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Pia Jæger, Zbigniew J Koscielniak-Nielsen, Karen Lisa Hilsted, Ulrik Grevstad, Volkert Siersma, Maria Louise Fabritius, Jørgen Berg Dahl
BACKGROUND: The binary aims of this study were to investigate the effect of total dose of lidocaine on duration of an adductor canal block (ACB) and to validate different methods used to assess nerve blocks. METHODS: We performed 2 blinded, randomized, controlled crossover trials, including healthy, young men. In study 1, 14 subjects received 4 ACBs with saline and 40, 80, and 160 mg lidocaine. In study 2, 14 new subjects received 2 ACBs with 100 and 300 mg lidocaine...
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ulrik Grevstad, Pia Jæger, Johan Kløvgaard Sørensen, Bo Gottschau, Brian Ilfeld, Martin Ballegaard, Mike Hagelskjaer, Jørgen Berg Dahl
BACKGROUND: Single-injection adductor canal block (ACB) provides analgesia after knee surgery. Which nerves that are blocked by an ACB and what influence-if any-local anesthetic volume has on the effects remain undetermined. We hypothesized that effects on the nerve to the vastus medialis muscle (which besides being a motor nerve innervates portions of the knee) are volume-dependent. METHODS: In this assessor- and subject-blinded randomized trial, 20 volunteers were included...
August 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ø Jans, U Grevstad, H Mandøe, H Kehlet, P I Johansson
BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with both intraoperative and postoperative blood loss resulting in anaemia and, in some patients, transfusion of red blood cells. Epinephrine enhances coagulation by several mechanisms. We evaluated the effect of intraoperative low dose infusion of epinephrine on intraoperative and early postoperative blood loss. METHODS: After consent, 106 subjects undergoing THA under spinal anaesthesia were randomly assigned to receive an i...
March 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Greg Kabachinski, D Michelle Kielar-Grevstad, Xingmin Zhang, Declan J James, Thomas F J Martin
The Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of dense-core vesicles in neuroendocrine cells requires a priming step during which SNARE protein complexes assemble. CAPS (aka CADPS) is one of several factors required for vesicle priming; however, the localization and dynamics of CAPS at sites of exocytosis in live neuroendocrine cells has not been determined. We imaged CAPS before, during, and after single-vesicle fusion events in PC12 cells by TIRF micro-scopy. In addition to being a resident on cytoplasmic dense-core vesicles, CAPS was present in clusters of approximately nine molecules near the plasma membrane that corresponded to docked/tethered vesicles...
February 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Johan Kløvgaard Sørensen, Pia Jæger, Jørgen Berg Dahl, Bo Gottschau, Snorre Læssøe Stephensen, Ulrik Grevstad
BACKGROUND: Using peripheral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), without impeding mobility, is challenging. We hypothesized that the analgesic effect of adductor canal block (ACB) could increase the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle after TKA. METHODS: We included 64 patients on the first postoperative day. Group A received an ACB with 30 mL ropivacaine 0.75% at t0 and with 30 mL saline 60 minutes later (t60)...
February 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Fritzi S Grevstad, Leonard B Coop
A change in climate is known to affect seasonal timing (phenology) of the life stages of poikilothermic organisms whose development depends on temperature. Less understood is the potential for even greater disruption to the life cycle when a phenology shift exposes photoperiod-sensitive life stages to new day lengths. We present a conceptual framework and model to investigate the ways that photoperiod-cued diapause can interact with a change in climate or latitude to influence voltinism in poikilothermic organisms...
September 2015: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
M Christensen, A H Sparre-Ulrich, B Hartmann, U Grevstad, M M Rosenkilde, J J Holst, T Vilsbøll, F K Knop
Treatment with liraglutide leads to weight loss. We investigated whether blood-to-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transfer of liraglutide occurs, and if so, whether it associates with clinical weight loss following liraglutide treatment in humans. We performed lumbar puncture and blood sampling in eight patients with type 2 diabetes (mean (range)): age 63 (54-79) years; actual body weight: 90 (75-118) kg treated with 1.8 mg liraglutide for 14 (5-22) months and with a treatment-induced weight loss of 8.4 (7-11) kg...
