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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453406/crop-fertilisation-impacts-epidemics-and-optimal-latent-period-of-biotrophic-fungal-pathogens
#1
Pierre-Antoine Précigout, David Claessen, Corinne Robert
Crop pathogens are known to rapidly adapt to agricultural practices. Although cultivar resistance breakdown and resistance to pesticides have been broadly studied, little is known about the adaptation of crop pathogens to fertilization regimes and no epidemiological model has addressed that question. However this is a critical issue for developing sustainable low-input agriculture. In this paper, we use a model of life history evolution of biotrophic wheat fungal pathogens aiming to understand how they could adapt to changes in fertilization practices...
April 28, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444605/recent-trends-of-modern-bacterial-insecticides-for-pest-control-practice-in-integrated-crop-management-system
#2
REVIEW
Pritam Chattopadhyay, Goutam Banerjee, Sayantan Mukherjee
Food security and safety are the major concern in ever expanding human population on the planet earth. Each and every year insect pests cause a serious damage in agricultural field that cost billions of dollars annually to farmers. The loss in term of productivity and high cost of chemical pesticides enhance the production cost. Irrespective use of chemical pesticides (such as Benzene hexachloride, Endosulfan, Aldicarb, and Fenobucarb) in agricultural field raised several types of environmental issues. Furthermore, continuous use of chemical pesticides creates a selective pressure which helps in emerging of resistance pest...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444324/fitness-trade-off-associated-with-spinosad-resistance-in-frankliniella-occidentalis-thysanoptera-thripidae
#3
Xiaoyu Li, Yanran Wan, Guangdi Yuan, Sabir Hussain, Baoyun Xu, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Youjun Zhang, Qingjun Wu
Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an economically important pest of agricultural crops. High resistance has been detected in field populations of F. occidentalis against the insecticide spinosad. In this study, we compared life history traits, body sizes, and feeding behaviors (recorded via an electrical penetration graph) of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and spinosad-resistant (NIL-R) near-isogenic lines of F. occidentalis. Life table analysis showed that NIL-R had reduced female longevity and reduced fecundity...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435029/activity-of-carboxylesterases-glutathione-s-transferase-and-monooxygenase-on-rhipicephalus-microplus-exposed-to-fluazuron
#4
Fabrício Nascimento Gaudêncio, Guilherme Marcondes Klafke, Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Thaís Paes Ferreira, Cristiane Nunes Coelho, Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca, Isabele da Costa Angelo, Jairo Pinheiro
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the exposure to fluazuron on the activity of common pesticide detoxification enzyme groups in the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus). Engorged females of a susceptible strain (POA) and a resistant strain (Jaguar) were exposed in vitro to fluazuron and their eggs and larvae were used to compare the activities of the general esterases, mixed-function oxidases (MFO) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The results showed significant elevation in MFO contents and esterases activity in the resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain, in eggs and larvae respectively...
April 20, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427415/insecticide-resistance-patterns-in-uganda-and-the-effect-of-indoor-residual-spraying-with-bendiocarb-on-kdr-l1014s-frequencies-in-anopheles-gambiae-s-s
#5
Tarekegn A Abeku, Michelle E H Helinski, Matthew J Kirby, James Ssekitooleko, Chris Bass, Irene Kyomuhangi, Michael Okia, Godfrey Magumba, Sylvia R Meek
BACKGROUND: Resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroid insecticides has been attributed to selection pressure from long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and the use of chemicals in agriculture. The use of different classes of insecticides in combination or by rotation has been recommended for resistance management. The aim of this study was to understand the role of IRS with a carbamate insecticide in management of pyrethroid resistance. METHODS: Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from multiple sites in nine districts of Uganda (up to five sites per district)...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422284/is-a-larger-refuge-always-better-dispersal-and-dose-in-pesticide-resistance-evolution
#6
Daisuke Takahashi, Takehiko Yamanaka, Masaaki Sudo, David A Andow
The evolution of resistance against pesticides is an important problem of modern agriculture. The high-dose/refuge strategy, which divides the landscape into treated and non-treated (refuge) patches, has proven effective at delaying resistance evolution. However, theoretical understanding is still incomplete, especially for combinations of limited dispersal and partially recessive resistance. We reformulate a two-patch model based on the Comins model and derive a simple quadratic approximation to analyze the effects of limited dispersal, refuge size and dominance for high efficacy treatments on the rate of evolution...
