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Liwei Wang, Lianjun Cheng, Junru Li, Zhifu Zhu, Shuowei Bai, Zhongyu Cui
Influence of alternating current (AC) on pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X70 pipeline steel in the near-neutral pH environment under cathodic protection (CP) was investigated. Both corrosion and SCC are inhibited by -0.775 VSCE CP without AC interference. With the superimposition of AC current (1-10 mA/cm²), the direct current (DC) potential shifts negatively under the CP of -0.775 VSCE and the cathodic DC current decreases and shifts to the anodic direction. Under the CP potential of -0...
March 22, 2018: Materials
A Shore-Maggio, G S Aeby, S M Callahan
Environmental cofactors alter host-pathogen interactions and influence disease dynamics by impairing host resistance and/or increasing pathogen virulence. Terrestrial runoff is recognized as a major threat to coral reef health. However, the direct links between runoff and coral disease are not clear. Montipora white syndrome (MWS) is a coral disease that occurs in the Hawaiian archipelago, can be caused by various bacterial pathogens, including Vibrio species, and is linked to conditions associated with heavy rainfall and runoff...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Hyeri Seok, Cheol-In Kang, Kyungmin Huh, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, rates of fluoroquinolone resistance are increasing with their frequent use. We designed this study to verify current fluoroquinolone resistance rates and risk factors for community-onset pneumococcal pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. The study population comprised patients admitted for pneumococcal pneumonia between January 2011 and May 2017...
March 22, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Gianvincenzo Sparacia, Francesco Agnello, Angelo Gambino, Martina Sciortino, Massimo Midiri
Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of the 'central vein' sign in white matter lesions on susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance images in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Materials and methods T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images of 19 MS patients and 19 patients affected by CSVD were analysed for the presence and localisation of focal hyperintense white matter lesions. Lesions were subdivided into periventricular or non-periventricular (juxtacortical, subcortical, deep white matter and cerebellar) distributed...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Anselm Wong, Benjamin Cheung, Charlotte Nejad, Michael Gantier, Andis Graudins
CASE DETAILS: A 19-year-old girl presented to the emergency department following overdose of 10 g of paracetamol on a background history of cystic fibrosis. Paracetamol concentration was below the nomogram line, but was treated with acetylcysteine seven hours post-overdose given her symptomatology. Nineteen hours following her overdose she developed hepatotoxicity, despite early initiation of acetylcysteine. She was discharged well six days post-ingestion. On presentation, delta miRNA-122-miR483 was 20 times that of control patients, however, alanine aminotransferase was normal...
March 22, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
A Hernández, G Yagüe, E García Vázquez, M Simón, L Moreno Parrado, M Canteras, J Gómez
OBJECTIVE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens causing hospital-acquired infections. In recent years, antimicrobial resistance is increasing and multidrug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) isolates have been associated with an increase of mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical significance and analyze predictors and prognostic factors. METHODS: Prospective case-control non-paired study involving 64 patients with P...
March 21, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Debora Di Mauro, Monica Currò, Fabio Trimarchi, Mercurio Vecchio, Giuseppina Rizzo, Davide Barreca, Giuseppa Visalli, Riccardo Ientile, Daniela Caccamo
Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms have been associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress increase, that are established cardiovascular risk factors. Given that intense physical activity may increase the susceptibility to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, here we investigated the effects of MTHFR C677T and A1298C as well as PON1 Q192R gene polymorphisms on cardiovascular risk markers in twenty-eight male water polo elite players. The mean plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were above reference limits in resting conditions, and increased after competition...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Martin Poot
The highly complex structural genome variations chromothripsis, chromoanasynthesis, and chromoplexy are subsumed under the term chromoanagenesis, which means chromosome rebirth. Precipitated by numerous DNA double-strand breaks, they differ in number of and distances between breakpoints, associated copy number variations, order and orientation of segments, and flanking sequences at joining points. Results from patients with the autosomal dominant cancer susceptibility disorder Li-Fraumeni syndrome implicated somatic TP53 mutations in chromothripsis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Luis I Reyes-Aguirre, Heberto Quintero, Brenda Estrada-Leyva, Mónica Lamas
microRNA profiling has identified cell-specific expression patterns that could represent molecular signatures triggering the acquisition of a specific phenotype; in other words, of cellular identity and its associated function. Several groups have hypothesized that retinal cell phenotyping could be achieved through the determination of the global pattern of miRNA expression across specific cell types in the adult retina. This is especially relevant for Müller glia in the context of retinal damage, as these cells undergo dramatic changes of gene expression in response to injury, that render them susceptible to acquire a progenitor-like phenotype and be a source of new neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ratneev Kaur, Tajinder Kaur, Anupam Kaur
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex multifactorial endocrine disorder affecting approximately 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Affected women have menstrual disturbances due to anovulation, infertility, and hyperandrogenism. Ovarian androgen overproduction is the key physiopathologic feature of PCOS. A number of genes encoding major enzymes of the androgen metabolic pathways, such as HSD17B6, CYP19A1, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and INSR, have been examined. Very few studies have been done in North India...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Takaya Handa, Hiroko Kakita, Yu Tateishi, Tomomi Endo, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Toshiro Katayama, Tatsuo Tsukamoto, Eri Muso
BACKGROUND: IgA-dominant infection-related glomerulonephritis (IgA-IRGN) is a unique form of IRGN, which needs to be distinguished from IgA nephropathy (IgAN). METHODS: Thirteen patients with IgA-IRGN (IgA-IRGN group) and 122 with IgAN (IgAN group) were selected from 1788 patients who underwent kidney biopsy between 2000 and 2015 in Kitano Hospital. Data selected included clinical and serological parameters; light and electron microscope findings; immunofluorescence findings; and prognostic parameters like renal and overall survival and creatinine increase by > 50%...