November 2015: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Simon Hyttel-Sorensen, Adelina Pellicer, Thomas Alderliesten, Topun Austin, Frank van Bel, Manon Benders, Olivier Claris, Eugene Dempsey, Axel R Franz, Monica Fumagalli, Christian Gluud, Berit Grevstad, Cornelia Hagmann, Petra Lemmers, Wim van Oeveren, Gerhard Pichler, Anne Mette Plomgaard, Joan Riera, Laura Sanchez, Per Winkel, Martin Wolf, Gorm Greisen
OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 166 extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation: 86 were randomised to cerebral NIRS monitoring and 80 to blinded NIRS monitoring...
2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Ulrik Grevstad, Ole Mathiesen, Laura Staun Valentiner, Pia Jaeger, Karen Lisa Hilsted, Jørgen B Dahl
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often associated with severe pain. Different regional anesthetic techniques exist, all with varying degrees of motor blockade. We hypothesized that pain relief provided by the adductor canal block (ACB) could increase functional muscle strength. METHODS: We included 50 TKA patients with severe movement-related pain; defined as having visual analog scale pain score of greater than 60 mm during active flexion of the knee...
January 2015: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
M Espelund, U Grevstad, P Jaeger, P Hölmich, L Kjeldsen, O Mathiesen, J B Dahl
BACKGROUND: The analgesic effect of the adductor canal block (ACB) after knee surgery has been evaluated in a number of trials. We hypothesized that the ACB would provide substantial pain relief to patients responding with moderate to severe pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. METHODS: Fifty subjects with moderate to severe pain after arthroscopic knee surgery were enrolled in this placebo-controlled, blinded trial. All subjects received two ACBs; an initial ACB with either 30 ml ropivacaine 7...
November 2014: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Pernille Kähler, Berit Grevstad, Thomas Almdal, Christian Gluud, Jørn Wetterslev, Søren Søgaard Lund, Allan Vaag, Bianca Hemmingsen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefits and harms of targeting intensive versus conventional glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and LILACS to January 2013. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised clinical trials that prespecified different targets of glycaemic control in participants at any age with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included...
2014: BMJ Open
Kristiana Nikolova, Christian Gluud, Berit Grevstad, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver-related mortality and morbidity. It is estimated that around 5% to 20% of people with the infection will develop liver cirrhosis, which increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
U Grevstad, O Mathiesen, T Lind, J B Dahl
BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with varying degrees of pain. A considerable proportion (25-40%) of patients experience severe pain, despite a comprehensive multimodal analgesic regimen. We hypothesized that adductor canal block (ACB) would reduce pain in this patient category compared with placebo. METHODS: Fifty patients with severe pain, defined as having a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score of >60 during active flexion of the knee on the first or the second postoperative day after TKA, were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
May 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Greg Kabachinski, Masaki Yamaga, D Michelle Kielar-Grevstad, Stephen Bruinsma, Thomas F J Martin
Phosphoinositides provide compartment-specific signals for membrane trafficking. Plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is required for Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle exocytosis, but whether vesicles fuse into PIP2-rich membrane domains in live cells and whether PIP2 is metabolized during Ca(2+)-triggered fusion were unknown. Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein in secretion 1 (CAPS-1; CADPS/UNC31) and ubMunc13-2 (UNC13B) are PIP2-binding proteins required for Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle exocytosis in neuroendocrine PC12 cells...
February 2014: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Leo Heyndrickx, Guillaume Stewart-Jones, Marianne Jansson, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Emma Bowles, Luigi Buonaguro, Berit Grevstad, Lasse Vinner, Katleen Vereecken, Joe Parker, Meghna Ramaswamy, Priscilla Biswas, Guido Vanham, Gabriella Scarlatti, Anders Fomsgaard
BACKGROUND: Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence of an adjuvant. METHODS: Based on in vitro neutralizing activity in serum, patients with bNAbs were selected for cloning of their HIV-1 Env. Seven stable soluble trimeric gp140 proteins were generated from sequences derived from four adults and two children infected with either clade A or B HIV-1...
