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M Orsucci, M Navajas, S Fellous
Despite the ubiquity of coinfection, we know little of the effects of intra-specific genetic variability on coinfection by distinct parasite species. Here we test the hypothesis that parasite multiplication depends on the combination of parasite genotypes that coinfect the host (that is Genotype.parasite × Genotype.parasite interaction). To that aim, we infected tomato leaves with the ecto-parasitic mites Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi. We tested all possible combinations between four T. urticae and two T...
October 19, 2016: Heredity
Jian-Song Li, Min-Na Du, Hui Zhang, Ji Zhang, Shao-Yong Zhang, Hai-Yan Wang, An-Liang Chen, Ji-Dong Wang, Wen-Sheng Xiang
Two new milbemycin derivatives, 27-methoxylmilbemycin α31 (1) and 27-oxomilbemycin α31 (2), were isolated from the genetically engineered strain Streptomyces bingchenggensis BCJ60. Their structures were determined by 1D NMR, 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectral analysis, and comparison with previous reports. The acaricidal and nematocidal capacities of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against Tetranychus cinnabarinus and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, respectively. The results showed that the two new macrocyclic lactones 1 and 2 possessed potent acaricidal and nematocidal activities...
October 16, 2016: Natural Product Research
Zhifeng Xu, Qiong Wu, Qiang Xu, Lin He
The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval), is one of the most important pests in the agricultural industry. Avermectins, as efficient acaricides, have been extensively used in the mite control. The targets for avermectins in mammals, nematodes and insects had already been identified as γ-amino butyric acid and glutamate chloride channels. However, the targets for avermectins in mites are still not clear. Here we report the cloning of five full-length glutamate chloride channel genes (TcGluCls) and three γ-amino butyric acid chloride channel genes (TcGABACls) and their expression levels in different developmental stages in T...
October 13, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jingyu Lin, Dan Wang, Xinlu Chen, Tobias G Köllner, Mitra Mazarei, Hong Guo, Vincent R Pantalone, Prakash Arelli, Charles Neal Stewart, Ningning Wang, Feng Chen
Plant terpene synthase genes (TPSs) have roles in diverse biological processes. Here we report the functional characterization of one member of the soybean TPS gene family, which was designated GmAFS. Recombinant GmAFS produced in Escherichia coli catalyzed the formation of a sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene. GmAFS is closely related to (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase gene from apple, both phylogenetically and structurally. GmAFS was further investigated for its biological role in defense against nematodes and insects...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Livia M S Ataide, Maria L Pappas, Bernardus C J Schimmel, Antonio Lopez-Orenes, Juan M Alba, Marcus V A Duarte, Angelo Pallini, Robert C Schuurink, Merijn R Kant
Inducible anti-herbivore defenses in plants are predominantly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA). On tomato plants, most genotypes of the herbivorous generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induce JA defenses and perform poorly on it, whereas the Solanaceae specialist Tetranychus evansi, who suppresses JA defenses, performs well on it. We asked to which extent these spider mites and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes preying on these spider mites eggs are affected by induced JA-defenses. By artificially inducing the JA-response of the tomato JA-biosynthesis mutant def-1 using exogenous JA and isoleucine (Ile), we first established the relationship between endogenous JA-Ile-levels and the reproductive performance of spider mites...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Wim Jonckheere, Wannes Dermauw, Vladimir Zhurov, Nicky Wybouw, Jan Van den Bulcke, Carlos A Villarroel, Robert Greenhalgh, Mike Grbić, Rob C Schuurink, Luc Tirry, Geert Baggerman, Richard M Clark, Merijn R Kant, Bartel Vanholme, Gerben Menschaert, Thomas Van Leeuwen
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an extremely polyphagous crop pest. Alongside an unparalleled detoxification potential for plant secondary metabolites, it has recently been shown that spider mites can attenuate or even suppress plant defenses. Salivary constituents, notably effectors, have been proposed to play an important role in manipulating plant defenses and might determine the outcome of plant-mite interactions. Here, the proteomic composition of saliva from T. urticae lines adapted to various host plants - bean, maize, soy, and tomato - was analyzed using a custom-developed feeding assay coupled with nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry...
October 4, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Blas Agut, Jordi Gamir, Josep A Jaques, Victor Flors
Recent research suggests that systemic signalling and communication between roots and leaves plays an important role in plant defence against herbivores. In the present study, we show that the oviposition of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae in the systemic leaves of citrus rootstock Citrus aurantium (sour orange) was reduced by 50% when a lower leaf was previously infested with conspecifics. Metabolomic and gene expression analysis of the root efflux revealed a strong accumulation of glutamic acid (Glu) that triggered the expression of the citrus putative glutamate receptor (GRL) in the shoots...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Weiping Qi, Xiaoli Ma, Weiyi He, Wei Chen, Mingmin Zou, Geoff M Gurr, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the major transmembrane protein families found in all organisms and play important roles in transporting a variety of compounds across intra and extra cellular membranes. In some species, ABC transporters may be involved in the detoxification of substances such as insecticides. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, is an important species to study as it is resistant to many types of insecticides as well as biological control Bacillus thuringiensis toxins...
