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pesticide resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537748/pesticide-interactions-mechanisms-benefits-and-risks
#1
John E Casida
Interactions between pesticides at common molecular targets and detoxification systems often determine their effectiveness and safety. Compounds with the same mode of action or target are candidates for cross resistance and restrictions in their recommended uses. Discovery research is therefore focused on new mechanisms and modes of action. Interactions in detoxification systems also provide cross resistance and synergist and safener mechanisms illustrated with serine hydrolases and inhibitors, cytochrome P450s and insecticide synergists, and glutathione S-transferases and herbicide safeners...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533783/progress-on-azadirachta-indica-based-biopesticides-in-replacing-synthetic-toxic-pesticides
#2
REVIEW
Suman Chaudhary, Rupinder K Kanwar, Alka Sehgal, David M Cahill, Colin J Barrow, Rakesh Sehgal, Jagat R Kanwar
Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531206/a-selection-study-on-a-laboratory-designed-population-of-salmon-lic-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-using-organophosphate-and-pyrethroid-pesticides
#3
Elena Myhre Jensen, Sigmund Sevatdal, Marit Jørgensen Bakke, Kiranpreet Kaur, Tor Einar Horsberg
Resistance towards antiparasitic agents in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a widespread problem along the Norwegian coast, reducing treatments efficacies and slowing down the envisioned expansion of Norwegian salmon production. The present study was conducted in order to assess the efficacies of two of the most widely used anti-parasitic substances-azamethiphos and deltamethrin-as well as assessing the benefit of having a resistant genotype compared to being fully sensitive when exposed to one of these substances...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514448/uorf-mediated-translation-allows-engineered-plant-disease-resistance-without-fitness-costs
#4
Guoyong Xu, Meng Yuan, Chaoren Ai, Lijing Liu, Edward Zhuang, Sargis Karapetyan, Shiping Wang, Xinnian Dong
Controlling plant disease has been a struggle for humankind since the advent of agriculture. Studies of plant immune mechanisms have led to strategies of engineering resistant crops through ectopic transcription of plants' own defence genes, such as the master immune regulatory gene NPR1 (ref. 1). However, enhanced resistance obtained through such strategies is often associated with substantial penalties to fitness, making the resulting products undesirable for agricultural applications. To remedy this problem, we sought more stringent mechanisms of expressing defence proteins...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502899/the-expression-of-p450-genes-mediating-fenpropathrin-resistance-is-regulated-by-cncc-and-maf-in-tetranychus-cinnabarinus-boisduval
#5
Li Shi, Mengyao Wang, Yichao Zhang, Guangmao Shen, Haishan Di, Yue Wang, Lin He
Although overexpression of genes encoding detoxification enzymes is a well-known mechanism of pesticide resistance of mites, the regulators involved in this process are still illiterate. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that the overexpression of six P450 genes contributes to fenpropathrin resistance in T. cinnabarinus. In this study, six transcription factor genes that likely regulate the expression of P450 genes were identified and characterized. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that three transcription factor genes were highly expressed in a fenpropathrin-resistant (FeR) strain of T...
May 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482938/rna-interference-mediated-knockdown-of-some-genes-involved-in-digestion-and-development-of-helicoverpa-armigera
#6
M Vatanparast, M Kazzazi, A Mirzaie-Asl, V Hosseininaveh
Helicoverpa armigera is a significant agricultural pest and particularly notorious for its resistance to many types of common insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing and trigged by double-strand RNA (dsRNA), has become a widely used reverse genetics and potent tool for insect pest control. In this study, the effect of ingestion and injection delivery methods of dsRNA related two important enzyme genes, α-amylase (HaAMY48, Ha-AMY49) and juvenile hormone esterase (Ha-JHE), were examined on growth and development of H...
May 9, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482328/green-synthesized-cds-nano-pesticides-toxicity-on-young-instars-of-malaria-vectors-and-impact-on-enzymatic-activities-of-the-non-target-mud-crab-scylla-serrata
#7
Vasu Sujitha, Kadarkarai Murugan, Devakumar Dinesh, Amuthvalli Pandiyan, Rajasekar Aruliah, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Kandasamy Kalimuthu, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Akon Higuchi, Al Thabiani Aziz, Suresh Kumar, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
Currently, nano-formulated mosquito larvicides have been widely proposed to control young instars of malaria vector populations. However, the fate of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is scarcely known, with special reference to the impact of nanoparticles on enzymatic activity of non-target aquatic invertebrates. In this study, we synthesized CdS nanoparticles using a green protocol relying on the cheap extract of Valoniopsis pachynema algae. CdS nanoparticles showed high toxicity on young instars of the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and A...
