resolution for MAF identification, simultaneously. First, a multiple chirp signal model is established for MAF in a single scan, where different aircraft may have different Doppler centers and Doppler rates...
November 23, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885259/trackntrace-a-simple-and-extendable-open-source-framework-for-developing-single-molecule-localization-and-tracking-algorithms
#13
Simon Christoph Stein, Jan Thiart
Super-resolution localization microscopy and single particle tracking are important tools for fluorescence microscopy. Both rely on detecting, and tracking, a large number of fluorescent markers using increasingly sophisticated computer algorithms. However, this rise in complexity makes it difficult to fine-tune parameters and detect inconsistencies, improve existing routines, or develop new approaches founded on established principles. We present an open-source MATLAB framework for single molecule localization, tracking and super-resolution applications...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883139/clustered-localization-of-egfrviii-in-glioblastoma-cells-as-detected-by-high-precision-localization-microscopy
#14
Philip S Boyd, Nina Struve, Margund Bach, Jan Philipp Eberle, Martin Gote, Florian Schock, Christoph Cremer, Malte Kriegs, Michael Hausmann
For receptor tyrosine kinases supramolecular organization on the cell membrane is critical for their function. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques have offered new opportunities for the analysis of single receptor localization. Here, we analysed the cluster formation of the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), a deletion variant which is expressed in glioblastoma. The constitutively activated variant EGFRvIII is expressed in cells with an egfr gene amplification and is thought to enhance the tumorigenic potential especially of glioblastoma cells...
November 24, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883055/gapmer-cellular-internalization-by-macropinocytosis-induces-sequence-specific-gene-silencing-in-human-primary-t-cells
#15
Mobashar Hussain Urf Turabe Fazil, Seow Theng Ong, Madhavi Latha Somaraju Chalasani, Jian Hui Low, Atish Kizhakeyil, Akshay Mamidi, Carey Fang Hui Lim, Graham D Wright, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Dermot Kelleher, Navin Kumar Verma
Post-transcriptional gene silencing holds great promise in discovery research for addressing intricate biological questions and as therapeutics. While various gene silencing approaches, such as siRNA and CRISPR-Cas9 techniques, are available, these cannot be effectively applied to "hard-to-transfect" primary T-lymphocytes. The locked nucleic acid-conjugated chimeric antisense oligonucleotide, called "GapmeR", is an emerging new class of gene silencing molecule. Here, we show that GapmeR internalizes into human primary T-cells through macropinocytosis...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882627/small-photoblinking-semiconductor-polymer-dots-for-fluorescence-nanoscopy
#16
Xuanze Chen, Rongqin Li, Zhihe Liu, Kai Sun, Zezhou Sun, Danni Chen, Gaixia Xu, Peng Xi, Changfeng Wu, Yujie Sun
Two types of small photoblinking Pdots with high brightness, strong photostability, and favorable biocompatibility, are designed. Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging is achieved using these Pdots. Imaging of subcellular structures demonstrates that these small photoblinking Pdots are outstanding probes for fast, long-term super-resolution fluorescence imaging.
November 24, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881663/periodic-actin-structures-in-neuronal-axons-are-required-to-maintain-microtubules
#17
Yue Qu, Ines Hahn, Stephen Webb, Simon P Pearce, Andreas Prokop
Axons are the cable-like neuronal processes wiring the nervous system. They contain parallel bundles of microtubules as structural backbones, surrounded by regularly-spaced actin rings termed the periodic membrane skeleton (PMS). Despite being an evolutionarily-conserved, ubiquitous, highly-ordered feature of axons, the function of PMS is unknown. Here we studied PMS abundance, organisation and function, combining versatile Drosophila genetics with super-resolution microscopy and various functional readouts...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876857/smart-aggregation-imaging-for-single-molecule-localisation-with-spad-cameras
#18
Istvan Gyongy, Amy Davies, Neale A W Dutton, Rory R Duncan, Colin Rickman, Robert K Henderson, Paul A Dalgarno
Single molecule localisation microscopy (SMLM) has become an essential part of the super-resolution toolbox for probing cellular structure and function. The rapid evolution of these techniques has outstripped detector development and faster, more sensitive cameras are required to further improve localisation certainty. Single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) array cameras offer single-photon sensitivity, very high frame rates and zero readout noise, making them a potentially ideal detector for ultra-fast imaging and SMLM experiments...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875226/the-light-field-attachment-turning-a-dslr-into-a-light-field-camera-using-a-low-budget-camera-ring
#19
Yuwang Wang, Yebin Liu, Wolfgang Heidrich, Qionghai Dai
We propose a concept for a lens attachment that turns a standard DSLR camera and lens into a light field camera. The attachment consists of 8 low-resolution, low-quality side cameras arranged around the central high-quality SLR lens. Unlike most existing light field camera architectures, this design provides a high-quality 2D image mode, while simultaneously enabling a new high-quality light field mode with a large camera baseline but little added weight, cost, or bulk compared with the base DSLR camera. From an algorithmic point of view, the high-quality light field mode is made possible by a new light field super-resolution method that first improves the spatial resolution and image quality of the side cameras and then interpolates additional views as needed...
November 15, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874016/mitochondrial-growth-during-the-cell-cycle-of-trypanosoma-brucei-bloodstream-forms
#20
Martin Jakob, Anneliese Hoffmann, Simona Amodeo, Camille Peitsch, Benoît Zuber, Torsten Ochsenreiter
Mitochondrial organelles need to be replicated during cell division. Many aspects of this process have been studied in great detail, however the actual size increase and the position of organelle growth are less well understood. We use the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei that contains a single mitochondrion to study organelle biogenesis by fluorescence microscopy. From the analysis of more than 1000 T. brucei bloodstream form cells of a nonsynchronous population we conclude that the mitochondrial network mostly grows from two areas along the main organelle axis, posterior and anterior of the nucleus...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
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