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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813778/the-bactericidal-effect-of-high-temperature-is-an-essential-resistance-mechanism-of-chicken-macrophage-against-brucella-abortus-infection
#1
Lauren Togonon Arayan, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo Reyes, Huynh Tan Hop, Huy Tran Xuan, Eun Jin Baek, Wongi Min, Suk Kim
Knowledge of avian host responses to brucellosis is critical to understanding how avian resists this infection however this mechanism is not well established. On the other hand, temperature has a major involvement in the physiology of living organisms and cell death induced by heat is attributed to protein denaturation. This study demonstrates the direct bactericidal effect of a higher temperature (41ºC) to Brucella (B.) abortus that resulted in the gradual reduction of intracellular bacteria that inhibits bacterial growth within avian macrophage HD11 along an increasing period of time...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813755/genetics-of-alcoholism
#2
Ena C Zhu, Timothy J Soundy, Yueshan Hu
Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk...
May 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813677/the-il-17f-il-17rc-axis-promotes-respiratory-allergy-in-the-proximal-airways
#3
Antonella De Luca, Marilena Pariano, Barbara Cellini, Claudio Costantini, Valeria Rachela Villella, Shyam Sushama Jose, Melissa Palmieri, Monica Borghi, Claudia Galosi, Giuseppe Paolicelli, Luigi Maiuri, Jan Fric, Teresa Zelante
The interleukin 17 (IL-17) cytokine and receptor family is central to antimicrobial resistance and inflammation in the lung. Mice lacking IL-17A, IL-17F, or the IL-17RA subunit were compared with wild-type mice for susceptibility to airway inflammation in models of infection and allergy. Signaling through IL-17RA was required for efficient microbial clearance and prevention of allergy; in the absence of IL-17RA, signaling through IL-17RC on epithelial cells, predominantly by IL-17F, significantly exacerbated lower airway Aspergillus or Pseudomonas infection and allergic airway inflammation...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813651/a-rogue-foxp3-mutant-undermines-treg-cell-function
#4
Ye Zheng
Hayatsu et al. (2017) reveal that a FOXP3 mutant found in some patients afflicted with the autoimmune disease IPEX has broadened DNA-recognition specificity, directly repressing the expression of the gene encoding the transcription factor Batf. Their findings identify Batf as critical to tissue regulatory T cell function and suggest that polymorphisms that impact FOXP3 DNA-binding specificity may contribute susceptibility to autoimmune disease.
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813629/the-impact-of-the-eda-pathway-on-tooth-root-development
#5
J M Fons Romero, H Star, R Lav, S Watkins, M Harrison, M Hovorakova, D Headon, A S Tucker
The Eda pathway ( Eda, Edar, Edaradd) plays an important role in tooth development, determining tooth number, crown shape, and enamel formation. Here we show that the Eda pathway also plays a key role in root development. Edar (the receptor) is expressed in Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) during root development, with mutant mice showing a high incidence of taurodontism: large pulp chambers lacking or showing delayed bifurcation or trifurcation of the roots. The mouse upper second molars in the Eda pathway mutants show the highest incidence of taurodontism, this enhanced susceptibility being matched in human patients with mutations in EDA-A1...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813625/detection-of-first-line-drug-resistance-mutations-and-drug-protein-interaction-dynamics-from-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-india
#6
Somanna Ajjamada Nachappa, Sumana M Neelambike, Chokkanna Amruthavalli, Nallur B Ramachandra
Diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis predominantly relies on culture-based drug susceptibility testing, which take weeks to produce a result and a more time-efficient alternative method is multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Also, understanding the role of mutations in causing resistance helps better drug designing. AIMS: To evaluate the ability of MAS-PCR in the detection of drug resistance and to understand the mechanism of interaction of drugs with mutant proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813562/polygenic-scores-for-major-depressive-disorder-and-risk-of-alcohol-dependence
#7
Allan M Andersen, Robert H Pietrzak, Henry R Kranzler, Li Ma, Hang Zhou, Xiaoming Liu, John Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Howard J Edenberg, John I Nurnberger, John P Rice, Jay A Tischfield, Alison Goate, Tatiana M Foroud, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Bernice Porjesz, Danielle M Dick, Victor Hesselbrock, Eric Boerwinkle, Steven M Southwick, John H Krystal, Myrna M Weissman, Douglas F Levinson, James B Potash, Joel Gelernter, Shizhong Han
Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are heritable disorders with significant public health burdens, and they are frequently comorbid. Common genetic factors that influence the co-occurrence of MDD and AD have been sought in family, twin, and adoption studies, and results to date have been promising but inconclusive. Objective: To examine whether AD and MDD overlap genetically, using a polygenic score approach. Design, Settings, and Participants: Association analyses were conducted between MDD polygenic risk score (PRS) and AD case-control status in European ancestry samples from 4 independent genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets: the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA); the Study of Addiction, Genetics, and Environment (SAGE); the Yale-Penn genetic study of substance dependence; and the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS)...
