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Chunggab Choi, Hye Min Kim, Jeeheun Shon, Jiae Park, Hyeong-Taek Kim, Suk Ho Kang, Seung-Hun Oh, Nam Keun Kim, Ok Joon Kim
BACKGROUND: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a significant challenge to the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in chronic stroke. Various methods have been developed to increase BBB permeability, but these are associated with adverse effects and are, therefore, not clinically applicable. We recently identified that combination drug treatment of mannitol and temozolomide improved BBB permeability in vitro. Here, we investigated whether this combination could increase the effectiveness of stem cell treatment in an animal model of chronic ischemic stroke...
May 15, 2018: Cytotherapy
Cheng-Tai Huang, Kuan-Ting Hish, Chun-Neng Wang, Chi-Te Liu, Wen-Yuan Kao
In this study, the genetic diversity and identification of Bradyrhizobium symbionts of Crotalaria zanzibarica, the most widely-distributed invasive legume in Taiwan, and other sympatric legume species growing along riverbanks of Taiwan were evaluated for the first time. In total, 59 and 54 Bradyrhizobium isolates were obtained from C. zanzibarica and its coexisting legume species, respectively. Based on the multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of concatenated four housekeeping genes (dnaK-glnII-recA-rpoB gene sequences, 1901bp), the 113 isolates displayed 53 unique haplotypes and grouped into 21 clades...
May 7, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Marzena Matejczyk, Grzegorz Świderski, Renata Świsłocka, Stanisław Józef Rosochacki, Włodzimierz Lewandowski
The most important problems of anti-cancer therapy include the toxicity of the drugs applied to healthy cells and the multi-drug cells resistance to chemotherapeutics. One of the most commonly used anticancer drugs is doxorubicin (DOX) used to treat certain leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, as well as bladder, breast, stomach, lung, ovarian, thyroid, multiple myeloma and other cancers. Preliminary studies showed that metal complex with DOX improve its cytostatic activity with changes in their molecular structure and distribution of electrons, resulting in a substantial change of its biological activity (including antitumor activity)...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Marie S Prevost, Gabriel Waksman
Human infections by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila result in a severe form of pneumonia, the Legionnaire's disease. L. pneumophila utilises a type IVb secretion (T4bS) system termed "dot/icm" to secrete protein effectors to the host cytoplasm. The dot/icm system is powered at least in part by a functionally critical AAA+ ATPase, a protein called DotB, thought to belong to the VirB11 family of proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of DotB at 3.19 Å resolution, in its hexameric form...
May 17, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Octavio Luque-Reca, Manuel Pulido-Martos, Esther Lopez-Zafra, José M Augusto-Landa
Despite previous evidence showing a positive relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and quality of life (QoL), associating older adults' emotional processing with several health indicators, few studies have explored both the IE and the a mechanisms through which they affect QoL. This cross-sectional study analyzes the mediator role of optimistic and pessimistic cognitive styles in the relationship between perceived EI (PEI) and QoL in 115 institutionalized older adults from Southern Spain. Regression analyses showed, after controlling for cognitive style, that PEI predicted a significant percentage of variance in: Health (β = ...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Geoffrey Hutinet, Arthur Besle, Olivier Son, Stephen McGovern, Raphaël Guerois, Marie-Agnès Petit, Françoise Ochsenbein, François Lecointe
Bacteriophages are remarkable for the wide diversity of proteins they encode to perform DNA replication and homologous recombination. Looking back at these ancestral forms of life may help understanding how similar proteins work in more sophisticated organisms. For instance, the Sak4 family is composed of proteins similar to the archaeal RadB protein, a Rad51 paralog. We have previously shown that Sak4 allowed single-strand annealing in vivo , but only weakly compared to the phage λ Redβ protein, highlighting putatively that Sak4 requires partners to be efficient...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gaylen A Uhlich, Elisa Andreozzi, Bryan J Cottrell, Erin R Reichenberger, Xinmin Zhang, George C Paoli
The high frequency of prophage insertions in the mlrA gene of clinical serotype O157:H7 isolates renders such strains deficient in csgD-dependent biofilm formation but prophage induction may restore certain mlrA properties. In this study we used transcriptomics to study the effect of high and low sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TM) concentrations on prophage induction, biofilm regulation, and virulence gene expression in strain PA20 under environmental conditions following 5-hour and 12-hour exposures in broth or on agar...
