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Cartilage repaire

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096214/cartilage-to-bone-transformation-during-fracture-healing-is-coordinated-by-the-invading-vasculature-and-induction-of-the-core-pluripotency-genes
#1
Diane P Hu, Federico Ferro, Frank Yang, Aaron J Taylor, Wenhan Chang, Theodore Miclau, Ralph S Marcucio, Chelsea S Bahney
Fractures heal predominantly through the process of endochondral ossification. The classic model of endochondral ossification holds that chondrocytes mature to hypertrophy, undergo apoptosis and new bone forms by invading osteoprogenitors. However, recent data demonstrate that chondrocytes transdifferentiate to osteoblasts in the growth plate and during regeneration, yet the mechanism(s) regulating this process remain unknown. Here, we show a spatially-dependent phenotypic overlap between hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous border in the fracture callus, in a region we define as the transition zone (TZ)...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088667/cell-laden-hydrogels-for-osteochondral-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#2
REVIEW
Jingzhou Yang, Yu Shrike Zhang, Kan Yue, Ali Khademhosseini
: Despite tremendous advances in the field of regenerative medicine, it still remains challenging to repair the osteochondral interface and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. This inefficiency largely originates from the lack of appropriate tissue engineered artificial matrices that can replace the damaged regions and promote tissue regeneration. Hydrogels are emerging as a promising class of biomaterials for both soft and hard tissue regeneration. Many critical properties of hydrogels, such as mechanical stiffness, elasticity, water content, bioactivity, and degradation, can be rationally designed and conveniently tuned by proper selection of the material and chemistry...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075154/survivorship-after-meniscal-allograft-transplantation-according-to-articular-cartilage-status
#3
Bum-Sik Lee, Seong-Il Bin, Jong-Min Kim, Won-Kyeong Kim, Jun Weon Choi
BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes after meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) in arthritic knees are unclear, and objective estimates of graft survival according to the articular cartilage status have not been performed. HYPOTHESIS: MAT should provide clinical benefits in knees with high-grade cartilage damage, but their graft survivorship should be inferior to that in knees with low-grade chondral degeneration after MAT. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073305/human-amniotic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-as-favourable-source-for-cartilage-repair
#4
Emma Muinos-López, Tamara Hermida-Gómez, Isaac Fuentes-Boquete, Francisco Javier de Toro-Santos, Francisco J Blanco, Silvia María Díaz-Prado
INTRODUCTION: Localized trauma-derived breakdown of the hyaline articular cartilage may progress towards osteoarthritis, a degenerative condition characterized by total loss of articular cartilage and joint function. Tissue engineering technologies encompass several promising approaches with high therapeutic potential for the treatment of these focal defects. However, most of the research in tissue engineering is focused on potential materials and structural cues, while little attention is directed to the most appropriate source of cells endowing these materials...
January 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068480/magnetic-resonance-imaging-characterization-and-clinical-outcomes-after-neocart-surgical-therapy-as-a-primary-reparative-treatment-for-knee-cartilage-injuries
#5
Devon E Anderson, Riley J Williams, Thomas M DeBerardino, Dean C Taylor, C Benjamin Ma, Marie S Kane, Dennis C Crawford
BACKGROUND: Autologous cartilage tissue implants, including the NeoCart implant, are intended to repair focal articular cartilage lesions. Short-term results from United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) phase I and phase II clinical trials indicated that the NeoCart implant was safe when surgically applied as a cell-based therapy and efficacious compared with microfracture. HYPOTHESIS: Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis would reveal NeoCart tissue maturation through to 60-month follow-up...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062353/indentation-across-interfaces-between-stiff-and-compliant-tissues
#6
Oliver E Armitage, Michelle L Oyen
Bone-tendon, bone-ligament and bone-cartilage junctions are multi-tissue interfaces that connect materials that differ by two orders of magnitude in mechanical properties, via gradual variations in mineral content and matrix composition. These sites mediate load transfer between highly dissimilar materials and are consequently a primary site of injury during orthopedic failure. Given the large incidence rate and the lack of suitable surgical solutions for their regeneration or repair, characterization of their natural structure and subsequent replication through tissue engineering is important...