March 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Suying Bao, Lilong Jia, Xueya Zhou, Zhi-Gang Zhang, Hazel Wai Lan Wu, Zhe Yu, Gordon Ng, Yanhui Fan, Dana S M Wong, Shishu Huang, Kelvin Kai Wang To, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Man Lung Yeung, You-Qiang Song
Host genetic factors play an important role in diverse host outcomes after influenza A (H7N9) infection. Studying differential responses of inbred mouse lines with distinct genetic backgrounds to influenza virus infection could substantially increase our understanding of the contributory roles of host genetic factors to disease severity. Here, we utilized an integrated approach of mRNA-seq and miRNA-seq to investigate the transcriptome expression and regulation of host genes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mouse strains during influenza virus infection...
March 21, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Mariana Volpe Arnoni, Claudete Rodrigues Paula, Marcos Ereno Auler, Cirilo Cesar Naozuka Simões, Shirley Nakano, Maria Walderez Szeszs, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Virgínia Bodelão Richini Pereira, Hans Garcia Garces, Eduardo Bagagli, Eriques Gonçalves Silva, Melissa Ferreira de Macêdo, Luciana da Silva Ruiz
Fusarium species have emerged as responsible for a broad spectrum of infections, including superficial, locally invasive and disseminated ones, especially in the hospital environment. Since there are few reports of invasive and disseminated fusariosis in children, the aim of this study was to report four cases of nosocomial infection caused by this microorganism in children with cancer hospitalized in a public children's hospital located in Brazil. Two of these patients were female and two were male. All patients presented febrile neutropenia, while three patients had acute lymphocytic leukemia and one patient had Wilms' tumor as underlying disease...
March 21, 2018: Mycopathologia
Musa Sakuma Adamu, Iniobong Chukwuebuka Ikenna Ugochukwu, Sunday Idoko Idoko, Yakubu Adamu Kwabugge, Nafisatu Sa'ad Abubakar, James Ameh Ameh
Prevalence and distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups from the faecal samples of cattle and camels slaughter in Maiduguri abattoir and their antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates were determined. The highest prevalence (24%) was recorded in the month of September and more STEC isolates came from cattle than the camels. There was significant (P < 0.05) seasonal trend in the prevalence of STEC among cattle and camel with more cases recorded during the wet season...
March 21, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Seyed Ali Tabatabaei, Mehdi Tabatabaei, Mohammad Soleimani, Zahra Fallah Tafti
Purpose: To report two rare cases of filamentous fungal keratitis. Methods: Two non-consecutive patients presented with suspicious fungal keratitis. After performing the smear and culture, medical therapy was started for them. They underwent slit photography and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in their follow-up visits. Results: The patients were 33-year-old and 56-year-old farmer men. They both mentioned a history of ocular trauma by plants...
March 2018: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
Eric H Jung, David J Meyers, Jürgen Bosch, Arturo Casadevall
Similarities in fungal and animal cells make antifungal discovery efforts more difficult than those for other classes of antimicrobial drugs. Currently, there are only three major classes of antifungal drugs used for the treatment of systemic fungal diseases: polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. Even in situations where the offending fungal organism is susceptible to the available drugs, treatment courses can be lengthy and unsatisfactory, since eradication of infection is often very difficult, especially in individuals with impaired immunity...
March 2018: MSphere
Xuan Qin, Chuan Zhou, Danielle M Zerr, Amanda Adler, Amin Addetia, Shuhua Yuan, Alexander L Greninger
Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are known to differ from those associated with non-CF hosts by colony morphology, drug susceptibility patterns, and genomic hypermutability. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from CF patients have long been recognized for their overall reduced rate of antimicrobial susceptibility, but their intraclonal MIC heterogeneity has long been overlooked. Using two distinct cohorts of clinical strains ( n = 224 from 56 CF patients, n = 130 from 68 non-CF patients) isolated in 2013, we demonstrated profound Etest MIC heterogeneity in CF P...
March 2018: MSphere
Heba Y Al Dawodeyah, Nathir Obeidat, Luay F Abu-Qatouseh, Asem A Shehabi
Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common agent causing community acquired and nosocomial respiratory tract infections, with particularly life-threatening manifestations in patients who are immunocompromised of who have cystic fibrosis. This study investigated the occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo β-lactamase (MBL) in association with important putative virulence genes and genotypes variation among P. aeruginosa isolates from respiratory tract infection of Jordanian patients...
March 2018: Germs
Zarizal Suhaili, Putri 'Amira Rafee, Norhidayah Mat Azis, Chew Chieng Yeo, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Abdul Rachman Abdul Rahim, Mazen M Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa
Introduction: This study aims to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from university students and to determine the prevalence of constitutive and inducible clindamycin resistance, the latter being able to cause therapeutic failure due to false in vitro clindamycin susceptibility. Methods: S. aureus strains were isolated from the nasal swabs of 200 health sciences students of a Malaysian university. Twelve classes of antibiotics were used to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles with the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB ) phenotype for inducible clindamycin resistance determined by the double-diffusion test (D-test)...
March 2018: Germs
Luca Grispoldi, Filippo Bertero, Serena Franceschini, Francesco Mastrosimone, Paola Sechi, Maria Francesca Iulietto, Margherita Ceccarelli, Beniamino Terzo Cenci-Goga
Ten Holstein Friesian calves were divided into two groups of five: one group was given prebiotics in their food, while the other group served as the control group. Every two weeks from birth up to 18 months, samples of feces were taken from the rectal ampulla to determine the concentration of E. coli . At each sampling session, three aliquots per sample were collected. The arithmetic mean was calculated and all values (converted into logs) were analysed with GraphPad InStat for analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey-Kramer test...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
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