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Rodrigo B M Silva, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C da Costa, Marcus V Gomez, Maria M Campos
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a critical role in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). CTK 01512-2 is a recombinant version of the peptide Phα1β derived from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, which inhibits N-type VGCC/TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. We investigated the effects of this molecule in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of CTK 01512-2 were compared to those displayed by ziconotide-a selective N-type VGCC blocker clinically used for chronic pain-and fingolimod-a drug employed for MS treatment...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Marcelo Signorini, Magdalena Costa, David Teitelbaum, Viviana Restovich, Hebe Brasesco, Diego García, Valeria Superno, Sandra Petroli, Mariana Bruzzone, Victor Arduini, Mónica Vanzini, Adriana Sucari, Germán Suberbie, Turina Maricel, Ricardo Rodríguez, Gerardo A Leotta
In Argentina, Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups O157, O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 are adulterant in ground beef. In other countries, the zero-tolerance approach to all STEC is implemented for chilled beef. Argentinean abattoirs are interested in implementing effective interventions against STEC on carcasses. Pre-rigor beef carcasses were used to determine whether nine antimicrobial strategies effectively reduced aerobic plate, coliform and E. coli counts and stx and eae gene prevalence...
April 8, 2018: Meat Science
Gregor Fiedler, Erik Brinks, Christina Böhnlein, Gyu-Sung Cho, Sabrina Koberg, Jan Kabisch, Charles M A P Franz
The genome of the intimin ( eae )-harboring Escherichia albertii strain MBT-EA1, isolated from lettuce in Germany, was sequenced. Sequence analysis showed the assembled draft genome size to be 4,560,948 bp, containing a predicted total of 4,414 protein-encoding genes, 11 rRNAs, and 82 tRNAs. Furthermore, three plasmid sequences were found.
April 12, 2018: Genome Announcements
E T Spear, E A Holt, E J Joyce, M M Haag, S M Mawe, G W Hennig, B Lavoie, A M Applebee, C Teuscher, G M Mawe
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that, in addition to motor, sensory, and cognitive symptoms, also causes constipation, which is poorly understood. Here, we characterize gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS and evaluate whether autoantibodies target the enteric nervous system (ENS) and cause dysmotility. METHODS: EAE was induced in male SJL and B6 mice...
April 11, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Praveena Manogaran, Christine Walker-Egger, Marijana Samardzija, Conny Waschkies, Christian Grimm, Markus Rudin, Sven Schippling
BACKGROUND: Neuro-axonal injury is a key contributor to non-reversible long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Visual impairment is common among MS patients, in which episodes of optic neuritis (ON) are often followed by structural retinal damage and sustained functional impairment. Alterations in the optic nerve and retina have also been described in rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
C W Yuan, W X Liu, J L Hou, L G Zhang, G Q Wang
Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of the pathogenicity island ETT2 and to examine the relationship between the ETT2 locus and other virulence factors in Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from piglets with diarrhea. A total of 354 E. coli strains isolated from scouring piglets were tested using PCR for the presence of the ETT2 locus. The E. coli strains were also analyzed for enterotoxins, fimbriae, non-fimbrial adhesin, Shiga toxins, pathogenicity islands, α-haemolysin (hlyA), afa8 gene cluster and autotransporter protease (sepA) genes...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Carolina Prado, Michela Gaiazzi, Hugo González, Valentina Ugalde, Alicia Figueroa, Francisco J Osorio-Barrios, Ernesto López, Alvaro Lladser, Emanuela Rasini, Franca Marino, Mauro Zaffaroni, Marco Cosentino, Rodrigo Pacheco
The dual potential to promote tolerance or inflammation to self-antigens makes dendritic cells (DCs) fundamental players in autoimmunity. Previous results have shown that stimulation of dopamine receptor D5 (DRD5) in DCs potentiates their inflammatory behaviour, favouring the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we aimed to decipher the underlying mechanism and to test its relevance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Our data shows that DRD5-deficiency confined to DCs in EAE mice resulted in reduced frequencies of CD4+ T-cell subsets with inflammatory potential in the central nervous system, including not only Th1 and Th17 cells but also granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor producers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Li Zhao, Xing Li, Fei Zhang, Juan-Juan Han, Ting Yang, Ze-Qing Ye, Zhe-Zhi Wang, Yuan Zhang
Nutshell of Xanthoceras sorbifolia, a waste product in the production of edible oil, is rich in health-promoting phenolic acids. However, the individual constituents, bioactivities, and mechanism of action are largely unknown. In this study, 20 phenolic compounds were characterized in nutshell extracts (NE) of X. sorbifolia by GC-MS. Four established in vitro studies showed that NE has significant antioxidant potential. Results in vivo indicated that oral administration of NE effectively ameliorated clinical disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and reduced central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and demyelination...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Houssem Ben Yahia, Rym Ben Sallem, Ghassan Tayh, Naouel Klibi, Insaf Ben Amor, Haythem Gharsa, Abdellatif Boudabbous, Karim Ben Slama
BACKGROUND: The spreading of antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming nowadays an alarming threat to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence showing that wild birds could significantly contribute to the transmission and spreading of drug-resistant bacteria. However, data for antimicrobial resistance in wild birds remain scarce, especially throughout Africa. The aims of this investigation were to analyze the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in faecal samples of wild birds in Tunisia and to characterize the recovered isolates...
