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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080995/rapid-emergence-of-pathogens-in-agro-ecosystems-global-threats-to-agricultural-sustainability-and-food-security
#1
REVIEW
Bruce A McDonald, Eva H Stukenbrock
Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073381/immediate-and-lag-effects-of-pesticide-exposure-on-parasite-resistance-in-larval-amphibians
#2
Katherine M Pochini, Jason T Hoverman
Across host-parasite systems, there is evidence that pesticide exposure increases parasite loads and mortality following infection. However, whether these effects are driven by reductions in host resistance to infection or slower rates of parasite clearance is often unclear. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we examined the ability of larval northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) to resist and clear trematode (Echinoparyphium sp.) infections following exposure to the insecticide carbaryl...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066973/discovery-and-characterisation-of-field-resistance-to-organophosphorus-chemicals-in-a-major-mite-pest-halotydeus-destructor
#3
Paul A Umina, Alan Lord, Svetlana Micic, Owain Edwards
BACKGROUND: The redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) is an agricultural pest in Australia that attacks a wide variety of crops and pasture species. Chemicals remain an important part of control strategies for H. destructor, despite the existence of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in this species. Recent chemical control failures involving a second insecticide class, organophosphates, were investigated using pesticide bioassays. RESULTS: We confirmed, for the first time, resistance to organophosphates in H...
January 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063192/soft-selective-sweeps-in-fungicide-resistance-adaptation-recurrent-mutations-without-fitness-costs-in-grapevine-downy-mildew
#4
Chloé E L Delmas, Yann Dussert, Laurent Delière, Carole Couture, Isabelle D Mazet, Sylvie Richart Cervera, François Delmotte
Adaptation produces hard or soft selective sweeps depending on the supply of adaptive genetic polymorphism. The evolution of pesticide resistance in parasites is a striking example of rapid adaptation that can shed light on selection processes. Plasmopara viticola, which causes grapevine downy mildew, forms large populations, in which resistance has rapidly evolved due to excessive fungicide use. We investigated the pathways by which fungicide resistance has evolved in this plant pathogen, to determine whether hard or soft selective sweeps were involved...
January 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062792/biochemical-and-molecular-mechanisms-associated-with-the-resistance-of-the-european-corn-borer-lepidoptera-crambidae-to-lambda-cyhalothrin-and-first-monitoring-tool
#5
Myriam Siegwart, Jean-Baptiste Thibord, Jérôme Olivares, Céline Hirn, Jan Elias, Sandrine Maugin, Claire Lavigne
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)) is one of the most serious corn pest in Europe where it is controlled with pesticides, in particular, pyrethroids. First control failures with this chemical family occurred on the field in 2008 in the center of France, and the first resistance case was described in 2012. In the present study, we investigate resistance mechanisms involved in seven French populations of O. nubilalis collected in the field. Resistances to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were confirmed, with a higher resistance ratio for lambda-cyhalothrin (63...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060816/prediction-of-hexaconazole-concentration-in-the-top-most-layer-of-oil-palm-plantation-soil-using-exploratory-data-analysis-eda
#6
Zainol Maznah, Muhamad Halimah, Mahendran Shitan, Provash Kumar Karmokar, Sulaiman Najwa
Ganoderma boninense is a fungus that can affect oil palm trees and cause a serious disease called the basal stem root (BSR). This disease causes the death of more than 80% of oil palm trees midway through their economic life and hexaconazole is one of the particular fungicides that can control this fungus. Hexaconazole can be applied by the soil drenching method and it will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil after treatment with respect to time. Hence, a field study was conducted in order to determine the actual concentration of hexaconazole in soil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050633/biopolymer-microencapsulations-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-crystal-preparations-for-increased-stability-and-resistance-to-environmental-stress
#7
Xiaolin He, Zhongqin Sun, Kanglai He, Shuyuan Guo
Parasporal crystals synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used as microbial pesticides because of their toxicity to the larval stages of specific insects. However, parasporal crystals can be damaged by environmental stresses, such as high temperature, ultraviolet radiation, and desiccation. To reduce environmental susceptibility of parasporal crystals and extend the duration of their activity, we developed a new type of protection by making microcapsules of crystals (MCs). The microcapsules were self-assembled by alternate deposition (layer by layer) of low-cost chitosan and sodium alginate (or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) on the crystal surface...