2013: PloS One
Maria Luisa Visciano, Maria Tagliamonte, Guillaume Stewart-Jones, Leo Heyndrickx, Guido Vanham, Marianne Jansson, Anders Fomsgaard, Berit Grevstad, Meghna Ramaswamy, Franco M Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello, Priscilla Biswas, Gabriella Scarlatti, Luigi Buonaguro
Trimeric soluble forms of HIV gp140 envelope glycoproteins represent one of the closest molecular structures compared to native spikes present on intact virus particles. Trimeric soluble gp140 have been generated by several groups and such molecules have been shown to induce antibodies with neutralizing activity against homologous and heterologous viruses. In the present study, we generated a recombinant trimeric soluble gp140, derived from a previously identified Ugandan A-clade HIV field isolate (gp14094UG018)...
2013: Journal of Translational Medicine
Simon Hyttel-Sorensen, Topun Austin, Frank van Bel, Manon Benders, Olivier Claris, Eugene Dempsey, Monica Fumagalli, Gorm Greisen, Berit Grevstad, Cornelia Hagmann, Lena Hellström-Westas, Petra Lemmers, Jane Lindschou, Gunnar Naulaers, Wim van Oeveren, Adelina Pellicer, Gerhard Pichler, Claudia Roll, Maria Skoog, Per Winkel, Martin Wolf, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Every year in Europe about 25,000 infants are born extremely preterm. These infants have a 20% mortality rate, and 25% of survivors have severe long-term cerebral impairment. Preventative measures are key to reduce mortality and morbidity in an extremely preterm population. The primary objective of the SafeBoosC phase II trial is to examine if it is possible to stabilize the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants during the first 72 hours of life through the application of cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry and implementation of an clinical treatment guideline based on intervention thresholds of cerebral regional tissue saturation rStO2...
2013: Trials
P Jaeger, U Grevstad, M H Henningsen, B Gottschau, O Mathiesen, J B Dahl
BACKGROUND: In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the effect of the predominantly sensory adductor-canal-blockade on established pain in the early post-operative period after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesised that the adductor-canal-blockade would reduce pain during flexion of the knee (primary end point) and at rest, as well as reducing morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects (secondary outcomes) compared with placebo. METHODS: We enrolled patients scheduled for elective TKA into this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study...
September 2012: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
F S Grevstad, C O'Casey, M L Katz
As part of a biological control program against Spartina alterniflora Loisel. (smooth cordgrass), we simultaneously released populations of the planthopper Prokelisia marginata (van Duzee) from four geographic areas in each of five replicate field sites in the Willapa Bay estuary in Washington State. The four sources (California, Georgia, Virginia, and Rhode Island) have varying climate and seasonal regimes. We expected local adaptations would affect performance in the new environment. Using vacuum sampling, we measured population densities in spring and fall for 2 yr after release...
June 2012: Environmental Entomology
Victor Raúl Gómez Román, Lasse Vinner, Berit Grevstad, Jesper Juhl Hansen, Frank Wegmann, Anna-Lena Spetz, Anders Fomsgaard
The New Zealand white rabbit model (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is widely used to test whether HIV vaccine candidates elicit systemic antibody responses; however, its use in mucosal immunology has not been fully exploited due to the difficulty in collecting mucosal specimens longitudinally and reproducibly. Here we describe feasible and non-feasible methods to collect vaginal and nasal specimens from nulliparous rabbits. Non-feasible methods were those resulting in poor reproducibility and considerable animal twitching during sampling, whereas feasible methods resulted in no animal twitching and potential for sampling reproducibility...
December 15, 2010: Journal of Immunological Methods
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