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Substance abuse counseling

Ursula Running Bear, Janette Beals, Douglas K Novins, Spero M Manson
BACKGROUND: Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). METHODS: The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit...
September 24, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Scott E Sherman, Alissa R Link, Erin S Rogers, Paul Krebs, Joseph A Ladapo, Donna R Shelley, Yixin Fang, Binhuan Wang, Ellie Grossman
INTRODUCTION: Hospitalization is a unique opportunity for smoking cessation, but prior interventions have measured efficacy with narrowly defined populations. The objective of this study was to enroll smokers admitted to two "safety net" hospitals and compare the effectiveness of two post-discharge cessation interventions. DESIGN: A randomized comparative effectiveness trial was conducted. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: At two New York City public hospitals, every hospitalized patient identified as a smoker (based on admission records) was approached...
October 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Brian T Chan, Amrose Pradeep, Lakshmi Prasad, Vinothini Murugesan, Ezhilarasi Chandrasekaran, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Kenneth H Mayer
Psychosocial conditions such as depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been associated with poor HIV-related outcomes. In India, which has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, little is understood about the impact of psychosocial conditions on people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to understand the prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among PLHIV entering into HIV care at the Y.R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education in Chennai, India...
September 18, 2016: AIDS Care
Yelena Bird, Mark Lemstra, Marla Rogers, John Moraros
The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Malihe Sheibani, Hassan Joulaei, Noorollah Mohammadi
INTRODUCTION: Several studies suggested that subjective memory complaints in HIV-infected patients are influenced by factors the same as mood, social support and medical symptoms. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between depression, anxiety, social support and substance abuse with memory complaints in HIV/AIDS patients. METHOD: To accomplish this goal, in a correlation study, 220 Iranian adults (146 males and 74 females) selected from the Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Center in Shiraz in 2012, completed these measures: Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), The Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI), Quality of Relationship Inventory (QRI) and Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Salwa G Massad, Mohammed Shaheen, Rita Karam, Ryan Brown, Peter Glick, Sebastian Linnemay, Umaiyeh Khammash
BACKGROUND: Youth health risk behaviors, including substance use (psychoactive substances including alcohol and illicit drugs), have been the subject of relatively limited study to date in Middle Eastern countries. This study provides insights into the perceived prevalence and patterns of alcohol and drug use among Palestinian youth. METHODS: The study was based on ten focus groups and 17 individual interviews with youth aged 16-24 years (n = 83), collected as part of the formative phase of a cross-sectional, population representative study of risk taking behaviors among Palestinian youth in the West Bank in 2012...
2016: BMC Public Health
Jemima A Frimpong, Thomas D'Aunno, Stéphane Helleringer, Lisa R Metsch
BACKGROUND: To examine the extent to which state adoption of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2006 revisions to adult and adolescent HIV testing guidelines is associated with availability of other important prevention and medical services. We hypothesized that in states where the pretest counseling requirement for HIV testing was dropped from state legislation, substance use disorder treatment programs would have higher availability of HCV testing services than in states that had maintained this requirement...
2016: BMC Public Health
Sarah P Haughwout, Thomas C Harford, I-Jen P Castle, Bridget F Grant
BACKGROUND: Adolescent substance users face serious health and social consequences and benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. The objectives of this study were to observe trends in treatment utilization; examine correlates of treatment utilization and treatment types/settings among adolescent substance users with and without substance use disorder (SUD); and assess gender differences. METHODS: National Survey on Drug Use and Health data were pooled across 2002 to 2013, with a combined sample of 79,885 past-year substance users ages 12 to 17 (17,510 with SUD and 62,375 without SUD)...
August 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Patrick Bodenmann, Venetia-Sofia Velonaki, Judith L Griffin, Stéphanie Baggio, Katia Iglesias, Karine Moschetti, Ornella Ruggeri, Bernard Burnand, Jean-Blaise Wasserfallen, Francis Vu, Joelle Schupbach, Olivier Hugli, Jean-Bernard Daeppen
BACKGROUND: Frequent emergency department (ED) users account for a disproportionately high number of ED visits. Studies on case management (CM) interventions to reduce frequent ED use have shown mixed results, and few studies have been conducted within a universal health coverage system. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a CM intervention-compared to standard emergency care-reduces ED attendance. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty frequent ED users (5 or more visits in the prior 12 months) who visited a public urban ED at the Lausanne University Hospital between May 2012 and July 2013 were allocated to either an intervention (n = 125) or control (n = 125) group, and monitored for 12 months...
July 11, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Takalani G Tshitangano, Oni H Tosin
INTRODUCTION: This study determined the prevalence of substance abuse amongst rural secondary school learners in a selected province of South Africa. METHODOLOGY: The study adopted a quantitative approach using a descriptive survey design. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 338 randomly selected learners, age 14 to 18 years, from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhembedzi circuit in the Limpopo Province. Permission to enter the circuit and the schools was obtained from the circuit manager and parents' or learners' informed consent was obtained prior to data collection...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Tricia E Wright, Mishka Terplan, Steven J Ondersma, Cheryl Boyce, Kimberly Yonkers, Grace Chang, Andreea A Creanga
Substance use during pregnancy is at least as common as many of the medical conditions screened for and managed during pregnancy. While harmful and costly, it is often ignored or managed poorly. Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to treatment (SBIRT) is an evidence-based approach to manage substance use. In September 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened an Expert Meeting on Perinatal Illicit Drug Abuse to help address key issues around drug use in pregnancy in the United States...
