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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735416/super-resolution-microscopical-localization-of-dopamine-receptors-1-and-2-in-rat-hippocampal-synaptosomes
#1
Andras G Miklosi, Giorgia Del Favero, Tanja Bulat, Harald Höger, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Doris Marko, Gert Lubec
Although dopamine receptors D1 and D2 play key roles in hippocampal function, their synaptic localization within the hippocampus has not been fully elucidated. In order to understand precise functions of pre- or postsynaptic dopamine receptors (DRs), the development of protocols to differentiate pre- and postsynaptic DRs is essential. So far, most studies on determination and quantification of DRs did not discriminate between subsynaptic localization. Therefore, the aim of the study was to generate a robust workflow for the localization of DRs...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727559/a-microfluidic-cytometer-for-complete-blood-count-with-a-3-2-megapixel-1-1-%C3%AE-m-pitch-super-resolution-image-sensor-in-65-nm-bsi-cmos
#2
Xu Liu, Xiwei Huang, Yu Jiang, Hang Xu, Jing Guo, Han Wei Hou, Mei Yan, Hao Yu
Based on a 3.2-Megapixel 1.1- μm-pitch super-resolution (SR) CMOS image sensor in a 65-nm backside-illumination process, a lens-free microfluidic cytometer for complete blood count (CBC) is demonstrated in this paper. Backside-illumination improves resolution and contrast at the device level with elimination of surface treatment when integrated with microfluidic channels. A single-frame machine-learning-based SR processing is further realized at system level for resolution correction with minimum hardware resources...
July 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725224/nanobody-technology-a-versatile-toolkit-for-microscopic-imaging-protein-protein-interaction-analysis-and-protein-function-exploration
#3
REVIEW
Els Beghein, Jan Gettemans
Over the last two decades, nanobodies or single-domain antibodies have found their way in research, diagnostics, and therapy. These antigen-binding fragments, derived from Camelid heavy chain only antibodies, possess remarkable characteristics that favor their use over conventional antibodies or fragments thereof, in selected areas of research. In this review, we assess the current status of nanobodies as research tools in diverse aspects of fundamental research. We discuss the use of nanobodies as detection reagents in fluorescence microscopy and focus on recent advances in super-resolution microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725033/interferometric-rotating-point-spread-function
#4
Wei Wang, Guohai Situ
Rotating point spread functions (PSF), such as the double helix (DH) PSF, are widely used in localization-based super-resolution imaging because of their large working depth range. In this article, we propose an interferometric DH PSF (iDH PSF) using two opposed objective lenses as in the 4Pi microscope. In the proposed iDH PSF, the super-resolution in the axial PSF is transferred to the azimuthal rotation. Moreover, we design an iDH PSF whose imaging range reaches 3 μm, which is roughly 3 times as much as that which can be obtained by using other interferometric localization-based super-resolution imaging methods...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723911/male-reproductive-system-and-spermatogenesis-of-limodromus-assimilis-paykull-1790
#5
Lea F Schubert, Stephanie Krüger, Gerald B Moritz, Veit Schubert
Based on advanced light and electron microscopy, we describe the male reproductive system and sperm development of Limodromus assimilis. The genital tract consists of pairs of uni-follicular testes, spermatic ducts with diverticula regions, seminal vesicles, accessory glands, an unpaired ejaculatory duct and an aedeagus containing an internal sac equipped with sclerotic scales. Based on their morphology, we draw conclusions about their functions. After spermatogenesis within the follicle, the spermatozoa become released from the sperm cysts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720780/parameter-determination-and-transformation-for-the-focusing-of-dielectric-microspheres-illuminated-by-optical-needle
#6
Tongnan Xia, Hanming Guo, Jinbing Hu, Songlin Zhuang
By eliminating the spherical aberrations of microsphere we derived a simple but useful formula on the focusing of dielectric microsphere. On basis of this formula, not only can researchers determine the parameters of an optical microsphere system with super-resolution, but they can also perform parameter transformation. In order to facilitate the application, the principle of parameter transformation was summarized into three kinds of case listed in Table 1, which were all demonstrated numerically with concrete examples by finite-difference time-domain method...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713589/super-resolution-imaging-in-a-multiple-layer-epid
#7
Haijian Chen, Joerg Rottmann, Stephen Sf Yip, Daniel Morf, Rony Füglistaller, Josh Star-Lack, George Zentai, Ross Berbeco
A new portal imager consisting of four vertically stacked conventional electronic portal imaging device (EPID) layers has been constructed in pursuit of improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE). We hypothesize that super-resolution (SR) imaging can also be achieved in such a system by shifting each layer laterally by half a pixel relative to the layer above. Super-resolution imaging will improve resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in megavoltage (MV) planar and cone beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) applications...