April 25, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482047/starvation-and-imidacloprid-exposure-influence-immune-response-by-anoplophora-glabripennis-coleoptera-cerambycidae-to-a-fungal-pathogen
#8
Joanna J Fisher, Louela A Castrillo, Bruno G G Donzelli, Ann E Hajek
In several insect systems, fungal entomopathogens synergize with neonicotinoid insecticides which results in accelerated host death. Using the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), an invasive woodborer inadvertently introduced into North America and Europe, we investigated potential mechanisms in the synergy between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum Petch and the insecticide imidacloprid. A potential mechanism underlying this synergy could be imidacloprid's ability to prevent feeding shortly after administration...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481096/cuo-and-zno-nanoparticles-modify-interkingdom-cell-signaling-processes-relevant-to-crop-production-a-review
#9
Anne Anderson, Joan E McLean, Astrid Rosa Jacobson, David Britt
As the world population increases, strategies for sustainable agriculture are needed to fulfill the global need for plants for food and other commercial products. Nanoparticle formulations are likely to be part of the developing strategies. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) offer potential as fertilizers, as they provide bioavailable essential metals, and as pesticides, because of dose-dependent toxicity. Effects of these metal oxide NPs on rhizosphere functions are the focus of this review. These NPs at doses of 10 mg metal/kg and above change production of key metabolites involved in plant protection in a root-associated microbe, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469449/obstacles-and-opportunities-for-diffusion-of-integrated-pest-management-strategies-reported-by-bolivian-small-scale-farmers-and-agronomists
#10
REVIEW
Erik Jørs, Antonio Aramayo, Omar Huici, Flemming Konradsen, Gabriel Gulis
Integrated pest management (IPM) with an increased used of ecological farming methods and less and safer use of pesticides offers solutions to reduce risks of developing pest resistance, human poisoning, and environmental pollution. Despite being promoted by Food and Agriculture Organization and others, it has not spread readily in low-income countries. This article presents the opinions of Bolivian farmers and agronomists on perceived obstacles and opportunities for a diffusion of IPM. Focus group discussions revealed an increased workload without certainty of higher yields or better prices for products grown with IPM compared with traditional agriculture being hindrances for a spread of IPM...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453406/crop-fertilisation-impacts-epidemics-and-optimal-latent-period-of-biotrophic-fungal-pathogens
#11
Pierre-Antoine Précigout, David Claessen, Corinne Robert
Crop pathogens are known to rapidly adapt to agricultural practices. Although cultivar resistance breakdown and resistance to pesticides have been broadly studied, little is known about the adaptation of crop pathogens to fertilization regimes and no epidemiological model has addressed that question. However this is a critical issue for developing sustainable low-input agriculture. In this paper, we use a model of life history evolution of biotrophic wheat fungal pathogens aiming to understand how they could adapt to changes in fertilization practices...
April 28, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450858/fungal-biofilms-targets-for-the-development-of-novel-strategies-in-plant-disease-management
#12
Federica Villa, Francesca Cappitelli, Paolo Cortesi, Andrea Kunova
The global food supply has been facing increasing challenges during the first decades of the 21(st) century. Disease in plants is an important constraint to worldwide crop production, accounting for 20-40% of its annual harvest loss. Although the use of resistant varieties, good water management and agronomic practices are valid management tools in counteracting plant diseases, there are still many pathosystems where fungicides are widely used for disease management. However, restrictive regulations and increasing concern regarding the risk to human health and the environment, along with the incidence of fungicide resistance, have discouraged their use and have prompted for a search for new efficient, ecologically friendly and sustainable disease management strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444605/recent-trends-of-modern-bacterial-insecticides-for-pest-control-practice-in-integrated-crop-management-system
#13
REVIEW
Pritam Chattopadhyay, Goutam Banerjee, Sayantan Mukherjee
Food security and safety are the major concern in ever expanding human population on the planet earth. Each and every year insect pests cause a serious damage in agricultural field that cost billions of dollars annually to farmers. The loss in term of productivity and high cost of chemical pesticides enhance the production cost. Irrespective use of chemical pesticides (such as Benzene hexachloride, Endosulfan, Aldicarb, and Fenobucarb) in agricultural field raised several types of environmental issues. Furthermore, continuous use of chemical pesticides creates a selective pressure which helps in emerging of resistance pest...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444324/fitness-trade-off-associated-with-spinosad-resistance-in-frankliniella-occidentalis-thysanoptera-thripidae
#14
Xiaoyu Li, Yanran Wan, Guangdi Yuan, Sabir Hussain, Baoyun Xu, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Youjun Zhang, Qingjun Wu
Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an economically important pest of agricultural crops. High resistance has been detected in field populations of F. occidentalis against the insecticide spinosad. In this study, we compared life history traits, body sizes, and feeding behaviors (recorded via an electrical penetration graph) of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and spinosad-resistant (NIL-R) near-isogenic lines of F. occidentalis. Life table analysis showed that NIL-R had reduced female longevity and reduced fecundity...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435029/activity-of-carboxylesterases-glutathione-s-transferase-and-monooxygenase-on-rhipicephalus-microplus-exposed-to-fluazuron
#15
Fabrício Nascimento Gaudêncio, Guilherme Marcondes Klafke, Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Thaís Paes Ferreira, Cristiane Nunes Coelho, Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca, Isabele da Costa Angelo, Jairo Pinheiro
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the exposure to fluazuron on the activity of common pesticide detoxification enzyme groups in the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus). Engorged females of a susceptible strain (POA) and a resistant strain (Jaguar) were exposed in vitro to fluazuron and their eggs and larvae were used to compare the activities of the general esterases, mixed-function oxidases (MFO) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The results showed significant elevation in MFO contents and esterases activity in the resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain, in eggs and larvae respectively...