June 30, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kh Todadze, S Mosia
Injecting drug user size estimation studies carried out in 2009, 2012 and 2015 revealed growing trends of drug abuse in Georgia:estimated number of people who inject drugs (PWID) have been increased from 40000 and 45000 to 50000. Since Soviet period the most popular injective narcotics have been opioids: home-made opium, heroine, buprenorphine and home-made desomorphine ("Krokodile") replacing each other on the black market. Self-made desomorphine typically contains big amounts of different toxic substances and causes significant somatic disorders, especially skin, bone, blood infections, liver and kidney failure; is highly addictive, associates with frequent injections that enhance injecting-related harm, including the risk of HIV transmission, in comparison with typical opioids...
May 2016: Georgian Medical News
Barbara S Taylor, Joshua T Hanson, Poornachand Veerapaneni, Roberto Villarreal, Kristin Fiebelkorn, Barbara J Turner
OBJECTIVE: To comply with the 2012 CDC recommendations for hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening, we implemented a new HCV screening program for patients born between 1945 and 1965 at a South Texas safety-net hospital. METHODS: Patients with no HCV diagnosis or prior HCV test received an automated order for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) tests combined with reflex HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase chain reaction. An inpatient counselor educated anti-HCV-positive patients...
May 2016: Public Health Reports
Merith Cosden, Ashley Sanford, Lauren M Koch, Caitlin E Lepore
BACKGROUND: Practitioners working with clients who have experienced trauma are vulnerable to experiencing both vicarious trauma and vicarious posttraumatic growth (PTG). A survey was conducted in which treatment providers who work with adults seeking help for substance abuse were asked about their experience of vicarious trauma and vicarious PTG. It was hypothesized that vicarious trauma and vicarious PTG would be positively associated with each other, that personal history of trauma and years of working with clients who had experienced trauma would be positively associated with vicarious trauma, and that in addition to those variables, personal counseling, training, and supervision would be associated with vicarious PTG...
May 10, 2016: Substance Abuse
Johannes Just, Martin Mücke, Markus Bleckwenn
BACKGROUND: The incidence of initial prescriptions of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain rose by 37% in Germany from 2000 to 2010. Prescribing practice does not always conform with the recommendations of current guidelines. In the USA, 8-12% of patients with chronic non-cancer pain are opioid-dependent. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective PubMed search and on the German S3 guideline on the long-term use of opioids in non-cancer pain...
April 1, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Kelsey B Loeliger, Linda M Niccolai, Lillian N Mtungwa, Anthony Moll, Sheela V Shenoi
South Africa has the largest global HIV/AIDS epidemic, but barriers along the HIV care continuum prevent patients from initiating and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART). To qualitatively explore reasons for poor ART initiation and adherence rates from the unique perspective of community health workers (CHWs), we conducted focus groups during May-August 2014 with 21 CHWs in rural Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated from Zulu into English. Hybrid deductive and inductive analytical methods were applied to identify emergent themes...
August 2016: AIDS Care
Sonia Garg, Rajeev Sharma, Satish Thapar, Shilekh Mittal
INTRODUCTION: There is important preclinical evidence that substance abuse may produce neurophysiological disturbances particularly in relation to altered neural synchronization in Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP). AIM: The purpose of current study was to compare the latencies and amplitudes of different waveforms of VEP among different drug abusers and controls and also to identify early neurological damage so that proper counseling and timely intervention can be undertaken...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Jacqueline Nguyen, Casey O'Brien, Salena Schapp
Inhalant use refers to the use of substances such as gases, glues, and aerosols in order to achieve intoxication, while inhalant use disorder (IUD) encompasses both DSM-IV-TR criteria for inhalant abuse and dependence. Inhalant use among adolescents is an international public health concern considering the severe medical and cognitive consequences and biopsychosocial correlates. In this paper, we summarize the current state of the literature on inhalant use among adolescents focusing on social context, prevention, assessment, and treatment strategies...
May 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Birgitte Thylstrup, Morten Hesse
Patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders are at high risk of drop-out. Using a randomized design, this study tested the impact of adding a brief psycho-educational program, the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program, to outpatient substance abuse treatment in order to prevent treatment dropout. Patients (N=175) were recruited from 13 municipal treatment centers in Denmark, and assigned to treatment as usual or to the experimental condition. In all, 172 patients could be included in the analyses...
June 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Timothy E Albertson, James A Chenoweth, Daniel K Colby, Mark E Sutter
In recent years, there has been a large increase in the number of synthetic drugs used recreationally. One class of drugs is synthetic cannabinoids, which are sprayed onto herbal preparations and marketed under names such as K2 and spice. Others include amphetaminelike compounds, such as cathinones (eg, bath salts) and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (eg, ecstasy, Molly). New hallucinogens, such as Bromo-Dragonfly, and hallucinogens that have been used for centuries, such as Salvia divinorum, also are gaining popularity...
February 2016: FP Essentials
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