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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051763/il-12p35-inhibits-neuroinflammation-and-ameliorates-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#1
Jin Kyeong Choi, Ivy M Dambuza, Chang He, Cheng-Rong Yu, Anita N Uche, Mary J Mattapallil, Rachel R Caspi, Charles E Egwuagu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease in which cytokines produced by immune cells that infiltrate the brain and spinal cord play a central role. We show here that the IL-12p35, the alpha subunit of IL-12 or IL-35 cytokine, might be an effective biologic for suppressing neuroinflammatory responses and ameliorating the pathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mouse model of human MS. We further show that IL-12p35 conferred protection from neuropathy by inhibiting the expansion of pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cells and inhibiting trafficking of inflammatory cells into the brain and spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051656/antimicrobial-resistance-in-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-from-ready-to-eat-foods
#2
Cíntia Matos Lima, Ingrid Evelyn Gomes Lima Souza, Taila Dos Santos Alves, Clícia Capibaribe Leite, Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto, Rogeria Comastri de Castro Almeida
Certain subgroups of Escherichia coli have congenital or acquired virulence properties that allow them to cause a wide spectrum of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods produced in institutional, commercial and hotel restaurants in Salvador, Brazil. The presence of virulent isolates and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated. Four hundred forty-six samples were collected and grouped into cereals and vegetables, meat-based preparations, cooked salads, raw salads, garnishes, soups and sauces, desserts and juices...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045782/non-covalent-protein-arginine-deiminase-pad-inhibitors-are-efficacious-in-animal-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Elizabeth J Curiel Tejeda, Angelica M Bello, Ewa Wasilewski, Adam Koebel, Shannon Dunn, Lakshmi P Kotra
Peptidyl arginine deiminases have been shown to be hyperactive in neurodegenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis. An α-amino acid based core structure, derived from a hydantoin core, with unique heterocycles on the side chains, were synthesized as potential non-covalent inhibitors of PAD enzymes. Amongst the various heterocycles investigated, compound 23 carrying an imidazole moiety, exhibited the highest potency in this series with some selectivity for PAD2, and was further investigated in vivo. Pharmacokinetics in mice suggested the Cmax to be 12...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031957/exercise-training-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-peripheral-immunomodulation-rather-than-direct-neuroprotection
#4
Ofira Einstein, Nina Fainstein, Olga Touloumi, Roza Lagoudaki, Ester Hanya, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Abram Katz, Tamir Ben-Hur
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results exist on the effects of exercise training (ET) on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), nor is it known how exercise impacts on disease progression. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether ET ameliorates the development of EAE by modulating the systemic immune system or exerting direct neuroprotective effects on the CNS. METHODS: Healthy mice were subjected to 6weeks of motorized treadmill running. The Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE model in mice was utilized...
October 12, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031145/small-molecule-mediated-upregulation-of-ccr7-ameliorates-murine-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-accelerating-t-cell-homing
#5
Xin Li, Tingting Lu, Wenwen Xue, Yixuan Wang, Qiong Luo, Huiming Ge, Renxiang Tan, Yan Shen, Qiang Xu
Impairing the infiltration of immune cells into the CNS is a promising target for suppressing the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we found that oral administration of a synthetic small molecular compound Fc24 showed potential preventive effects on the development of EAE, including the reduction in EAE severity and a delay in the onset of the disease. Fc24 facilitated the accumulation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells within spleen and lymph nodes, while having no effect on MOG-specific T cell responses...
October 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030863/hotair-but-not-anril-long-non-coding-rna-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Majid Pahlevan Kakhki, Abbas Nikravesh, Zeinab Shirvani Farsani, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Mehrdad Behmanesh
Different studies have revealed that dysregulation in gene expression is one of the main aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Although the molecular pathways underlying the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D (VD) in MS is not completely elucidated, VD has more recently become a topic of interest in immune regulation and is widely administrated to MS patients as an immunomodulatory supplement. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to play important roles in regulation of gene expression via different mechanisms...