April 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414252/environmental-impacts-of-genetically-modified-gm-crop-use-1996-2015-impacts-on-pesticide-use-and-carbon-emissions
#7
Graham Brookes, Peter Barfoot
This paper updates previous assessments of important environmental impacts associated with using crop biotechnology in global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid 1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 618.7 million kg (-8.1%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by18...
April 17, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412634/chitosan-induced-immunity-in-camellia-sinensis-l-o-kuntze-against-blister-blight-disease-is-mediated-by-nitric-oxide
#8
Swarnendu Chandra, Nilanjan Chakraborty, Koustubh Panda, Krishnendu Acharya
Blister blight disease, caused by an obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen, Exobasidium vexans Massee is posing a serious threat for tea cultivation in Asia. As the use of chemical pesticides on tea leaves substantially increases the toxic risks of tea consumption, serious attempts are being made to control such pathogens by boosting the intrinsic natural defense responses against invading pathogens in tea plants. In this study, the nature and durability of resistance offered by chitosan and the possible mechanism of chitosan-induced defense induction in Camellia sinensis (L...
April 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405911/a-new-biopesticide-from-a-local-bacillus-thuringiensis-var-tenebrionis-xd3-against-alder-leaf-beetle-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#9
Ardahan Eski, İsmail Demir, Kazım Sezen, Zihni Demirbağ
Use of chemical pesticides in agriculture harms humans, non-target organisms and environments, and causes increase resistance against chemicals. In order to develop an effective bio-pesticide against coleopterans, particularly against Agelastica alni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) which is one of the serious pests of alder leaf and hazelnut, we tested the insecticidal effect of 21 Bacillus isolates against the larvae and adults of the pest. Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis-Xd3 (Btt-Xd3) showed the highest insecticidal effect based on screening tests...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399311/molecular-markers-of-pesticide-resistance-and-pathogens-in-human-head-lice-phthiraptera-pediculidae-from-rural-georgia-usa
#10
Marina E Eremeeva, Danielle Capps, Emmanuel B Winful, Shamta S Warang, Sarah E Braswell, Nikolay K Tokarevich, Denise L Bonilla, Lance A Durden
Although the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, and body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., both have a worldwide distribution, the occurrence of head louse pediculosis appears to be more prevalent in modern societies despite systematic use of various pediculicides. This study tested head lice collected in rural Georgia and body lice collected in Russia for the prevalence of a kdr-biomarker that is associated with permethrin resistance. This study also screened lice for the presence of DNA from Bartonella quintana and Acinetobacter species...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387028/induced-plant-defences-in-biological-control-of-arthropod-pests-a-double-edged-sword
#11
REVIEW
Maria L Pappas, Colette Broekgaarden, George D Broufas, Merijn R Kant, Gerben J Messelink, Anke Steppuhn, Felix Wäckers, Nicole M van Dam
Biological control is an important ecosystem service delivered by natural enemies. Together with breeding for plant defence, it constitutes one of the most promising alternatives to pesticides for controlling herbivores in sustainable crop production. Especially induced plant defences may be promising targets in plant breeding for resistance against arthropod pests. Because they are activated upon herbivore damage, costs only incur when defence is needed. Moreover, they can be more specific than constitutive defences...
April 7, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358907/the-gut-microbiota-of-insecticide-resistant-insects-houses-insecticide-degrading-bacteria-a-potential-source-for-biotechnological-exploitation
#12
Luis Gustavo de Almeida, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de Moraes, José Roberto Trigo, Celso Omoto, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
The exploration of new niches for microorganisms capable of degrading recalcitrant molecules is still required. We hypothesized the gut microbiota associated with insect-resistant lines carry pesticide degrading bacteria, and predicted they carry bacteria selected to degrade pesticides they were resistant to. We isolated and accessed the pesticide-degrading capacity of gut bacteria from the gut of fifth instars of Spodoptera frugiperda strains resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, spinosad and lufenuron, using insecticide-selective media...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356604/early-molecular-signatures-of-responses-of-wheat-to-zymoseptoria-tritici-in-compatible-and-incompatible-interactions
#13
E S Orton, J J Rudd, J K M Brown
Zymoseptoria tritici, the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch, a serious foliar disease of wheat, is a necrotrophic pathogen that undergoes a long latent period. Emergence of insensitivity to fungicides, and pesticide reduction policies, mean there is a pressing need to understand septoria and control it through greater varietal resistance. Stb6 and Stb15, the most common qualitative resistance genes in modern wheat cultivars, determine specific resistance to avirulent fungal genotypes following a gene-for-gene relationship...
