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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725368/prospects-of-herbivore-egg-killing-plant-defenses-for-sustainable-crop-protection
#1
REVIEW
Nina E Fatouros, Antonino Cusumano, Etienne G J Danchin, Stefano Colazza
Due to a growing demand of food production worldwide, new strategies are suggested to allow for sustainable production of food with minimal effects on natural resources. A promising alternative to the application of chemical pesticides is the implementation of crops resistant to insect pests. Plants produce compounds that are harmful to a wide range of attackers, including insect pests; thus, exploitation of their natural defense system can be the key for the development of pest-resistant crops. Interestingly, some plants possess a unique first line of defense that eliminates the enemy before it becomes destructive: egg-killing...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716581/diversifying-food-systems-in-the-pursuit-of-sustainable-food-production-and-healthy-diets
#2
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Edith T Lammerts van Bueren, Salvatore Ceccarelli, Stefania Grando, Hari D Upadhyaya, Rodomiro Ortiz
Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived food, may reduce diet-related illnesses. Investments in plant sciences will be necessary to design diverse cropping systems balancing productivity, sustainability, and nutritional quality. Cultivar diversity and nutritional quality are crucial...
July 14, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714247/-molecular-cytogenetics-to-characterize-mechanisms-of-gene-duplication-in-pesticide-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Mithila Jugulam, Bikram S Gill
Recent advances in molecular cytogenetics empower construction of physical maps to illustrate the precise position of genetic loci on the chromosomes. Such maps provide visible information about the position of DNA sequences, including the distribution of repetitive sequences on the chromosomes. This will be an important step forward toward unraveling the genetic mechanisms implicated in chromosomal aberrations (e.g., gene duplication). In response to stress, such as pesticide selection, the duplicated genes provide an immediate adaptive advantage to organisms that overcome unfavorable conditions...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712711/specificity-and-putative-mode-of-action-of-a-mosquito-larvicidal-toxin-from-the-bacterium-xenorhabdus-innexi
#4
Il-Hwan Kim, Jerald Ensign, Do-Young Kim, Hoe-Yune Jung, Na-Ri Kim, Bo-Hwa Choi, Sun-Min Park, Que Lan, Walter G Goodman
Reduction of mosquito-borne diseases relies, in part, on the use of synthetic pesticides to control pest mosquitoes. This reliance has led to genetic resistance, environmental contamination and the nondiscriminatory elimination of both pest and non-pest species. To expand our options for control, we screened entomopathogenic bacteria for potential larvicidal activity. A lipopeptide from the bacterium, Xenorhabdus innexi, was discovered that displayed potent larvicidal activity. The LC50s of the lipopeptide towards Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae larvae were 1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712087/toxicity-of-cypermethrin-and-deltamethrin-insecticides-on-embryos-and-larvae-of-physalaemus-gracilis-anura-leptodactylidae
#5
Natani Macagnan, Camila F Rutkoski, Cassiane Kolcenti, Guilherme V Vanzetto, Luan P Macagnan, Paola F Sturza, Paulo A Hartmann, Marilia T Hartmann
It is important to establish the toxicity pesticides against non-target species, especially those pesticides used in commercial formulations. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture despite their toxicity to aquatic animals. In this study, we determine the toxicity of commercial formulation of two pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin and deltamethrin, in two life stages of Physalaemus gracilis, a frog that breeds in agricultural ecosystems and has potential contact with pyrethroid pesticides...
July 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701806/meteorological-and-landscape-influences-on-pollen-beetle-immigration-into-oilseed-rape-crops
#6
Matthew P Skellern, Sue J Welham, Nigel P Watts, Samantha M Cook
Heavy reliance on pesticide inputs to maintain crop yields has been an important aspect of agricultural intensification. Insecticide use has had detrimental impacts on pollinators and natural pest control agents, contributing to a decline in associated ecosystem services, and has also led to resistance development in pest populations. Throughout Europe, in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops, prophylactic use of insecticides against pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus F. also known as Brassicogethes aeneus) has led to such issues, and there is an urgent need to develop more sustainable pest management practices for the crop...
April 1, 2017: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699558/beyond-efficacy-in-water-containers-temephos-and-household-entomological-indices-in-six-studies-between-2005-and-2013-in-managua-nicaragua
#7
Jorge Arosteguí, Josefina Coloma, Carlos Hernández-Alvarez, Harold Suazo-Laguna, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris, Neil Andersson, Robert J Ledogar
BACKGROUND: A cluster-randomized controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in Mexico and Nicaragua reported, as a secondary finding, a higher risk of dengue virus infection in households where inspectors found temephos in water containers. Data from control sites in the preceding pilot study and the Nicaragua trial arm provided six time points (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2011, 2012, 2013) to examine potentially protective effects of temephos on entomological indices under every day conditions of the national vector control programme...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693644/gene-cloning-and-difference-analysis-of-vitellogenin-in-neoseiulus-barkeri-hughes
#8
L Ding, F Chen, R Luo, Q Pan, C Wang, S Yu, L Cong, H Liu, H Li, C Ran
Neoseiulus barkeri (HUGHES) is the natural enemy of spider mites, whiteflies and thrips. Screening for chemically-resistant predatory mites is a practical way to balance the contradiction between the pesticide using and biological control. In this study, the number of eggs laid by fenpropathrin-susceptible and resistant strains of N. barkeri was compared. Additionally, we cloned three N. barkeri vitellogenin (Vg) genes and used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify Vg expression in susceptible and resistant strains...
