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pesticide resistance

Davis Henry Hopkins, Nicholas J Fraser, Peter D Mabbitt, Paul D Carr, John G Oakeshott, Colin J Jackson
Carboxylesterase (CBE)-mediated metabolic resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides is a major problem for the control of insect disease vectors, such as the mosquito. The most common mechanism involves overexpression of CBEs that bind to the insecticide with high affinity, thereby sequestering them before they can interact with their target. However, the absence of any structure for an insecticide-sequestering CBE limits our understanding of the molecular basis for this process. We present the first structure of a CBE involved in sequestration, Cqestβ21, from the mosquito disease vector, Culex quinquefasciatus...
September 20, 2017: Biochemistry
Matthew J Traylor, Jong-Min Baek, Katelyn E Richards, Roberto Fusetto, W Huang, Peter Josh, Zhengzhong Chen, Padma Bollapragada, Richard A J O'Hair, Philip Batterham, Elizabeth M J Gillam
The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is a primary cause of sheep flystrike and a major agricultural pest. Cytochrome P450 enzymes have been implicated in the resistance of L. cuprina to several classes of insecticides. In particular, CYP6G3 is a L. cuprina homologue of Drosophila melanogaster CYP6G1, a P450 known to confer multi-pesticide resistance. To investigate the basis of resistance, a bicistronic Escherichia coli expression system was developed to co-express active L. cuprina CYP6G3 and house fly (Musca domestica) P450 reductase...
September 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Balan Banumathi, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Periyannan Rajasekar, Narayanan Marimuthu Prabhu, Palaniappan Ramasamy, Kadarkarai Murugan, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a key vector of bacterial and protozoan diseases causing heavy economic losses directly and indirectly in animal husbandry. In the past decades, the control of ticks faced some major issues, such as the rapid development of resistance in targeted vectors and non-target effects on human health and the environment, due to the employ of synthetic acaricides and repellents. Eco-friendly pesticides for treating and controlling animal parasites such as ticks were mainly from medicinal plants and thus they form the richest entity for manufacturing resources for drugs...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Kadarkarai Murugan, Udaiyan Suresh, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Mathath Roni, Al Thabiani Aziz, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Kuppusamy Sathishkumar, Aruliah Rajasekar, Suresh Kumar, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Akon Higuchi, Giovanni Benelli
The development of novel mosquito control tools is a key prerequisite to build effective and reliable Integrated Vector Management strategies. Here, we proposed a novel method using cigarette butts for the synthesis of Ag nanostructures toxic to young instars of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, chloroquine (CQ)-resistant malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and microbial pathogens. The non-target impact of these nanomaterials in the aquatic environment was evaluated testing them at sub-lethal doses on the predatory copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Brian Lovett, Raymond John St Leger
Microbial insect pathogens offer an alternative means of pest control with potential to wean our heavy reliance on chemical pesticides. Insect pathogenic fungi play an important natural role in controlling disease vectors and agricultural pests. Most commercial products employ Ascomycetes in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria. However, their utilization has been limited by inconsistent field results due to sensitivity to abiotic stresses and naturally low virulence. Other naturally occurring biocontrol agents also face these hurdles to successful application, but the availability of complete genomes and recombinant DNA technologies have facilitated design of multiple fungal pathogens with enhanced virulence and stress resistance...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
Muhammad Sameeullah, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Göksel Özer, Noreen Aslam, Ekrem Gurel, Mohammad Tahir Waheed, Turan Karadeniz
Global crop production is highly threatened due to pathogen invasion. The huge quantity of pesticides application, although harmful to the environment and human health, is carried out to prevent the crop losses worldwide, every year. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity and plant resistance against pathogen is important. The resistance against pathogens is regulated by three important phytohormones viz. salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET). Here we review possible role of CRISPR technology to understand the plant pathogenicity by mutating genes responsible for pathogen invasion or up-regulating the phytohormones genes or resistant genes...
September 7, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Mazarin Akami, Hamada Chakira, Awawing A Andongma, Kanjana Khaeso, Olajire A Gbaye, Njintang Y Nicolas, E-N Nukenine, Chang-Ying Niu
The intensive use of synthetic pesticides in cowpea storage has led to the development of resistance by Callosobruchus maculatus and subsequent degradation of grain quality. In an attempt to circumvent these constraints, the susceptibility of C. maculatus to 2,2-dichlorovinyldimethyl phosphate (DDVP) and Lippia adoensis essential oil (EO) was investigated and variations in the proportions of nutritional values of treated grains 150 days after storage were assessed. The survival rate was recorded after five generations...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Tanya R Copley, Raj Duggavathi, Suha Jabaji
Rhizoctonia solani Kühn infects most plant families and can cause significant agricultural yield losses worldwide; however, plant resistance to this disease is rare and short-lived, and therefore poorly understood, resulting in the use of chemical pesticides for its control. Understanding the functional responses of this pathogen during host infection can help elucidate the molecular mechanisms that are necessary for successful host invasion. Using the pathosystem model soybean-R. solani anastomosis group AG1-IA, we examined the global transcriptional responses of R...
2017: PloS One
Arthur Agnello, Kerik Cox, Jaume Lordan, Poliana Francescatto, Terence Robinson
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York...
September 4, 2017: Insects
Fábio A Pinto, Marcos V V Mattos, Farley W S Silva, Silma L Rocha, Simon L Elliot
Helicoverpa armigera, one of the world's most destructive crop pests, was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Within a few months, this polyphagous insect had spread over the Northeast and Central-West of Brazil, causing great agricultural losses. With several reports of populations resistant to pesticides and Bt crops around the world, there is great concern about the spread of this pest in Brazil. There is confusion about the actual distribution of this species due to the high morphological similarity with the native corn earworm Helicoverpa zea, which may also coexist with H...
