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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882653/behavioural-responses-of-two-spotted-spider-mites-induced-by-predator-borne-and-prey-borne-cues
#1
Enikő Gyuris, Erna Szép, Jenő Kontschán, Attila Hettyey, Zoltán Tóth
Applying predatory mites as biological control agents is a well established method against spider mites which are major pests worldwide. Although antipredator responses can influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions, we have limited information about what cues spider mites use to adjust their behavioural antipredator responses. We experimentally exposed two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) to different predator-borne cues (using a specialist predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or a generalist predator, Amblyseius swirskii), conspecific prey-borne cues, or both, and measured locomotion and egg-laying activity...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878255/adaptive-aggregation-by-spider-mites-under-predation-risk
#2
Lena Dittmann, Peter Schausberger
Grouping together is a commonly observed anti-predator strategy. Possible anti-predator benefits of aggregation include the encounter/avoidance effect for visually hunting predators and the dilution effect, together dubbed attack abatement. Possible costs opposing the dilution effect are easier detection of aggregated than scattered individuals. The benefits of attack abatement, and opposing costs after group detection, are poorly understood for chemosensory predator-prey interactions. We tackled this issue by assessing the aggregation behavior of spider mites Tetranychus urticae under predation risk emanating from predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857675/plant-herbivore-interactions-a-case-of-an-extreme-generalist-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae
#3
Cristina Rioja, Vladimir Zhurov, Kristie Bruinsma, Miodrag Grbic, Vojislava Grbic
Plant-herbivore interactions evolved over long periods of time resulting in an elaborate arms race between interacting species. While specialist herbivores evolved specific strategies to cope with the defenses of a limited number of hosts, our understanding of how generalist herbivores deal with the defenses of a plethora of diverse host plants is largely unknown. Understanding the interaction between a plant host and a generalist herbivore requires an understanding of the plant's mechanisms aimed at defending itself and the herbivore's mechanisms intended to counteract diverse defenses...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857667/spatiotemporal-heterogenesssity-of-tomato-induced-defense-responses-affects-spider-mite-performance-and-behavior
#4
Bernardus C J Schimmel, Livia M S Ataide, Merijn R Kant
When feeding from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induces jasmonate (JA)- and salicylate (SA)-regulated defense responses that hamper its performance. The related T. evansi, a Solanaceae-specialist, suppresses these defenses, thereby upholding a high performance. On a shared leaf, T. urticae can be facilitated by T. evansi, likely via suppression of defenses by the latter. Yet, when infesting the same plant, T. evansi outcompetes T. urticae. Recently, we found that T...
August 31, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854663/temperature-dependent-demography-of-two-closely-related-predatory-mites-neoseiulus-womersleyi-and-n-longispinosus-acari-phytoseiidae
#5
Reo Sugawara, Mohammad Shaef Ullah, Chyi-Chen Ho, Ayhan Gökçe, Hsin Chi, Tetsuo Gotoh
Temperature has significant effects on the development, survival, and reproduction of ectothermic organisms. In this study, we examined the effect of temperature on the demographic characteristics of two predatory mite species, Neosciulus womersleyi (Schicha) and N. longispinosus (Evans), reared on Tetranychus urticae Koch. The developmental and reproductive traits of both species were examined at 10 constant temperatures between 15 °C and 37.5 °C. The preadult development time of N. womersleyi and N...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844385/synthesis-of-some-monosaccharide-related-ester-derivatives-as-insecticidal-and-acaricidal-agents
#6
Xiaobo Huang, Bingchuan Zhang, Hui Xu
To develop natural-product-based pesticidal agents, a series of monosaccharide-related ester derivatives (17a-q and 18a-f), glucose (xylose)-piperic acid/piperic acid-like conjugates, were synthesized. Three-dimensional structures of compounds 17b, 17g, 17h, and 17n were unambiguously determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Especially compounds 18e and 18f exhibited the most potent insecticidal and acaricidal activities against Mythimna separata and Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Their structure-activity relationships were also discussed...