July 11, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689359/immunotoxic-responses-of-chronic-exposure-to-cypermethrin-in-common-carp
#9
Siyavash Soltanian, Mohammad Saeed Fereidouni
In the current study, laboratory evaluations were made to assess the immunomodulatory effect of cypermethrin on fingerlings of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Results showed that 96-h LC50 of cypermethrin in common carp was estimated at 0.85 μg/L. Fish were exposed for 21 days to cypermethrin at three sub-lethal concentrations of 0.042, 0.085, and 0.17 μg/L that represented 5, 10, and 20%, respectively, of the 96-h LC50 of the pesticide for this fish species. Blood samples were taken after 7, 14, and 21 days of exposure...
July 8, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688604/serum-concentrations-of-per-and-poly-fluoroalkyl-substances-and-factors-associated-with-exposure-in-the-general-adult-population-in-south-korea
#10
Jin Heon Lee, Chae Kwan Lee, Chun-Hui Suh, Hee-Sook Kang, Chun-Pyo Hong, Suk-Nam Choi
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous contaminants found worldwide, including in South Korea. As a result, they are frequently detected in Koreans. However, there is limited representative data and information on potential sources in Korea. Therefore, we measured the serum concentrations of ten PFASs in nationally representative samples of the Korean population (n=1874, 18-69 years) and evaluated the factors associated with their exposure. Serum PFOS, PFDA, PFOA, and PFNA were detected in nearly all participants (83...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686745/protocols-for-the-delivery-of-small-molecules-to-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae
#11
Takeshi Suzuki, María Urizarna España, Maria Andreia Nunes, Vladimir Zhurov, Wannes Dermauw, Masahiro Osakabe, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Miodrag Grbic, Vojislava Grbic
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a chelicerate herbivore with an extremely wide host range and an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. Due to its responsiveness to natural and synthetic xenobiotics, the spider mite is becoming a prime pest herbivore model for studies of the evolution of host range, plant-herbivore interactions and mechanisms of xenobiotic resistance. The spider mite genome has been sequenced and its transcriptional responses to developmental and various biotic and abiotic cues have been documented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685174/amine-functionalized-mil-53-al-coated-stainless-steel-fiber-for-efficient-solid-phase-microextraction-of-synthetic-musks-and-organochlorine-pesticides-in-water-samples
#12
Lijun Xie, Shuqin Liu, Zhubing Han, Ruifen Jiang, Fang Zhu, Weiqin Xu, Chengyong Su, Gangfeng Ouyang
The fiber coating is the key part of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique, and it determines the sensitivity, selectivity, and repeatability of the analytical method. In this work, amine (NH2)-functionalized material of Institute Lavoisier (MIL)-53(Al) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized, and applied as the SPME fiber coating for efficient sample pretreatment owing to their unique structures and excellent adsorption properties. Under optimized conditions, the NH2-MIL-53(Al)-coated fiber showed good precision, low limits of detection (LODs) [0...
July 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680118/immunosuppression-in-honeybee-queens-by-the-neonicotinoids-thiacloprid-and-clothianidin
#13
Annely Brandt, Katharina Grikscheit, Reinhold Siede, Robert Grosse, Marina Doris Meixner, Ralph Büchler
Queen health is crucial to colony survival of honeybees, since reproduction and colony growth rely solely on the queen. Queen failure is considered a relevant cause of colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides can severely affect the immunocompetence of queens of western honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). In young queens exposed to thiacloprid (200 µg/l or 2000 µg/l) or clothianidin (10 µg/l or 50 µg/l), the total hemocyte number and the proportion of active, differentiated hemocytes was significantly reduced...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674744/ectopic-expression-of-csd1-and-csd2-targeting-genes-of-mir398-in-grapevine-is-associated-with-oxidative-stress-tolerance
#14
XiangPeng Leng, Peipei Wang, Xudong Zhu, Xiaopeng Li, Ting Zheng, Lingfei Shangguan, Jinggui Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs of -21 nucleotides that play an important role in diverse plant physiological processes at the post-transcriptional level by directing mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Previous studies have indicated that down-regulation of miR398 in response to oxidative stress allows up-regulation of the two target genes, cytosolic CSD1 and chloroplastic CSD2 (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase), resulting in protecting the plants to tolerate oxidative stress. In this study, we provide evidence that grapevine miR398 (Vv-miR398), by regulating the expression of its target genes, VvCSD1 and VvCSD2, mediates responses of grapevine to copper (Cu) stress which have been magnified due to increase in Cu-containing pesticide application...