January 3, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045087/nutrition-affects-insect-susceptibility-to-bt-toxins
#8
Carrie A Deans, Spencer T Behmer, Ashley E Tessnow, Patricia Tamez-Guerra, Marianne Pusztai-Carey, Gregory A Sword
Pesticide resistance represents a major challenge to global food production. The spread of resistance alleles is the primary explanation for observations of reduced pesticide efficacy over time, but the potential for gene-by-environment interactions (plasticity) to mediate susceptibility has largely been overlooked. Here we show that nutrition is an environmental factor that affects susceptibility to Bt toxins. Protein and carbohydrates are two key macronutrients for insect herbivores, and the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa zea self-selects and performs best on diets that are protein-biased relative to carbohydrates...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043328/rna-interference-of-three-up-regulated-transcripts-associated-with-insecticide-resistance-in-an-imidacloprid-resistant-population-of-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#9
Justin Clements, Sean Schoville, Nathan Peterson, Anders S Huseth, Que Lan, Russell L Groves
The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a major agricultural pest of potatoes in the Central Sands production region of Wisconsin. Previous studies have shown that populations of L. decemlineata have become resistant to many classes of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, L. decemlineata has multiple mechanisms of resistance to deal with a pesticide insult, including enhanced metabolic detoxification by cytochrome p450s and glutathione S-transferases...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043326/advances-and-prospects-in-biogenic-substances-against-plant-virus-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Lei Zhao, Chaohong Feng, Kuan Wu, Wenbao Chen, Yujia Chen, Xingan Hao, Yunfeng Wu
Plant virus diseases, known as 'plant cancer', are the second largest plant diseases after plant fungal diseases, which have caused great damage to agricultural industry. Since now, the most direct and effective method for controlling viruses is chemotherapeutics, except for screening of anti-disease species. As the occurrence and harm of plant diseases intensify, production and consumption of pesticides have increased year by year, and greatly contributed to the fertility of agriculture, but also brought a series of problems, such as the increase of drug resistance of plant pathogens and the excessive pesticide residues...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025068/transcription-of-four-rhopalosiphum-padi-l-heat-shock-protein-genes-and-their-responses-to-heat-stress-and-insecticide-exposure
#11
Yuting Li, Qi Zhao, Xinle Duan, Chunman Song, Maohua Chen
The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), a worldwide destructive pest, is more heat tolerant than other wheat aphids, and it has developed resistance to different insecticides. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in coping with environmental stresses. To investigate Hsp transcriptional responses to heat and insecticide stress, four full-length Hsp genes from R. padi (RpHsp60, RpHsc70, RpHsp70-1, and RpHsp70-2) were cloned. Four RpHsps were expressed during all R. padi developmental stages, but at varying levels...
December 24, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018306/the-plant-as-metaorganism-and-research-on-next-generation-systemic-pesticides-prospects-and-challenges
#12
Zisis Vryzas
Systemic pesticides (SPs) are usually recommended for soil treatments and as seed coating agents and are taken up from the soil by involving various plant-mediated processes, physiological, and morphological attributes of the root systems. Microscopic insights and next-generation sequencing combined with bioinformatics allow us now to identify new functions and interactions of plant-associated bacteria and perceive plants as meta-organisms. Host symbiotic, rhizo-epiphytic, endophytic microorganisms and their functions on plants have not been studied yet in accordance with uptake, tanslocation and action of pesticides...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004873/plant-defence-induced-by-pgpr-against-spodoptera-litura-in-tomato
#13
Rafia Muqarab, Asghari Bano
Spodoptera litura is the major pest of tomato causing significant reduction in tomato yield. Application of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) prevent use of chemical fertilizer and synthetic pesticides through enhancement of plant growth and yield and induction of systemic resistance. Present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the role of PGPR, Pseudomonas putida and Rothia sp. on the physiology and yield of tomato fruit infested with the Spodoptera litura.The surface sterilized seeds of tomato were inoculated with 48h culture of Pseudomonas putida and Rothia sp...
December 22, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986826/the-contribution-of-genome-mining-strategies-to-the-understanding-of-active-principles-of-pgpr-strains
#14
Julia Paterson, Ghazaleh Jahanshah, Yan Li, Qi Wang, Samina Mehnaz, Harald Gross
Pathogenic microorganisms and insects affecting plant health are a major and chronic threat to food production and the ecosystem, worldwide. As agricultural production has intensified over the years, the use of agrochemicals has in turn increased. However, this extensive usage has had several detrimental effects, with a pervasive environmental impact and the emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition, there is an increasing tendency among consumers to give preference to pesticide-free food products. Biological control, through the employment of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), is therefore considered a possible route to the reduction, even the elimination, of the use of agrochemicals...