August 16, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813520/the-frequency-of-class1-and-2-integrons-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-isolated-from-burn-patients-in-a-burn-center-of-ahvaz-iran
#8
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Moloudsadat Motahar, Effat Abbasi Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with the ability to cause severe nosocomial infections and remains a major problem in burn patients. This organism shows a remarkable antimicrobial resistance and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Integron genes as mobile genetic elements are playing an important role in the spread of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. This study was aimed to investigate the occurrence of class 1, and 2 integron genes (int1, int2), among P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813477/colonization-prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-pregnant-women-over-a-6-year-period-in-dongguan-china
#9
Wenjing Ji, Lihua Zhang, Zhusheng Guo, Shujin Xie, Weiqing Yang, Junjian Chen, Jiamin Wang, Zhiqin Cheng, Xin Wang, Xuehai Zhu, Jianwen Wang, Haiqing Wang, Juan Huang, Ning Liang, David J McIver
This study investigated the prevalence of recto-vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pregnant women in Dongguan, China. Recto-vaginal swabs were collected from pregnant women at gestational age 35-37 weeks between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2014. Isolates were serotyped by latex-agglutination and were tested against seven antimicrobials by disk diffusion. Of 7,726 pregnant women who completed GBS testing, 636 (8.2%) were GBS carriers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813462/a-comprehensive-profiling-of-t-and-b-lymphocyte-receptor-repertoires-from-a-chinese-origin-rhesus-macaque-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#10
Longfei Fu, Xinyang Li, Wei Zhang, Changxi Wang, Jinghua Wu, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Xiao Liu
Due to the close genetic background, high similarity of physiology, and susceptibility to infectious and metabolic diseases with humans, rhesus macaques have been widely used as an important animal model in biomedical research, especially in the study of vaccine development and human immune-related diseases. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing based immune repertoire sequencing (IR-SEQ) has become a powerful tool to study the dynamic adaptive immune responses. Several previous studies had analyzed the responses of B cells to HIV-1 trimer vaccine or T cell repertoire of rhesus macaques using this technique, however, there are little studies that had performed a comprehensive analysis of immune repertoire of rhesus macaques, including T and B lymphocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813433/diabetes-risks-and-outcomes-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-two-nationwide-population-based-retrospective-cohort-studies
#11
Chao-Shun Lin, Chih-Chung Liu, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Yi-Cheng Chang, Chi-Li Chung, Hsin-Long Lane, Chun-Chuan Shih, Ta-Liang Chen, Chien-Chang Liao
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes remains incompletely understood. This study evaluated diabetes risk and post-diabetes outcomes in COPD patients with and without exacerbations. METHODS: We identified 4671 adults newly diagnosed with COPD exacerbations and 9342 adults newly diagnosed with COPD without exacerbations during 2000-2008 using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort of 18684 adults without COPD, matched by age and sex, was randomly selected from the same dataset for the control group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813258/the-added-value-of-rodent-models-in-studying-parental-influence-on-offspring-development-opportunities-limitations-and-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Jelle Knop, Marian Joëls, Rixt van der Veen
Over the past decades, the influence of parental care on offspring development has been a topic of extensive research in both human and animal models. Rodent models offer several unique advantages over human studies, allowing for higher levels of environmental control, exploration of interventions, genetic control and examination of underlying neurobiological mechanisms in greater spatiotemporal detail. Although exploitation of these opportunities has led to increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying susceptibility to the early-life environment, translation of results to human parenting and child development appears to be challenging...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813255/parenting-intervention-effects-on-children-s-externalizing-behavior-the-moderating-role-of-genotype-and-temperament
#13
REVIEW
Geertjan Overbeek
Recent research suggests that children's heightened susceptibility to parenting may have a (poly)genetic basis, and may be grounded in children's temperament. However, much current evidence is of a preliminary-correlational-nature. Because in correlational designs alternative explanations for gene-environment (G×E) or temperament-environment (T×E) interactions cannot be discounted, it is pivotal to conduct experimental studies in which parenting is actively manipulated. Based on data from a recently conducted randomized trial (n=387) of the Incredible Years parenting intervention, experimental evidence is provided for G×E and T×E interactions in an at-risk population of children aged 4-8 years...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813251/genetic-differential-susceptibility-to-the-effects-of-parenting
#14
REVIEW
Jay Belsky, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
Intervention efforts aimed at remediating or preventing problems in children typically prove only moderately effective due to substantial heterogeneity in their efficacy. It thus becomes important to account for such variation in intervention efficacy. Here we summarize illustrative evidence that, due to their genetic make-up, some children benefit more from interventions targeting parenting than do others. Whereas some work documents the role of single, 'candidate' genes, other work reveals the utility of compositing multiple genes and genetic pathways...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813144/stimulated-raman-imaging-reveals-aberrant-lipogenesis-as-a-meta-bolic-marker-for-azole-resistant-candida-albicans
#15
Caroline W Karanja, Weili Hong, Waleed Younis, Hassan E Eldesouky, Mohamed N Seleem, Ji-Xin Cheng
Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the single most prevalent cause of fungal bloodstream infections worldwide causing significant mortality as high as fifty percent. This high mortality rate is, in part, due to the inability to initiate an effective antifungal therapy early in the disease process. Mortality rates significantly increase after twelve hours of delay in initiating the appropriate antifungal therapy following a positive blood culture. Early administration of appropriate antifungal therapy is hampered by the slow turnovers of the conventional antimicrobial testing techniques, which require days of incubation...