July 3, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663694/the-effects-of-clove-oil-on-the-enzyme-activity-of-varroa-destructor-anderson-and-trueman-arachnida-acari-varroidae
#15
Li Li, Zhe-Guang Lin, Shuai Wang, Xiao-Ling Su, Hong-Ri Gong, Hong-Liang Li, Fu-Liang Hu, Huo-Qing Zheng
Varroa destructor, a key biotic threat to the Western honey bee, has played a major role in colony losses over the past few years worldwide. Overuse of traditional acaricides, such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin, on V. destructor has only increased its tolerance to them. Therefore, the application of essential oils in place of traditional pesticides is an attractive alternative, as demonstrated by its high efficiency, lack of residue and tolerance resistance. To study the acaricidal activity of essential oils, we used clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum L...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659884/fungal-glucosylceramide-specific-camelid-single-domain-antibodies-are-characterized-by-broad-spectrum-antifungal-activity
#16
Barbara De Coninck, Peter Verheesen, Christine M Vos, Inge Van Daele, Miguel F De Bolle, Joao V Vieira, Marnix Peferoen, Bruno P A Cammue, Karin Thevissen
Chemical crop protection is widely used to control plant diseases. However, the adverse effects of pesticide use on human health and environment, resistance development and the impact of regulatory requirements on the crop protection market urges the agrochemical industry to explore innovative and alternative approaches. In that context, we demonstrate here the potential of camelid single domain antibodies (VHHs) generated against fungal glucosylceramides (fGlcCer), important pathogenicity factors. To this end, llamas were immunized with purified fGlcCer and a mixture of mycelium and spores of the fungus Botrytis cinerea, one of the most important plant pathogenic fungi...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653579/automated-identification-of-northern-leaf-blight-infected-maize-plants-from-field-imagery-using-deep-learning
#17
Chad DeChant, Tyr Wiesner-Hanks, Siyuan Chen, Ethan L Stewart, Jason Yosinski, Michael A Gore, Rebecca Nelson, Hod Lipson
Northern leaf blight (NLB) can cause severe yield loss in maize, but scouting large areas to accurately diagnose the disease is time-consuming and difficult. We demonstrate a system capable of automatically identifying northern leaf blight (NLB) lesions in field-acquired images of maize plants with high reliability. This approach uses a computational pipeline of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that addresses the challenges of limited data and the myriad irregularities that appear in images of field-grown plants...
June 27, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652587/novel-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assay-with-a-universal-qprobe-can-detect-snps-determining-races-in-plant-pathogenic-fungi
#18
Yu Ayukawa, Saeri Hanyuda, Naoko Fujita, Ken Komatsu, Tsutomu Arie
Tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is grouped into three races based on their pathogenicity to different host cultivars. Rapid detection and discrimination of Fol races in field soils is important to prevent tomato wilt disease. Although five types of point mutations in secreted in xylem 3 (SIX3) gene, which are characteristic of race 3, have been reported as a molecular marker for the race, detection of these point mutations is laborious. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid and accurate method for the detection of point mutations in SIX3 of Fol...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650966/insecticide-resistance-to-permethrin-and-malathion-and-associated-mechanisms-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-from-st-andrew-jamaica
#19
Sheena Francis, Karla Saavedra-Rodriguez, Rushika Perera, Mark Paine, William C Black, Rupika Delgoda
The emergence of novel diseases spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in Jamaica and the Caribbean, has prompted studies on insecticide resistance towards effective management of the vector. Though Jamaica has been using the organophosphate insecticide malathion in its vector control program for more than 30 years, resistance to the pesticide has not been tested in over a decade. We analyzed resistance to malathion and the pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin on mosquitoes collected across St. Andrew, Jamaica, and analyzed the molecular basis of resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645870/impact-on-environment-ecosystem-diversity-and-health-from-culturing-and-using-gmos-as-feed-and-food
#20
REVIEW
Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Victor A Tutelyan, Kirill S Golokhvast, Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Duck Hwa Chung, Sung Jo Kang, Michael D Coleman, Nadia Tyshko, Seung Hwan Yang, Gyuhwa Chung
Modern agriculture provides the potential for sustainable feeding of the world's increasing population. Up to the present moment, genetically modified (GM) products have enabled increased yields and reduced pesticide usage. Nevertheless, GM products are controversial amongst policy makers, scientists and the consumers, regarding their possible environmental, ecological, and health risks. Scientific-and-political debates can even influence legislation and prospective risk assessment procedure. Currently, the scientifically-assessed direct hazardous impacts of GM food and feed on fauna and flora are conflicting; indeed, a review of literature available data provides some evidence of GM environmental and health risks...
June 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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