September 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835683/the-relative-contribution-of-target-site-mutations-in-complex-acaricide-resistant-phenotypes-as-assessed-by-marker-assisted-backcrossing-in-tetranychus-urticae
#7
Maria Riga, Sabina Bajda, Christos Themistokleous, Stavrini Papadaki, Maria Palzewicz, Wannes Dermauw, John Vontas, Thomas Van Leeuwen
The mechanisms underlying insecticide and acaricide resistance in insects and mites are often complex, including additive effects of target-site insensitivity, increased metabolism and transport. The extent to which target-site resistance mutations contribute to the resistance phenotype is, however, not well studied. Here, we used marker-assisted backcrossing to create 30 congenic lines carrying nine mutations (alone, or in combination in a few cases) associated with resistance to avermectins, pyrethroids, mite growth inhibitors and mitochondrial complex III inhibitors (QoI) in a polyphagous arthropod pest, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834288/greenhouse-and-field-based-studies-on-the-distribution-of-dimethoate-in-cotton-and-its-effect-on-tetranychus-urticae-by-drip-irrigation
#8
Jiangtao He, Lijuan Zhou, Qiang Yao, Bo Liu, Hanhong Xu, Jiguang Huang
BACKGROUND: The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton. We investigated the efficacy of dimethoate in controlling T. urticae by drip irrigation. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae and the absorption and distribution of dimethoate in cotton. RESULTS: Greenhouse results showed that cotton leaves received higher amount of dimethoate compared to cotton roots and stems, with young leaves higher than old leaves and cotyledon the lowest among leaves...
August 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831615/the-evaluation-of-extraction-techniques-for-tetranychus-urticae-acari-tetranychidae-from-apple-malus-domestica-and-cherry-prunus-avium-leaves
#9
Adrian L Harris, Roshan Ullah, Michelle T Fountain
Tetranychus urticae is a widespread polyphagous mite, found on a variety of fruit crops. Tetranychus urticae feeds on the underside of the leaves perforating plant cells and sucking the cell contents. Foliar damage and excess webbing produced by T. urticae can reduce fruit yield. Assessments of T. urticae populations while small provide reliable and accurate ways of targeting control strategies and recording their efficacy against T. urticae. The aim of this study was to evaluate four methods for extracting low levels of T...
August 22, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804859/fertility-life-table-of-tetranychus-palmarum-flechtmann-noronha-acari-tetranychidae-in-oil-palm
#10
A C S Noronha, C T Ferreira, E J M Tavares, D B Lima
Some species of spider mites belonging to the Tetranychidae family are known to associate with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. - Arecaceae). The occurrence of Tetranychus palmarum Flechtmann & Noronha (Acari, Tetranychidae) was verified on oil palm seedlings under greenhouse conditions in the State of Pará in Northern Brazil. Plants with colonies of T. palmarum presented yellowish spots on leaflets and leaves with chlorosis. The objective of this study was to access the biology and fertility life table of T...
August 13, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803552/effect-of-acaricidal-components-isolated-from-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-on-carmine-spider-mite-tetranychus-cinnabarinus-boisd
#11
M Li, Y Zhang, W Ding, J Luo, S Li, Q Zhang
This study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) extracts against carmine spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.) and isolate the acaricidal components. Acaricidal activities of lettuce extracts isolated from different parts (the leaf, root and seed) using various solvents (petroleum ether, acetone and methanol) were evaluated with slide-dip bioassay and relatively high median lethal concentration (LC50) values were detected. Acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July and September were fractionated and isolated with silica gel and thin-layer chromatography...
August 14, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791161/behavioural-flexibility-in-spider-mites-oviposition-site-shifts-based-on-past-and-present-stimuli-from-conspecifics-and-predators
#12
Aoi Murase, Kazuo Fujita, Shuichi Yano
Predator-experienced individuals often change their predation avoidance response when they re-encounter the same predators or their cues. Recent reports show that behavioural change sometimes occurs even before the re-encounter. To function as an adaptive strategy in the wild, such prospective experience-induced behaviour should change flexibly in response to changing situations. We assessed flexibility of experience-induced oviposition site shift in two closely related species of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and T...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767894/comparative-toxicity-of-essential-oil-and-blends-of-selected-terpenes-of-ocotea-species-from-pernambuco-brazil-against-tetranychus-urticae-koch
#13
Marcilio M DE Moraes, Claudio A G DA Camara, Milena M C DA Silva
Essential oils from the leaves of two species of the genus Ocotea that occur in the Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity of these oils as well as 11 selected components and blends were evaluated in fumigation and residual contact tests against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Sixty-seven constituents were identified, totaling 97.3 ± 0.3% and 97.8 ± 0.5% of the oils from O. duckei and O. glomerata, respectively...
July 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736919/a-g326e-substitution-in-the-glutamate-gated-chloride-channel-3-glucl3-of-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae-abolishes-the-agonistic-activity-of-macrocyclic-lactones
#14
Catherine Mermans, Wannes Dermauw, Sven Geibel, Thomas Van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: The macrocyclic lactones abamectin and milbemectin are frequently used to control phytophagous mites such as Tetranychus urticae. Consequently, resistance has developed and was genetically linked with substitutions in the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) subunits TuGluCl1 and TuGluCl3. Here, we functionally validated a G326E substitution in TuGluCl3 by functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. RESULTS: Homomeric wild-type and mutated GluCl3 were successfully expressed...