April 20, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427415/insecticide-resistance-patterns-in-uganda-and-the-effect-of-indoor-residual-spraying-with-bendiocarb-on-kdr-l1014s-frequencies-in-anopheles-gambiae-s-s
#16
Tarekegn A Abeku, Michelle E H Helinski, Matthew J Kirby, James Ssekitooleko, Chris Bass, Irene Kyomuhangi, Michael Okia, Godfrey Magumba, Sylvia R Meek
BACKGROUND: Resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroid insecticides has been attributed to selection pressure from long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and the use of chemicals in agriculture. The use of different classes of insecticides in combination or by rotation has been recommended for resistance management. The aim of this study was to understand the role of IRS with a carbamate insecticide in management of pyrethroid resistance. METHODS: Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from multiple sites in nine districts of Uganda (up to five sites per district)...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422284/is-a-larger-refuge-always-better-dispersal-and-dose-in-pesticide-resistance-evolution
#17
Daisuke Takahashi, Takehiko Yamanaka, Masaaki Sudo, David A Andow
The evolution of resistance against pesticides is an important problem of modern agriculture. The high-dose/refuge strategy, which divides the landscape into treated and nontreated (refuge) patches, has proven effective at delaying resistance evolution. However, theoretical understanding is still incomplete, especially for combinations of limited dispersal and partially recessive resistance. We reformulate a two-patch model based on the Comins model and derive a simple quadratic approximation to analyze the effects of limited dispersal, refuge size, and dominance for high efficacy treatments on the rate of evolution...
April 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414252/environmental-impacts-of-genetically-modified-gm-crop-use-1996-2015-impacts-on-pesticide-use-and-carbon-emissions
#18
Graham Brookes, Peter Barfoot
This paper updates previous assessments of important environmental impacts associated with using crop biotechnology in global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid-1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 618.7 million kg (-8.1%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by18...
April 3, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412634/chitosan-induced-immunity-in-camellia-sinensis-l-o-kuntze-against-blister-blight-disease-is-mediated-by-nitric-oxide
#19
Swarnendu Chandra, Nilanjan Chakraborty, Koustubh Panda, Krishnendu Acharya
Blister blight disease, caused by an obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen, Exobasidium vexans Massee is posing a serious threat for tea cultivation in Asia. As the use of chemical pesticides on tea leaves substantially increases the toxic risks of tea consumption, serious attempts are being made to control such pathogens by boosting the intrinsic natural defense responses against invading pathogens in tea plants. In this study, the nature and durability of resistance offered by chitosan and the possible mechanism of chitosan-induced defense induction in Camellia sinensis (L...
April 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405911/a-new-biopesticide-from-a-local-bacillus-thuringiensis-var-tenebrionis-xd3-against-alder-leaf-beetle-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#20
Ardahan Eski, İsmail Demir, Kazım Sezen, Zihni Demirbağ
Use of chemical pesticides in agriculture harms humans, non-target organisms and environments, and causes increase resistance against chemicals. In order to develop an effective bio-pesticide against coleopterans, particularly against Agelastica alni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) which is one of the serious pests of alder leaf and hazelnut, we tested the insecticidal effect of 21 Bacillus isolates against the larvae and adults of the pest. Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis-Xd3 (Btt-Xd3) showed the highest insecticidal effect based on screening tests...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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