January 3, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060847/enhanced-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-umbilical-cord-wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-gsk-3-inhibitors
#7
Prapot Tanthaisong, Sumeth Imsoonthornruksa, Apichart Ngernsoungnern, Piyada Ngernsoungnern, Mariena Ketudat-Cairns, Rangsun Parnpai
Articular cartilage is an avascular, alymphatic, and aneural system with very low regeneration potential because of its limited capacity for self-repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the preferred choice for cell-based therapies. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitors are compounds that can induce the Wnt signaling pathway, which is involved in chondrogenesis and cartilage development. Here, we investigated the influence of lithium chloride (LiCl) and SB216763 synergistically with TGF-β3 on chondrogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly tissue (hWJ-MSCs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056183/cell-seeded-autologous-chondrocyte-implantation
#8
Andreas H Gomoll, Amy Phan, Marissa Mastrocola, Luiz Felipe Ambra, Nehal Shah
BACKGROUND: The use of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) remains limited, even though multiple studies have demonstrated success rates exceeding 75%. The procedure is perceived as invasive and technically challenging, presenting barriers to more widespread adoption. Purpose/Hypothesis: The objective of this study was to investigate whether outcomes and the failure rate of a simplified ACI technique (cs-ACI) were comparable with those of the more complicated traditional technique of a chondrocyte suspension injected under a collagen membrane (cACI)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056178/is-there-any-benefit-in-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-in-patients-older-than-60-years
#9
Cécile Toanen, Guillaume Demey, Panagiotis G Ntagiopoulos, Paolo Ferrua, David Dejour
BACKGROUND: Results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are traditionally excellent in younger and nonarthritic patients. During the past few decades, people older than 60 years have become more active than ever, with more demanding physical lifestyles. An increase also has been noted in active patients with diagnosed ACL injuries. More patients are requesting treatment for ACL deficiency in hopes of returning to preinjury levels of activity. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the results of ACL reconstruction in patients older than 60 years in terms of functional recovery, return to sports, and postoperative incidence of osteoarthritis and to compare their results with published results of different age groups...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056127/applications-of-robotic-testing-systems-in-orthopaedics
#10
Richard E Debski, Satoshi Yamakawa, Volker Musahl, Hiromichi Fujie
Diarthrodial joint function is mediated by a complex interaction between bones, ligaments, capsules, articular cartilage, and muscles. To gain a better understanding of injury mechanisms and to improve surgical procedures, more scientific knowledge on the biomechanics of diarthrodial joints needs to be obtained. Robotic testing systems have been developed to measure kinematics and in situ forces in ligaments and their reconstructions using cadaveric diarthrodial joints. These 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic testing systems can be controlled in either position or force modes to simulate physiological loading conditions or clinical exams...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054960/evaluation-of-magnetic-nanoparticle-labeled-chondrocytes-cultivated-on-a-type-ii-collagen-chitosan-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-biphasic-scaffold
#11
Juin-Yih Su, Shi-Hui Chen, Yu-Pin Chen, Wei-Chuan Chen
Chondral or osteochondral defects are still controversial problems in orthopedics. Here, chondrocytes labeled with magnetic nanoparticles were cultivated on a biphasic, type II collagen-chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold in an attempt to develop cultures with trackable cells exhibiting growth, differentiation, and regeneration. Rabbit chondrocytes were labeled with magnetic nanoparticles and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron (TEM) microscopy, and gene and protein expression analyses...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050531/femoroacetabular-impingement
#12
REVIEW
José Batista Volpon
The femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is as condition recently characterized that results from the abnormal anatomic and functional relation between the proximal femur and the acetabular border, associated with repetitive movements, which lead labrum and acetabular cartilage injuries. Such alterations result from anatomical variations such as acetabular retroversion or decrease of the femoroacetabular offset. In addition, FAI may result from acquired conditions as malunited femoral neck fractures, or retroverted acetabulum after pelvic osteotomies...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043753/medial-open-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy-may-adversely-affect-the-patellofemoral-joint
#13
Kang-Il Kim, Dong-Kyoon Kim, Sang-Jun Song, Sang-Hak Lee, Dae-Kyung Bae
PURPOSE: To evaluate 2-stage arthroscopic findings of the patellofemoral joint before and after medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and verify whether the patellofemoral joint would be influenced by medial open-wedge HTO. METHODS: We prospectively reviewed 114 cases of medial open-wedge HTO for the treatment of osteoarthritis with a varus knee. First-look arthroscopy was performed during HTO. The mean age at the time of HTO was 56.34 ± 5.4 years (range, 40-69 years)...