2018: PloS One
Carlos Felipe Estévez Castro, Jorge Humberto Serment-Guerrero, Jorge Luis Fuentes
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation blocks DNA replication and arrests cellular division in Escherichia coli. Restoration of chromosome replication involves nucleoid reorganization, which involves the participation of the recombination-catalysing proteins RecA, RecO, RecR and RecN. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of recN, uvrA and recJ gene mutations on post-irradiation nucleoid reorganization. We used isogenic E. coli strains that are defective for these genes to study post-irradiation kinetics of the nucleoid shape fractions using fluorescence microscopy...
April 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Ebrahim Osdaghi, S Mohsen Taghavi, Silvia Calamai, Carola Biancalani, Matteo Cerboneschi, Stefania Tegli, Robert Harveson
A multi-phasic approach was used to decipher the phenotypic features, genetic diversity, and phylogenetic position of 46 Curtobacterium spp. strains isolated from dry beans and other annual crops in Iran and Spain. Pathogenicity tests, resistance to arsenic compounds, plasmid profiling and BOX-PCR were performed on the strains. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was also performed on five housekeeping genes (i.e. atpD, gyrB, ppk, recA, and rpoB) of all the strains, as well as five pathotype strains of the species...
May 1, 2018: Phytopathology
Andrew R Buller, Paul van Roye, Jackson K B Cahn, Remkes A Scheele, Michael Herger, Frances H Arnold
Allosteric enzymes contain a wealth of catalytic diversity that remains distinctly underutilized for biocatalysis. Tryptophan synthase is a model allosteric system and a valuable enzyme for the synthesis of non-canonical amino acids (ncAA). Previ-ously, we evolved the β-subunit from Pyrococcus furiosus, PfTrpB, for ncAA synthase activity in the absence of its native partner protein PfTrpA. However, the precise mechanism by which mutation activated TrpB to afford a stand-alone cata-lyst remained enigmatic. Here, we show that directed evolution caused a gradual change in the rate-limiting step of the cata-lytic cycle...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Claudio Lo Giudice, Graziano Pesole, Ernesto Picardi
RNA editing is an important epigenetic mechanism by which genome-encoded transcripts are modified by substitutions, insertions and/or deletions. It was first discovered in kinetoplastid protozoa followed by its reporting in a wide range of organisms. In plants, RNA editing occurs mostly by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversion in translated regions of organelle mRNAs and tends to modify affected codons restoring evolutionary conserved aminoacid residues. RNA editing has also been described in non-protein coding regions such as group II introns and structural RNAs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Veerapandian Raja, Sankaran Sobana, Charles Solomon Akino Mercy, Bianca Cotto, Durlav Prasad Bora, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan
The emergence of >300 serovars of Leptospira confounded the use of generalized bacterin, the whole cell lysate, as vaccines to control leptospirosis. Because of substantial genetic and geographic heterogeneity among circulating serovars, one vaccine strain per serovar cannot be efficacious against all the serovars. We have performed heterologous DNA prime-protein boost vaccination challenge studies in hamsters using in vivo expressed, leptospiral recombinase A (RecA) and flagellar hook associated protein (FliD)...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sudarson Sundarrajan, Sneha Rao, Sriram Padmanabhan
We studied the role of Thermus thermophilus Recombinase A (RecA) in enhancing the PCR signals of DNA viruses such as Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The RecA gene of a thermophilic eubacterial strain, T. thermophilus, was cloned and hyperexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant RecA protein was purified using a single heat treatment step without the use of any chromatography steps, and the purified protein (>95%) was found to be active. The purified RecA could enhance the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) signals of HBV and improve the detection limit of the HBV diagnosis by real time PCR...
April 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Lena Smirnova, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Raffaella Corvi, Andre Levchenko, Suzanne C Fitzpatrick, Thomas Hartung
A biological system is more than the sum of its parts - it accomplishes many functions via synergy. Deconstructing the system down to the molecular mechanism level necessitates the complement of reconstructing functions on all levels, i.e., in our conceptualization of biology and its perturbations, our experimental models and computer modelling. Toxicology contains the somewhat arbitrary subclass "systemic toxicities"; however, there is no relevant toxic insult or general disease that is not systemic...