September 4, 2017: Insects
Shuwei Zhang, Feng Ding, Hongxiang Peng, Yu Huang, Jiang Lu
Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, can result in a substantial decrease in grapevine productivity. Vitis vinifera is a widely cultivated grapevine species, which is susceptible to this disease. Repeated pesticide applications are harmful for both the environment and human health. Thus, it is essential to develop varieties/cultivars that are resistant to downy mildew and other diseases. In our previous studies, we investigated the natural resistance of the Chinese wild grapevine V. quinquangularis accession 'PS' against P...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Enoch A Akinpelu, Adewole T Adetunji, Seteno K O Ntwampe, Felix Nchu, Lukhanyo Mekuto
Sustainability of nutrient requirements for microbial proliferation on a large scale is a challenge in bioremediation processes. This article presents data on biochemical properties of a free cyanide resistant and total nitrogen assimilating fungal isolate from the rhizosphere of Zeamays (maize) growing in soil contaminated with a cyanide-based pesticide. DNA extracted from this isolate were PCR amplified using universal primers; TEF1-α and ITS. The raw sequence files are available on the NCBI database. Characterisation using biochemical data was obtained using colorimetric reagents analysed with VITEK(®) 2 software version 7...
October 2017: Data in Brief
Jian-Xue Jin, Dao-Chao Jin, Feng-Liang Li, Ying Cheng, Wen-Hong Li, Zhao-Chun Ye, Yu-Hang Zhou
As a newer cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoid pesticide at present, cycloxaprid has good industrialization prospects, including the management of imidacloprid-resistant populations, because this chemical have an excellent efficiency against rice planthoppers. Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is the most economically important pest of rice worldwide and has developed resistance to many insecticides. This study focused on the expression change of these resistance genes, induced by cycloxaprid, involved in metabolic detoxification and receptor protein...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Nina Singh, Matthew T Sit, Marissa K Schutte, Gabriel E Chan, Jeyson E Aldana, Diana Cervantes, Clyde H Himmelstein, Pamela J Yeh
BACKGROUND: Although evolution is the driving force behind many of today's major public health and agriculture issues, both journalists and scientific researchers often do not use the term "evolve" in discussions of these topics. METHODS: In a total of 1,066 articles and 716 papers selected from 25 US newspapers and 34 scientific journals, we assess usage of the word "evolve" and its substitute words in the contexts of cancer tumor drug resistance, HIV drug resistance, mosquito insecticide resistance, and weed pesticide resistance...
2017: PeerJ
Kounouz Rachedi, Ferial Zermane, Radja Tir, Fatima Ayache, Robert Duran, Béatrice Lauga, Solange Karama, Maryse Simon, Abderrahmane Boulahrouf
Repeated application of pesticides disturbs microbial communities and cause dysfunctions on soil biological processes. Granstar(®) 75 DF is one of the most used sulfonylurea herbicides on cereal crops; it contains 75% of tribenuron-methyl. Assessing the changes on soil microbiota, particularly on the most abundant bacterial groups, will be a useful approach to determine the impact of Granstar(®) herbicide. For this purpose, we analyzed Actinobacteria, which are known for their diversity, abundance, and aptitude to resist to xenobiotic substances...
August 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Mikaeel Young, Ali Ozcan, Monty E Myers, Evan G Johnson, James H Graham, Swadeshmukul Santra
Copper (Cu) bactericides/fungicides are used extensively for crop protection in agriculture. Concerns for Cu accumulation in soil, Cu leaching into the surrounding ecosystem, and development of Cu resistance in phytopathogenic bacteria are evident. While there is no suitable alternative to Cu available to date for agricultural uses, it is possible to reduce Cu per application by supplementing with Zn and improving Cu bioavailability using nanotechnology. We have prepared a non-phytotoxic composite material consisting of generally recognized as safe ZnO 800 particles and nanocopper-loaded silica gel (ZnO-nCuSi)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Patrick Fénichel, Nicolas Chevalier
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes has dramatically increased worldwide during the last few decades. While lifestyle factors (sedentariness, noxious food), together with genetic susceptibility, are well-known actors, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also play a pathophysiological role in the occurrence of metabolic diseases. Both experimental and epidemiological evidence support a role for early and chronic exposure to low doses of chemical pollutants with endocrine and metabolic disrupting effects...
August 18, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Richard H Ffrench-Constant, Chris Bass
Insecticide resistance mutations are widely assumed to carry fitness costs. However studies to measure such costs are rarely performed on genetically related strains and are often only done in the laboratory. Theory also suggests that once evolved the cost of resistance can be offset by the evolution of fitness modifiers. But for insecticide resistance only one such example is well documented. Here we critically examine the literature on fitness costs in the absence of pesticide and ask if our knowledge of molecular biology has helped us predict the costs associated with different resistance mechanisms...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Andrei Alyokhin, Yolanda H Chen
Insecticide resistance is a serious economic problem that jeopardizes sustainability of chemical control of herbivorous insects and related arthropods. It can be viewed as a specific case of adaptation to toxic chemicals, which has been driven in large part, but not exclusively, by the necessity for insect pests to tolerate defensive compounds produced by their host plants. Synthetic insecticides may simply change expression of specific sets of detoxification genes that have evolved due to ancestral associations with host plants...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Joel S Brown, Kateřina Staňková
For over 100 years it has been recognized that insect pests evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. More recently, managers have advocated restrained use of pesticides, crop rotation, the use of multiple pesticides, and pesticide-free sanctuaries as resistance management practices. Game theory provides a conceptual framework for combining the resistance strategies of the insects and the control strategies of the pest manager into a unified conceptual and modelling framework. Game theory can contrast an ecologically enlightened application of pesticides with an evolutionarily enlightened one...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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