April 2017: Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712725/dynamic-organization-of-chromatin-domains-revealed-by-super-resolution-live-cell-imaging
#8
Tadasu Nozaki, Ryosuke Imai, Mai Tanbo, Ryosuke Nagashima, Sachiko Tamura, Tomomi Tani, Yasumasa Joti, Masaru Tomita, Kayo Hibino, Masato T Kanemaki, Kerstin S Wendt, Yasushi Okada, Takeharu Nagai, Kazuhiro Maeshima
The eukaryotic genome is organized within cells as chromatin. For proper information output, higher-order chromatin structures can be regulated dynamically. How such structures form and behave in various cellular processes remains unclear. Here, by combining super-resolution imaging (photoactivated localization microscopy [PALM]) and single-nucleosome tracking, we developed a nuclear imaging system to visualize the higher-order structures along with their dynamics in live mammalian cells. We demonstrated that nucleosomes form compact domains with a peak diameter of ∼160 nm and move coherently in live cells...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710421/super-resolution-surface-microscopy-of-conductors-using-magnetic-resonance
#9
Andrew J Ilott, Alexej Jerschow
The spatial resolution of traditional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques is typically dictated by the strength of the applied magnetic field gradients, resulting in hard resolution limits of the order of 20-50 μm in favorable circumstances. We demonstrate here a technique which is suitable for the interrogation of regions at specified distances below the surface of conducting objects with a resolution well below these limiting values. This approach does not rely on magnetic field gradients, but rather on the spatial variation of the radiofrequency field within a conductor...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710349/lipid-driven-nanodomains-in-giant-lipid-vesicles-are-fluid-and-disordered
#10
Alena Koukalová, Mariana Amaro, Gokcan Aydogan, Gerhard Gröbner, Philip T F Williamson, Ilya Mikhalyov, Martin Hof, Radek Šachl
It is a fundamental question in cell biology and biophysics whether sphingomyelin (SM)- and cholesterol (Chol)- driven nanodomains exist in living cells and in model membranes. Biophysical studies on model membranes revealed SM and Chol driven micrometer-sized liquid-ordered domains. Although the existence of such microdomains has not been proven for the plasma membrane, such lipid mixtures have been often used as a model system for 'rafts'. On the other hand, recent super resolution and single molecule results indicate that the plasma membrane might organize into nanocompartments...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708098/combining-primed-photoconversion-and-uv-photoactivation-for-aberration-free-live-cell-compliant-multi-color-single-molecule-localization-microscopy-imaging
#11
David Virant, Bartosz Turkowyd, Alexander Balinovic, Ulrike Endesfelder
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy plays a major role in revealing the organization and dynamics of living cells. Nevertheless, single-molecule localization microscopy imaging of multiple targets is still limited by the availability of suitable fluorophore combinations. Here, we introduce a novel imaging strategy which combines primed photoconversion (PC) and UV-photoactivation for imaging different molecular species tagged by suitable fluorescent protein combinations. In this approach, the fluorescent proteins can be specifically photoactivated/-converted by different light wavelengths using PC and UV-activation modes but emit fluorescence in the same spectral emission channel...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703339/the-synthesis-and-photophysical-analysis-of-a-series-of-4-nitrobenzochalcogenadiazoles-for-super-resolution-microscopy
#12
Daniel Ray Jenkinson, Ashley Cadby, Simon Jones
A series of 4-nitrobenzodiazoles with atomic substitution through the chalcogen group were synthesised and their photophysical properties analysed with a view for use in single-molecule localisation microscopy. Sub-diffraction resolution imaging was achieved for silica nanoparticles coated with each dye. Those containing larger atoms were favoured for super-resolution microscopy due to a reduced blink rate (required for stochastic events to be localised). The sulfur containing molecule was deemed most amenable for widespread use due to the ease of synthetic manipulation compared to the selenium containing derivative...
July 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703125/flat-clathrin-lattices-are-dynamic-actin-controlled-hubs-for-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-and-signalling-of-specific-receptors
#13
Daniela Leyton-Puig, Tadamoto Isogai, Elisabetta Argenzio, Bram van den Broek, Jeffrey Klarenbeek, Hans Janssen, Kees Jalink, Metello Innocenti
Clathrin lattices at the plasma membrane coat both invaginated and flat regions forming clathrin-coated pits and clathrin plaques, respectively. The function and regulation of clathrin-coated pits in endocytosis are well understood but clathrin plaques remain enigmatic nanodomains. Here we use super-resolution microscopy, molecular genetics and cell biology to show that clathrin plaques contain the machinery for clathrin-mediated endocytosis and cell adhesion, and associate with both clathrin-coated pits and filamentous actin...