October 14, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029628/erythropoietin-reduces-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-severity-via-neuroprotective-mechanisms
#7
M Moransard, M Bednar, K Frei, M Gassmann, O O Ogunshola
BACKGROUND: Treatment with erythropoietin (Epo) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the rodent model of multiple sclerosis (MS), has consistently been shown to ameliorate disease progression and improve overall outcome. The effect has been attributed to modulation of the immune response and/or preservation of the central nervous system (CNS) tissue integrity. It remains unclear, however, if (a) Epo acts primarily in the CNS or the periphery and if (b) Epo's beneficial effect in EAE is mainly due to maintaining CNS tissue integrity or to modulation of the immune response...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027376/adenosine-a2a-receptor-agonist-ameliorates-eae-and-correlates-with-th1-cytokine-induced-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-via-suppression-of-mlck-signaling-pathway
#8
Ying Liu, Marwan Alahiri, Bianca Ulloa, Boxun Xie, Saud A Sadiq
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which is mediated by inflammatory cytokines released by CD4+ lymphocytes. To assess the effects of adenosine A2A receptors on BBB permeability in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: A2A receptor expression was detected by immunostaining in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) C57BL/6 mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 , and human MS brain...
October 12, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026626/acute-diarrhoea-due-to-a-shiga-toxin-2e-producing-escherichia-coli-o8%C3%A2-%C3%A2-h19
#9
Angela Saupe, Birgit Edel, Wolfgang Pfister, Bettina Löffler, Ralf Ehricht, Jürgen Rödel
Introduction. Identification of non-O157 Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections may be underestimated in microbiological diagnosis. Case presentation. A 58-year-old woman developed diarrhoea with watery and subsequently mucous stool. Initial multiplex PCR testing revealed a positive result for stx2 . Culture isolation of a STEC was successful only after repeated inoculation of chromogenic E. coli media. Molecular characterization was performed and identified the isolate as stx2e-positive STEC of serotype O8 : H19...
June 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022742/culture-based-quantification-with-molecular-characterization-of-non-o157-and-o157-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-rectoanal-mucosal-swabs-of-feedlot-cattle
#10
Zachary R Stromberg, Gentry L Lewis, Liesel G Schneider, Galen E Erickson, Isha R Patel, David R Smith, Rodney A Moxley
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains are foodborne pathogens carried in the intestinal tracts of ruminants and shed in the feces. High concentrations (≥10(4) colony-forming units [CFU]/g) of EHEC in cattle feces are associated with contamination of hides, and subsequently, carcasses and beef. Several studies using agar media have quantified O157 but few have quantified non-O157 EHEC in samples from cattle. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the concentration of O157 and non-O157 EHEC in cattle, and to characterize the associated EHEC isolates for their virulence potential...
October 12, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018331/distinctive-roles-for-%C3%AE-7-and-%C3%AE-9-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-responses-in-the-murine-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Qiang Liu, Paul Whiteaker, Barbara J Morley, Fu-Dong Shi, Ronald J Lukas
Previous studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine, including in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in mice of some forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Other studies using knock-out (KO) mice have implicated nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors containing α7, α9, or β2 subunits (α7*-, α9*- or β2*-nAChR) in different, disease-exacerbating or disease-ameliorating processes. These outcomes are in harmony with gene expression analyses showing nAChR subunit mRNA in many classes of immune system cell types...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018225/s1p1-deletion-differentially-affects-th17-and-regulatory-t-cells
#12
Ahmet Eken, Rebekka Duhen, Akhilesh K Singh, Mallory Fry, Jane H Buckner, Mariko Kita, Estelle Bettelli, Mohamed Oukka
Sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) is critical for the egress of T and B cells out of lymphoid organs. Although S1P1 agonist fingolimod is currently used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) little is known how S1P1 signaling regulates Th17 and Treg cell homeostasis. To study the impact of S1P1 signaling on Th17 and Treg cell biology, we specifically deleted S1P1 in Th17 and Treg cells using IL-17A (Cre) and Foxp3 (Cre) mice, respectively. Deletion of S1P1 in Th17 cells conferred resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018045/pten-drives-th17-cell-differentiation-by-preventing-il-2-production
#13
Hyeong Su Kim, Sung Woong Jang, Wonyong Lee, Kiwan Kim, Hyogon Sohn, Soo Seok Hwang, Gap Ryol Lee
T helper 17 (Th17) cells are a CD4(+) T cell subset that produces IL-17A to mediate inflammation and autoimmunity. IL-2 inhibits Th17 cell differentiation. However, the mechanism by which IL-2 is suppressed during Th17 cell differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a key factor that regulates Th17 cell differentiation by suppressing IL-2 production. Th17-specific Pten deletion (Pten(fl/fl)Il17a(cre) ) impairs Th17 cell differentiation in vitro and ameliorated symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of Th17-mediated autoimmune disease...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992974/diazepam-treatment-reduces-inflammatory-cells-and-mediators-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-rats-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#14