September 27, 2016: BMC Genomics
Xuejiao Liu, Dousheng Wu, Yongqiang Zhang, Hong Zhou, Ting Lai, Wei Ding
Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important agricultural pest with a broad host range. We previously identified curcumin as a promising acaricidal compound against T. cinnabarinus. However, the acaricidal mechanism of curcumin remains unknown. In this study, RNA-seq was employed to analyze the transcriptome changes in T. cinnabarinus treated with curcumin or the solvent. A total of 105,706,297 clean sequence reads were generated by sequencing, with more than 90% of the reads successfully mapped to the reference sequence...
2016: BioMed Research International
Shoko Kawaguchi, Yuki Manabe, Tatsuya Sugawara, Masahiro Osakabe
Adult females of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) enter diapause under conditions of short-day length and low temperature. A conspicuous body color change, from greenish yellow to bright orange, accompanies diapause induction. This pigmentation is attributed to accumulation of keto-carotenoids produced internally from β-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A essential for inducing diapause. The quantity of β-carotene transferred from females to eggs has been considered sufficient to induce diapause...
September 25, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Bong Su Kim, Chung Gyoo Park, Young Mi Moon, Bo Kyung Sung, Yonglin Ren, Stephen J Wylie, Byung Ho Lee
Quarantine treatments by phosphine (PH3) gas have been performed to replace methyl bromide (MeBr) for export cut flowers and imported nursery plant in Korea. In this preliminary study, two dominant insect pests of cut flowers, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, and the dominant insect pest of nursery plants, Planococcus citri Risso, were used to certify optimum concentration and fumigation time, along with evaluation of phytotoxic damages. To validate the results of preliminary tests, quarantine treatments for export cut flowers was performed in a 58-m(3) reefer container...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Audrey Errard, Christian Ulrichs, Stefan Kühne, Inga Mewis, Narantuya Mishig, Ronald Maul, Mario Drungowski, Pia Parolin, Monika Schreiner, Susanne Baldermann
The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jian-Song Li, Hui Zhang, Shao-Yong Zhang, Hai-Yan Wang, Ji Zhang, An-Liang Chen, Ji-Dong Wang, Wen-Sheng Xiang
Two new macrocyclic lactones, 4,25-diethyl-4,25-demethyl-milbemycin β3 (1) and 27-formaldehyde-milbemycin β14 (2), were isolated from a genetically engineered strain Streptomyces bingchenggensis BCJ60. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques as well as ESI-MS and comparison with data from the literature. The acaricidal and nematocidal capacities of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against Tetranychus cinnabarinus and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, respectively...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Mariany Ashanty Morales, Bianca Marie Mendoza, Laura Corley Lavine, Mark Daniel Lavine, Douglas Bruce Walsh, Fang Zhu
Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extensively used, high-throughput method to analyze transcriptional expression of genes of interest. An appropriate normalization strategy with reliable reference genes is required for calculating gene expression across diverse experimental conditions. In this study, we aim to identify the most stable reference genes for expression studies of xenobiotic adaptation in Tetranychus urticae, an extremely polyphagous herbivore causing significant yield reduction of agriculture...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Lucy Kananu Murungi, Hillary Kirwa, Daisy Salifu, Baldwyn Torto
Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T...
2016: PloS One
M B Reichert, M Toldi, P A Rode, J J Ferla, N J Ferla
The soybean (Glycine max (L.): Fabaceae) is considered the most important agricultural crop in Brazil. Phytophagous tetranychid mites as Mononychellus planki McGregor, Tetranychus ludeni Zacher and T. urticae Koch have been considered pest in soybean crops. Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma (Phytoseiidae) is a predatory mite of T. ludeni and T. urticae. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological performance of N. idaeus when fed on T. urticae, T. ludeni and M. planki, coming from the Northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil...
August 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Ling Wang, Youjun Zhang, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a serious pest of many agricultural crops and ornamental plants. The sublethal effects of a new chemical, spinetoram, on T. urticae were investigated by treating adult females and eggs with LC10 and LC20 in the laboratory. The data were assessed based on age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. The results showed that T. urticae developmental time from egg to adult was reduced and that fecundity was increased by treatment with LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram. The LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram also increased the intrinsic and finite rate of increase and the net reproductive rate and reduced the mean generation time, egg duration, and larval duration whether eggs or adult females were treated...
September 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Nicolas Bensoussan, M Estrella Santamaria, Vladimir Zhurov, Isabel Diaz, Miodrag Grbić, Vojislava Grbić
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Roberta C S Neves, Claudio A G da Camara
Tetranychus urticae is considered one of the main plagues in the world. Its occurrence in Pernambuco was registered for the first time in 1985 and it has caused considerable damage to the farmers, attacking different cultures of agricultural interest. The essential oils from different parts of Vitex agnus-castus harvested in the Atlantic forest in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and the acaricidal potential was evaluated against Tetranychus urticae using two methods under laboratory conditions...
September 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Yukie Sato, Juan M Alba, Martijn Egas, Maurice W Sabelis
When competing with indigenous species, invasive species face a problem, because they typically start with a few colonizers. Evidently, some species succeeded, begging an answer to the question how they invade. Here, we investigate how the invasive spider mite Tetranychus evansi interacts with the indigenous species T. urticae when sharing the solanaceous host plant tomato: do they choose to live together or to avoid each other's colonies? Both species spin protective, silken webs on the leaf surfaces, under which they live in groups of con- and possibly heterospecifics...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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