April 2017: Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340765/detection-of-trace-levels-of-organophosphate-pesticides-using-an-electronic-tongue-based-on-graphene-hybrid-nanocomposites
#14
Murilo H M Facure, Luiza A Mercante, Luiz H C Mattoso, Daniel S Correa
Organophosphate (OP) compounds impose significant strains on public health, environmental/food safety and homeland security, once they have been widely used as pesticides and insecticides and also display potential to be employed as chemical warfare agents by terrorists. In this context, the development of sensitive and reliable chemical sensors that would allow in-situ measurements of such contaminants is highly pursued. Here we report on a free-enzyme impedimetric electronic tongue (e-tongue) used in the analysis of organophosphate pesticides comprising four sensing units based on graphene hybrid nanocomposites...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334673/presence-of-the-%C3%AE-triketone-herbicide-tefuryltrione-in-drinking-water-sources-and-its-degradation-product-in-drinking-waters
#15
Motoyuki Kamata, Mari Asami, Yoshihiko Matsui
Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1...
March 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334400/a-bio-economic-case-study-of-canadian-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies-marker-assisted-selection-mas-in-queen-breeding-affects-beekeeper-profits
#16
Miriam Bixby, Kathy Baylis, Shelley E Hoover, Rob W Currie, Andony P Melathopoulos, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, M Marta Guarna
Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334150/monitoring-trends-in-insecticide-resistance-of-field-populations-of-sogatella-furcifera-hemiptera-delphacidae-in-guizhou-province-china-2012-2015
#17
Jian-Xue Jin, Dao-Chao Jin, Wen-Hong Li, Ying Cheng, Feng-Liang Li, Zhao-Chun Ye
Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory insect that is one of the most important pest species on rice in many Asian countries. Control of S. furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) primarily depends on the use of chemical insecticides, and with this extensive reliance on pesticides, determining the degree of resistance of S. furcifera populations to the chemicals used for its control is essential. In this study, the resistance level to six conventional insecticides in five populations of S. furcifera from Guizhou Province was monitored yearly using the rice-stem dipping method in 2012-2015 to precisely understand current resistance levels and to estimate trends in the development of insecticide resistance in S...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332087/boswellia-ovalifoliolata-burseraceae-essential-oil-as-an-eco-friendly-larvicide-toxicity-against-six-mosquito-vectors-of-public-health-importance-non-target-mosquito-fishes-backswimmers-and-water-bugs
#18
Giovanni Benelli, Mohan Rajeswary, Periasamy Vijayan, Sengamalai Senthilmurugan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Marimuthu Govindarajan
The use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. Plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS revealed that the B...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330102/biodegradation-of-flubendiamide-by-a-newly-isolated-chryseobacterium-sp-strain-ssj1
#19
Shrinivas S Jadhav, M David
Flubendiamide, as a new class (Phthalic acid diamide) of pesticide with a wide spectrum of activity against lepidopteran pests extensively used alone or in combination with other insecticides in agriculture system to get protection from insect pests. Due to high specificity and limited approach towards non-target organism, the extensive use of this pesticide as an alternate for organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides, causing an eventual increase in environmental pollution. Five flubendiamide-resistant bacterial strains were isolated during the present study from agriculture soil considering previous history of pesticide application...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289202/intensified-agriculture-favors-evolved-resistance-to-biological-control
#20
Federico Tomasetto, Jason M Tylianakis, Marco Reale, Steve Wratten, Stephen L Goldson
Increased regulation of chemical pesticides and rapid evolution of pesticide resistance have increased calls for sustainable pest management. Biological control offers sustainable pest suppression, partly because evolution of resistance to predators and parasitoids is prevented by several factors (e.g., spatial or temporal refuges from attacks, reciprocal evolution by control agents, and contrasting selection pressures from other enemy species). However, evolution of resistance may become more probable as agricultural intensification reduces the availability of refuges and diversity of enemy species, or if control agents have genetic barriers to evolution...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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