December 15, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938939/expression-of-the-galanthus-nivalis-agglutinin-gna-gene-in-transgenic-potato-plants-confers-resistance-to-aphids
#15
Xiaoxiao Mi, Xue Liu, Haolu Yan, Lina Liang, Xiangyan Zhou, Jiangwei Yang, Huaijun Si, Ning Zhang
Aphids, the largest group of sap-sucking pests, cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide every year. The massive use of pesticides to combat this pest causes severe damage to the environment, putting in risk the human health. In this study, transgenic potato plants expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene were developed using CaMV 35S and ST-LS1 promoters generating six transgenic lines (35S1-35S3 and ST1-ST3 corresponding to the first and second promoter, respectively). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the GNA gene was expressed in leaves, stems and roots of transgenic plants under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, while it was only expressed in leaves and stems under the control of the ST-LS1 promoter...
December 6, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932274/a-glutathione-s-transferase-tugstd05-associated-with-acaricide-resistance-in-tetranychus-urticae-directly-metabolizes-the-complex-ii-inhibitor-cyflumetofen
#16
Nena Pavlidi, Mousaalreza Khalighi, Antonis Myridakis, Wannes Dermauw, Nicky Wybouw, Dimitra Tsakireli, Euripides G Stephanou, Nikolaos E Labrou, John Vontas, Thomas Van Leeuwen
Cyflumetofen is a recently introduced acaricide with a novel mode of action, acting as an inhibitor of complex II of mitochondrial electron transport chain. It is activated by hydrolysis and the resulting de-esterified metabolite is a much stronger inhibitor. Cyflumetofen represents a great addition for the control of mite species including Tetranychus urticae, a major agricultural pest, which has the ability to develop resistance to most classes of pesticides rapidly. A resistant strain (Tu008R) was recently described and synergism experiments pointed towards the involvement of GSTs...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914537/the-fenpropathrin-resistant-tetranychus-cinnabarinus-showed-increased-fecundity-with-high-content-of-vitellogenin-and-vitellogenin-receptor
#17
Xing Liu, Guangmao Shen, Haoran Xu, Lin He
Carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval), an agricultural pest of economically important crops, has developed resistance to a group of pesticides. We have selected a fenpropathrin-resistant strain (FeR) of T. cinnabarinus from the isogenous and susceptible strain (SS), and found that the FeR not only showed resistance but its fecundity also increased. According to the numbers of eggs laid per day of both strains, the FeR was more fertile than SS throughout the life span. To investigate the underlying reason, the protein contents of vitellogenin (vg) and vitellogenin receptor (vgr) were detected, and the results showed both of them were significantly higher in FeR than in SS...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907095/phenotypic-plasticity-epigenetic-or-genetic-modifications-in-relation-to-the-duration-of-cd-exposure-within-a-microevolution-time-range-in-the-beet-armyworm
#18
Maria Augustyniak, Anna Płachetka-Bożek, Alina Kafel, Agnieszka Babczyńska, Monika Tarnawska, Agnieszka Janiak, Anna Loba, Marta Dziewięcka, Julia Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Agnieszka Zawisza-Raszka
In the case of the pests inhabiting metal polluted or fields where the use of pesticides is common, a natural selection of resistant individuals can occur. This may pose serious problems for humans, agriculture, as well as the economies of many countries. In this study, the hypothesis that multigenerational (120 generations) exposure to cadmium of a beet armyworm population could be a selecting factor toward a more efficient DNA protection was verified. The hemocytes of individuals from two culture strains (control and Cd-exposed) were treated with H2O2 (a DNA-damaging agent) or PBS (reference)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903366/-effects-of-organochloride-pesticides-on-dyslipidemias
#19
W T Shao, A H Gu
Dyslipidemias is one important risk factor associated with chronic diseases. Persistent organic pollutants are resistant to degradation and can be bio-accumulated and magnified through the food chain. Recently, the relation between dyslipidemias and organochlorine pesticides has attracted more attentions. In this review, we explored the distribution of organochloride pesticides in the environment and human body, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms of the association between dyslipidemias and organochloride pesticides, including accumulation and release of organochloride, simulation of estrogen, impact on PPARs, the metabolic fingerprint, and the inflammatory reaction...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895651/invertebrate-biosecurity-challenges-in-high-productivity-grassland-the-new-zealand-example
#20
REVIEW
Stephen L Goldson, Barbara I P Barratt, Karen F Armstrong
To protect productive grasslands from pests and diseases, effective pre- and at-border planning and interventions are necessary. Biosecurity failure inevitably requires expensive and difficult eradication, or long-term and often quite ineffective management strategies. This is compared to the early intervention more likely for sectors where there is public and political interest in plants of immediate economic and/or social value, and where associated pests are typically located above-ground on host plantings of relatively limited distribution...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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