2018: ALTEX
Junjie Zhang, Chen Guo, Wenfeng Chen, Philippe de Lajudie, Zhiyan Zhang, Yimin Shang, En Tao Wang
Three chickpea rhizobial strains (WYCCWR 10195T =S1-3-7, WYCCWR 10198=S1-4-3 and WYCCWR 10200=S1-5-1) isolated from Northwest China formed a group affiliated to Mesorhizobium based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. To clarify their species status, multilocus sequence analysis and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of whole genome sequences between the novel group and the type strains of the related species were further performed. Similarities of 95.7-96.6 % in the concatenated sequences of atpD-recA-glnII and 91...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sergi Torres-Puig, Carlos Martínez-Torró, Ignasi Granero-Moya, Enrique Querol, Jaume Piñol, Oscar Q Pich
In the human pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium, homologous recombination is under the control of σ20, an alternative sigma factor that boosts the generation of genetic and antigenic diversity in the population. Under laboratory growth conditions, σ20 activation is rare and the factors governing its intermittent activity are unknown. Two σ20-regulated genes, rrlA and rrlB, showed to be important for recombination of homologous DNA sequences in this bacterium. Herein, we demonstrate that rrlA and rrlB code for two small proteins that participate in a feed-forward loop essential for σ20 function...
April 11, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Hadjira Ahnia, Yasmina Bourebaba, David Durán, Farida Boulila, José M Palacios, Luis Rey, Tomás Ruiz-Argüeso, Abdelghani Boulila, Juan Imperial
We have characterized genetic, phenotypic and symbiotic properties of bacterial strains previously isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules of Retama sphaerocarpa from Northern Algeria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes and three concatenated housekeeping genes, recA, atpD and glnII, placed them in a new divergent group that is proposed to form a new Bradyrhizobium species, Bradyrhizobium algeriense sp. nov. (type strain RST89T , LMG 27618 and CECT 8363). Based on these phylogenetic markers and on genomic identity data derived from draft genomic sequences, Bradyrhizobium valentinum LmjM3T , Bradyrhizobium lablabi CCBAU 23086T , Bradyrhizobium retamae Ro19T , and Bradyrhizobium jicamae PAC68T are the closest relatives of B...
April 4, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Heejeong Lee, Dong Gun Lee
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a promising material for use in biological and biotechnological applications. While applications such as drug delivery, sensory probe, and organic photovoltaics have been widely evaluated, studies of the antimicrobial activity of AuNPs in therapeutic agents are lacking. In this study, the antibacterial activity and mode of action of AuNPs on Escherichia coli was focused. The membrane-impermeable dye SYTOX green was not taken up and membrane potential was depolarized by AuNPs. This demonstrated that AuNPs inhibit cell growth without directly causing membrane damage...
March 30, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Vera I Safronova, Anna L Sazanova, Irina G Kuznetsova, Andrey A Belimov, Evgeny E Andronov, Elizaveta R Chirak, Janna P Popova, Alla V Verkhozina, Anne Willems, Igor A Tikhonovich
Gram-negative strains Tri-36, Tri-38, Tri-48T and Tri-53 were isolated from root nodules of the relict legume Oxytropis triphylla (Pall.) Pers. originating from Zunduk Cape (Baikal Lake region, Russia). 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the novel isolates were phylogenetically closest to the type strains Phyllobacterium sophorae LMG 27899T , Phyllobacterium brassicacearum LMG 22836T , Phyllobacterium endophyticum LMG 26470T and Phyllobacterium bourgognense LMG 22837T while similarity levels between the isolates and the most closely related strain P...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Marcela Maloveska, Jan Danko, Eva Petrovova, Lenka Kresakova, Katarina Vdoviakova, Alena Michalicova, Andrej Kovac, Veronika Cubinkova, Dasa Cizkova
Objectives Recently, it has been confirmed, that excess fluid and waste products from the brain are drained into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and afterwards cleared via the olfactory route and/or lymphatic vessels in the brain dura and corresponding extracranial lymphatic structures. Therefore, the aim of present study was to monitor time-dependent uptake of Evans blue (EB) tracer from subarachnoid space into the meningeal lymphatic vessels and extracranial lymph nodes in rats during 3 hours-12 days. Methods EB was injected into the cisterna magna of anesthetized rats and after required survival, plasma, brain dura matter and corresponding lymph nodes (cervical, thoracic and lumbar) were dissected and processed for lymphatic vessels analyses using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry...
April 5, 2018: Neurological Research
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