July 24, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724730/stacked-bt-maize-and-arthropod-predators-exposure-to-insecticidal-cry-proteins-and-potential-hazards
#15
Zdeňka Svobodová, Yinghua Shu, Oxana Skoková Habuštová, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
Genetically engineered (GE) crops with stacked insecticidal traits expose arthropods to multiple Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). One concern is that the different Cry proteins may interact and lead to unexpected adverse effects on non-target species. Bi- and tri-trophic experiments with SmartStax maize, herbivorous spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi), predatory spiders (Phylloneta impressa), ladybeetles (Harmonia axyridis) and lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea) were conducted...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707033/impact-of-constant-versus-fluctuating-temperatures-on-the-development-and-life-history-parameters-of-tetranychus-urticae-acari-tetranychidae
#16
M S Y I Bayu, M S Ullah, Y Takano, T Gotoh
The impact of daily temperature fluctuations on arthropod life history parameters is inadequately studied compared with the ample amount of research that has been conducted on the effects of constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures are likely to be more realistic, as they are ecologically more similar to what these arthropods experience in nature. Here, we compared the impact of 11 constant temperatures that ranged from 10 to 35 °C with fluctuating temperatures with the same corresponding mean temperature and an amplitude of 10 °C between high (12 h) and low (12 h) temperatures on the development and life history parameters of Tetranychus urticae under continuous light conditions...
July 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704448/rnai-based-reverse-genetics-in-the-chelicerate-model-tetranychus-urticae-a-comparative-analysis-of-five-methods-for-gene-silencing
#17
Takeshi Suzuki, Maria Andreia Nunes, María Urizarna España, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin, Pengyu Jin, Nicolas Bensoussan, Vladimir Zhurov, Tawhid Rahman, Rebecca De Clercq, Pierre Hilson, Vojislava Grbic, Miodrag Grbic
RNA interference (RNAi) can be used for the protection against agricultural pests through the silencing of genes required for pest fitness. To assess the potential of RNAi approaches in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, we compared 5 methods for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). These methods include mite feeding on either (i) leaves floating on a dsRNA solution, (ii) dsRNA-expressing plants, (iii) artificial diet supplemented with dsRNA, or (iv) dsRNA-coated leaves, and (v) mite soaking in a dsRNA solution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686745/protocols-for-the-delivery-of-small-molecules-to-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae
#18
Takeshi Suzuki, María Urizarna España, Maria Andreia Nunes, Vladimir Zhurov, Wannes Dermauw, Masahiro Osakabe, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Miodrag Grbic, Vojislava Grbic
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a chelicerate herbivore with an extremely wide host range and an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. Due to its responsiveness to natural and synthetic xenobiotics, the spider mite is becoming a prime pest herbivore model for studies of the evolution of host range, plant-herbivore interactions and mechanisms of xenobiotic resistance. The spider mite genome has been sequenced and its transcriptional responses to developmental and various biotic and abiotic cues have been documented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674017/disruption-of-a-horizontally-transferred-phytoene-desaturase-abolishes-carotenoid-accumulation-and-diapause-in-tetranychus-urticae
#19
Astrid Bryon, Andre H Kurlovs, Wannes Dermauw, Robert Greenhalgh, Maria Riga, Miodrag Grbić, Luc Tirry, Masahiro Osakabe, John Vontas, Richard M Clark, Thomas Van Leeuwen
Carotenoids underlie many of the vibrant yellow, orange, and red colors in animals, and are involved in processes ranging from vision to protection from stresses. Most animals acquire carotenoids from their diets because de novo synthesis of carotenoids is primarily limited to plants and some bacteria and fungi. Recently, sequencing projects in aphids and adelgids, spider mites, and gall midges identified genes with homology to fungal sequences encoding de novo carotenoid biosynthetic proteins like phytoene desaturase...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658392/maize-plants-produce-direct-resistance-elicited-by-tetranychus-urticae-koch-acari-tetranychidae
#20
P D Paulo, C G Lima, A B Dominiquini, M A M Fadini, S M Mendes, C G S Marinho
Plants can be attacked by a wide variety of herbivores. Thus, developing protective mechanisms for resistance against these agents is an advantage for survival and reproduction. Over the course of evolution, many resistance mechanisms against herbivory have been developed by the plants. Induced direct and indirect resistance mechanisms can manifest in plants after herbivore attack. The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is not a pest of maize crops (Zea mays), despite being reported infesting plants that may have resistances against this herbivore...
June 26, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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