Nicolás Fernández Hurst, Samanta R Zanetti, Natalia S Báez, Mario J Bibolini, Cecilia Bouzat, German A Roth
Benzodiazepines are psychoactive drugs and some of them also affect immune cells. We here characterized the inflammatory and infiltrating immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) during the acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animals treated with Diazepam. Also, we evaluated the expression of Translocator Protein (18kDa) (TSPO), which is a biomarker of neuroinflammatory diseases. The results indicate that Diazepam exerts protective effects on EAE development, decreasing the incidence of the disease and reducing the number of inflammatory cells in CNS, with a concomitant decrease of TSPO levels in brain tissue and CNS inflammatory CD11b(+) cells...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992973/rivaroxaban-ameliorates-disease-course-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Monika Merker, Susann Eichler, Alexander M Herrmann, Heinz Wiendl, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Kerstin Göbel, Sven G Meuth
Recent studies have implicated an important role for coagulation factors in neuroinflammatory disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we investigate the role of factor X (FX) in neuroinflammation by using rivaroxaban the selective inhibitor of activated FX (FXa) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of MS). Rivaroxaban-treated rats were less susceptible to EAE compared to the untreated control group. This finding was accompanied by reduced T-cell infiltration and microglia activation...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992515/molecular-characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-vegetables-in-argentina
#16
Juliana González, Jimena S Cadona, Marcelo Sanz, Ana V Bustamante, A Mariel Sanso
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in vegetables from the humid Pampa region, Argentina, and to determine the occurrence of serotypes and virulence genes in the isolates. A total of 373 fresh vegetable samples obtained from 41 different geographical points were examined. E. coli was detected in 38.6% of the samples. Ten isolates could be obtained from 14 samples presumptively positive for diarrheagenic E. coli: 8 were identified as atypical Enteropathogenic E...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990564/-mirnas-new-actors-in-the-physiopathology-of-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Ferdinand Jagot, Nathalie Davoust
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an auto-immune demyelinating disorder characterized by a chronic neuro-inflammatory process associated with an infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by autoreactive lymphocytes. The etiology of the disease remains unclear but the recent discovery of a dysregulated miRNA network in both cells and extracellular fluids of MS patients has brought new insights on the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this disorder. miRNAs can induce a T cell polarization towards a pathological Th17 or Th1 phenotype and a deleterious activation of microglia, the CNS-resident macrophages...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983582/effects-of-tripterygium-glycoside-treatment-on-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#18
Jianmin Qiu, Xuelian You, Gang Wu
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease mediated by CD4+ T cells. It is characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration around the small blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS). Previous investigations have found that apoptosis is associated with the occurrence and development of autoimmune disease, and that mononuclear cell apoptosis and clearance from the CNS is one of the repair mechanisms of EAE. Tripterygium wilfordii glycoside (TWP) is an organic matter isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, which has anti‑inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979326/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-antiproliferative-and-apoptotic-potential-of-the-ethyl-acetate-extract-of-peltophorumafricanum-on-different-cancer-cell-lines
#19
Benjamin Ifeoluwa Okeleye, Noxolo Thabiso Mkwetshana, Roland Ndip Ndip
We evaluated the in-vitro antiproliferative and apoptotic potential of the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of Peltophorum africanum, a member of the family Fabaceae (Sond) in order to validate its pharmacological use. Antiproliferation of human breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines by EAE was investigated using the Cell Titer-Blue viability assay and the mechanism of action delineated using the Nucleic Acid and Protein Purification Nucleospin(®) Tissue Kit, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), propidium iodide (PI) and acridine orange (AO) double-staining techniques...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978473/generation-of-ror%C3%AE-t-antigen-specific-t-regulatory-17-cells-from-foxp3-precursors-in-autoimmunity
#20
Byung-Seok Kim, Huiping Lu, Kenji Ichiyama, Xiang Chen, Yi-Bing Zhang, Nipun A Mistry, Kentaro Tanaka, Young-Hee Lee, Roza Nurieva, Li Zhang, Xuexian Yang, Yeonseok Chung, Wei Jin, Seon Hee Chang, Chen Dong
Th17 cells are potent mediators in autoimmune diseases, and RORγt is required for their development. Recent studies have shown that RORγt(+) Treg cells in the gut regulate intestinal inflammation by inhibiting effector T cell function. In the current study, we report that RORγt(+) Treg cells were also found in lymph nodes following immunization. Not only distinct from intestinal RORγt(+) Treg cells in their transcriptomes, peripheral RORγt(+) Treg cells were derived from Foxp3(+) thymic Treg cells in an antigen-specific manner...
October 3, 2017: Cell Reports
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