July 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698494/fluorogenic-labeling-strategies-for-biological-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Chenge Li, Alison G Tebo, Arnaud Gautier
The spatiotemporal fluorescence imaging of biological processes requires effective tools to label intracellular biomolecules in living systems. This review presents a brief overview of recent labeling strategies that permits one to make protein and RNA strongly fluorescent using synthetic fluorogenic probes. Genetically encoded tags selectively binding the exogenously applied molecules ensure high labeling selectivity, while high imaging contrast is achieved using fluorogenic chromophores that are fluorescent only when bound to their cognate tag, and are otherwise dark...
July 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696661/multicolor-super-resolution-fluorescence-microscopy-with-blue-and-carmine-small-photoblinking-polymer-dots
#15
Xuanze Chen, Zhihe Liu, Rongqin Li, Chunyan Shan, Zhiping Zeng, Boxin Xue, Weihong Yuan, Chi Mo, Peng Xi, Changfeng Wu, Yujie Sun
Advances in the development of small photoblinking semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have attracted great interest for use in super-resolution microscopy. However, multicolor super-resolution imaging using conventional small photoblinking Pdots remains a challenge due to their limited color choice, broad emission spectrum, and heavy spectrum crosstalk. Here, we introduce two new types of small photoblinking Pdots with different colors and relatively narrow emission spectra: blue PFO Pdots and carmine PFTBT5 Pdots for blinking-based statistical nanoscopy...
July 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696566/super-resolution-imaging-of-subcortical-white-matter-using-stochastic-optical-reconstruction-microscopy-storm-and-super-resolution-optical-fluctuation-imaging-sofi
#16
Atticus H Hainsworth, Sarah Lee, Peter Foot, Anita Patel, Wayne W Poon, Alex E Knight
AIMS: The spatial resolution of light microscopy is limited by the wavelength of visible light (the "diffraction limit", approximately 250 nm). Resolution of sub-cellular structures, smaller than this limit, is possible with super resolution methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). We aimed to resolve subcellular structures (axons, myelin sheaths and astrocytic processes) within intact white matter using STORM and SOFI...
July 11, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694303/single-molecule-fluorescence-microscopy-review-shedding-new-light-on-old-problems
#17
Sviatlana Shashkova, Mark C Leake
Fluorescence microscopy is an invaluable tool in the biosciences, a genuine workhorse technique offering exceptional contrast in conjunction with high specificity of labelling with relatively minimal perturbation to biological samples compared to many competing biophysical techniques. Improvements in detector and dye technologies coupled to advances in image analysis methods have fuelled recent development towards single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, which can utilise light microscopy tools to enable the faithful detection and analysis of single fluorescent molecules used as reporter tags in biological samples...
July 10, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692974/multi-image-blind-super-resolution-of-3d-scenes
#18
Abhijith Punnappurath, T M Nimisha, A N Rajagopalan
We address the problem of estimating the latent high-resolution (HR) image of a 3D scene from a set of non-uniformly motion blurred low-resolution (LR) images captured in the burst mode using a hand-held camera. Existing blind super-resolution (SR) techniques that account for motion blur are restricted to fronto-parallel planar scenes. We initially develop an SR motion blur model to explain the image formation process in 3D scenes. We then use this model to solve for the three unknowns - the camera trajectories, the depth map of the scene and the latent HR image...
July 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686583/interfacing-3d-magnetic-twisting-cytometry-with-confocal-fluorescence-microscopy-to-image-force-responses-in-living-cells
#19
Yuejin Zhang, Fuxiang Wei, Yeh-Chuin Poh, Qiong Jia, Junjian Chen, Junwei Chen, Junyu Luo, Wenting Yao, Wenwen Zhou, Wei Huang, Fang Yang, Yao Zhang, Ning Wang
Cells and tissues can undergo a variety of biological and structural changes in response to mechanical forces. Only a few existing techniques are available for quantification of structural changes at high resolution in response to forces applied along different directions. 3D-magnetic twisting cytometry (3D-MTC) is a technique for applying local mechanical stresses to living cells. Here we describe a protocol for interfacing 3D-MTC with confocal fluorescence microscopy. In 3D-MTC, ferromagnetic beads are bound to the cell surface via surface receptors, followed by their magnetization in any desired direction...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686487/nanoscale-invaginations-of-the-nuclear-envelope-shedding-new-light-on-wormholes-with-elusive-function
#20
Ingmar Schoen, Lina Aires, Jonas Ries, Viola Vogel
Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have opened up new possibilities to investigate chromosomal and nuclear 3D organization on the nanoscale. We here discuss their potential for elucidating topographical details of the nuclear. Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) in combination with immunostainings of lamina proteins readily reveals tube-like invaginations with a diameter of 100-500 nm. Although these invaginations have been established as a frequent and general feature of interphase nuclei across different cell types, their formation mechanism and function have remained largely elusive...
July 7, 2017: Nucleus
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