August 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813063/tuning-mass-transport-in-magnetic-nanoparticle-filled-viscoelastic-hydrogels-using-low-frequency-rotating-magnetic-fields
#16
Shahab Boroun, Faïçal Larachi
This study investigates the response of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), dispersed in a viscoelastic hydrogel, to an external rotating magnetic field (RMF) for the purpose of developing a new class of magneto-responsive materials with tunable mass transport properties. Ferrogels were prepared by chemical cross-linking and polymerization of acrylamide in colloidal dispersions of thermally blocked MNPs of cobalt ferrite. Magnetization measurements of ferrogels in a swollen state revealed a transitional state from ferromagnetism to superparamagnetism through the shrinkage of hysteresis loops and the reduction of remanent magnetization...
August 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813028/detection-methodologies-for-pathogen-and-toxins-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
Pathogen and toxin-contaminated foods and beverages are a major source of illnesses, even death, and have a significant economic impact worldwide. Human health is always under a potential threat, including from biological warfare, due to these dangerous pathogens. The agricultural and food production chain consists of many steps such as harvesting, handling, processing, packaging, storage, distribution, preparation, and consumption. Each step is susceptible to threats of environmental contamination or failure to safeguard the processes...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812992/endolysosomal-degradation-of-allergenic-ole-e-1-like-proteins-analysis-of-proteolytic-cleavage-sites-revealing-t-cell-epitope-containing-peptides
#18
Sabrina Wildner, Brigitta Elsässer, Teresa Stemeseder, Peter Briza, Wai Tuck Soh, Mayte Villalba, Jonas Lidholm, Hans Brandstetter, Gabriele Gadermaier
Knowledge of the susceptibility of proteins to endolysosomal proteases provides valuable information on immunogenicity. Though Ole e 1-like proteins are considered relevant allergens, little is known about their immunogenic properties and T cell epitopes. Thus, six representative molecules, i.e., Ole e 1, Fra e 1, Sal k 5, Che a 1, Phl p 11 and Pla l 1, were investigated. Endolysosomal degradation and peptide generation were simulated using microsomal fractions of JAWS II dendritic cells. Kinetics and peptide patterns were evaluated by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812990/human-leukocyte-antigen-c-12-02-02-and-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-2dl5-are-distinctly-associated-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-in-the-taiwanese
#19
Chin-Man Wang, Sheng-Hung Wang, Yeong-Jian Jan Wu, Jing-Chi Lin, Jianming Wu, Ji-Yih Chen
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands and Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and certain T cells. We examined their genetic predisposition to disease susceptibility and clinical phenotypes in Taiwanese ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. KIR genotyping and Human Leucocyte Antigen C (HLA-C) sequencing were performed in 653 Taiwanese AS patients and 952 healthy controls. KIR genotype distributions and HLA-C allele frequencies were compared in patients and controls and among patients with and without HLA-B27 positivity, early age onset and spinal syndesmophytes...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812984/modelling-the-effects-of-quinidine-disopyramide-and-e-4031-on-short-qt-syndrome-variant-3-in-the-human-ventricles
#20
Cunjin Luo, Kuanquan Wang, Henggui Zhang
Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is an inherited cardiac channelopathy, but at present little information is available on its pharmacological treatment. SQT3 variant (linked to the inward rectifier potassium current IK1) of SQTS, results from a gain-of-function mutation (Kir2.1 D172N) in the KCNJ2-encoded channels, which is associated with ventricular fibrillation (VF). Using biophysically-detailed human ventricular computer models, this study investigated the potential effects of quinidine, disopyramide, and E-4031 on SQT3...
August 16, 2017: Physiological Measurement
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