December 30, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041611/the-mechanics-of-focal-chondral-defects-in-the-hip
#14
Brenden J Klennert, Benjamin J Ellis, Travis G Maak, Ashley L Kapron, Jeffrey A Weiss
There is a mean incidence of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip in 8% of the overall population. In the presence of focal chondral defects, defined as localized damage to the articular cartilage, there is an increased risk of symptomatic progression toward OA. This relationship between chondral defects and subsequent development of OA has led to substantial efforts to develop effective procedures for surgical cartilage repair. This study examined the effects of chondral defects and labral delamination on cartilage mechanics in the dysplastic hip during the gait cycle using subject-specific finite element analysis...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040083/a-novel-aragonite-based-scaffold-for-osteochondral-regeneration-early-experience-on-human-implants-and-technical-developments
#15
Elizaveta Kon, Dror Robinson, Peter Verdonk, Matej Drobnic, Jenel Mariano Patrascu, Oliver Dulic, Gordon Gavrilovic, Giuseppe Filardo
INTRODUCTION: Chondral and osteochondral lesions represent a debilitating disease. Untreated lesions remain a risk factor for more extensive joint damage. The objective of this clinical study is to evaluate safety and early results of an aragonite-based scaffold used for osteochondral unit repair, by analysing both clinical outcome and MRI results, as well as the benefits of the procedure optimization through novel tapered shaped implants. METHODS: A crystalline aragonite bi-phasic scaffold was implanted in patients affected by focal chondral-osteochondral knee lesions of the condyle and trochlea...
December 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032844/zaocys-type-ii-collagen-regulates-the-balance-of-treg-th17-cells-in-mice-with-collagen-induced-arthritis
#16
Hao Wang, Zhitao Feng, Junqing Zhu, Xiaoguang Chen, Xianghui Wu, Juan Li
OBJECTIVES: Zaocys type II collagen is an active collagen extracted from Zaocys that has been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis in China for over 1000 years. However, the mechanism still remains unknown. Therefore, we set out to investigate the inhibitory effect and possible mechanism of action of zaocys type II collagen on collagen-induced arthritis. METHODS: Collagen-induced arthritis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunisation with type II collagen. After immunisation, the mice were treated with Zaocys type II collagen...
December 28, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030511/ankle-distraction-arthroplasty-indications-technique-and-outcomes
#17
Mitchell Bernstein, Jay Reidler, Austin Fragomen, S Robert Rozbruch
Ankle distraction is an alternative to ankle arthrodesis or total ankle arthroplasty in younger patients with arthritis. Ankle distraction involves the use of external fixation to mechanically unload the ankle joint, which allows for stable, congruent range of motion in the setting of decreased mechanical loading, potentially promoting cartilage repair. Adjunct surgical procedures are frequently done to address lower-extremity malalignment, ankle equinus contractures, and impinging tibiotalar osteophytes. Patients can bear full weight during the treatment course...
December 26, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013370/giant-crystals-inside-mitochondria-of-equine-chondrocytes
#18
S Nürnberger, C Rentenberger, K Thiel, B Schädl, I Grunwald, I Ponomarev, St Marlovits, Ch Meyer, D Barnewitz
The present study reports for the first time the presence of giant crystals in mitochondria of equine chondrocytes. These structures show dark contrast in TEM images as well as a granular substructure of regularly aligned 1-2 nm small units. Different zone axes of the crystalline structure were analysed by means of Fourier transformation of lattice-resolution TEM images proving the crystalline nature of the structure. Elemental analysis reveals a high content of nitrogen referring to protein. The outer shape of the crystals is geometrical with an up to hexagonal profile in cross sections...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007307/human-based-biological-and-biomimetic-autologous-therapies-for-musculoskeletal-tissue-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Sabino Padilla, Mikel Sánchez, Gorka Orive, Eduardo Anitua
Repairing and regenerating damaged musculoskeletal tissues is one of the greatest challenges in regenerative medicine. Blood contains the essential ingredients to biologically engineer drug delivery devices that provide spatiotemporal control over the availability of a wide range of autologous agents, including small molecules, cytokines, and growth factors. This opinion article summarizes our current knowledge of blood-derived biological drug delivery therapies. The potential mechanisms that control protein release are discussed, along with the biological rationale and effects of their use in different relevant musculoskeletal tissues, including articular cartilage, bone, tendon, muscle, and nerve tissue injuries...
December 19, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005788/bone-marrow-stem-cells-and-ear-framework-reconstruction
#20
Hamid Karimi, Seyed-Abolhassan Emami, Mohammad-Kazem Olad-Gubad
BACKGROUND: Repair of total human ear loss or congenital lack of ears is one of the challenging issues in plastic and reconstructive surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was 3D reconstruction of the human ear with cadaveric ear cartilages seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells. METHOD: We used cadaveric ear cartilages with preserved perichondrium. The samples were divided into 2 groups: group A (cartilage alone) and group B (cartilage seeded with a mixture of fibrin powder and mesenchymal stem cell [1,000,000 cells/cm] used and implanted in back of 10 athymic rats)...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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