April 2, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Fengna Chu, Mingchao Shi, Chao Zheng, Donghui Shen, Jie Zhu, Xiangyu Zheng, Li Cui
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, as well as axonal and neuronal loss in the central nervous system (CNS). Macrophages and microglia are important components of the innate immune system. They participate in the primary response to microorganisms and play a role in inflammatory responses, homeostasis, and tissue regeneration. In the initial phase of MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, macrophages from peripheral tissues infiltrate into the CNS and, together with residential microglia, contribute to the pathogenesis of MS...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Ping-Chang Kuo, Dennis A Brown, Barbara A Scofield, Hallel C Paraiso, Pei-Yu Wang, I-Chen Yu, Jui-Hung Yen
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the central nervous system (CNS) infiltration of myelin-specific pathogenic T cells followed by brain inflammation in association with demyelination. Similarly, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, also exhibits increased CNS infiltration of pathogenic T cells, including Th1 and Th17, leading to detrimental effects of neuroinflammation and demyelination. We previously reported that 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), the structurally-simplest of the sulfur-containing dithiolethiones, exerted a promising therapeutic effect in EAE...
March 28, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Francisco Tresserra, María Ángela Pascual, Mireia Arenas, Claudia Blancafort, María Ángeles Martínez-Lanao, Ignacio Rodríguez, Rafa Fábregas
INTRODUCTION: Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (EAE) usually has a favorable prognosis. Recently, the MELF (microcystic, elongated and fragmented) pattern of myometrial infiltration has been described. It is associated with lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis. Seventy cases of EAE were reviewed to identify the presence of MELF and its correlation with other prognostic factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hysterectomies performed for EAE during a 5-year period were reviewed, searching for MELF pattern...
April 2018: Revista Española de Patología
Valery I Turobov, Viatcheslav N Azev, Alexei B Shevelev, Natalia V Pozdniakova, Yulia K Biryukova, Arkady N Murashev, Valery M Lipkin, Igor P Udovichenko
Immunosuppressant peptide immunocortin for the first time was described in 1993. It corresponds to residues 11-20 of human Ig heavy chain (conserved motif of VH domain). There are no data about production of immunocortin by proteolysis of Ig in vivo. Synthetic immunocortin in concentration ~ 10-9  M suppresses phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages, ConA-dependent blast transformation of rat lymphocytes, exhibits ACTH-like neurotropic activity and was suggested as a potential drug for treatment of a multiple sclerosis (MS)...
2018: BioNanoScience
Kimberley D Bruce, Sachi Gorkhali, Katherine Given, Alison M Coates, Kristen E Boyle, Wendy B Macklin, Robert H Eckel
Severe demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis (MS), can be devastating for many young lives. To date, the factors resulting in poor remyelination and repair are not well understood, and reparative therapies that benefit MS patients have yet to be developed. We have previously shown that the activity and abundance of Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL)-the rate-limiting enzyme in the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins-is increased in Schwann cells and macrophages following nerve crush injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting that LPL may help scavenge myelin-derived lipids...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Md Jakir Hossain, Elena Morandi, Radu Tanasescu, Nanci Frakich, Marzia Caldano, David Onion, Tola A Faraj, Clett Erridge, Bruno Gran
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It was previously shown that toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 signaling plays a key role in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, and that TLR2-stimulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) promotes their conversion to T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Here, we sought potential sources of TLR2 stimulation and evidence of TLR2 activity in MS patient clinical samples. Soluble TLR2 (sTLR2) was found to be significantly elevated in sera of MS patients ( n  = 21), in both relapse and remission, compared to healthy controls (HC) ( n  = 24)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiao-Lu Yuan, Yi-Peng Zhao, Jie Huang, Jun-Chen Liu, Wen-Qian Mao, Jun Yin, Bi-Wen Peng, Wan-Hong Liu, Song Han, Xiao-Hua He
AIM: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological autoimmune disorder characterized by mistaken attacks of inflammatory cells against the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in demyelination and axonal damage. Kv1.3 channel blockers can inhibit T-cell activation and have been designed for MS therapy. However, little is known about the effects of Kv1.3 blockers on protecting myelin sheaths/axons in MS. This study aimed at investigating the neuroprotection efficacy of a selective Kv1.3 channel blocker ImKTx88 (ImK) in MS animal model...
March 25, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Mariam Choudry, Xiaolei Tang, Tiffany Santorian, Samiksha Wasnik, Jidong Xiao, Weirong Xing, K-H William Lau, Subburaman Mohan, David J Baylink, Xuezhong Qin
In the past there have been a multitude of studies that ardently support the role of Arginase II (Arg II) in vascular and endothelial disorders however, the regulation and function of Arg II in autoimmune diseases has thus far remained unclear. Here we report that a global Arg II null mutation in mice suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. During EAE both Arg I and Arg II were induced in spinal cords, but only Arg II was induced in spleens and splenic DCs...
March 25, 2018: Immunology
Iva Bozic, Katarina Tesovic, Danijela Laketa, Marija Adzic, Marija Jakovljevic, Ivana Bjelobaba, Danijela Savic, Nadezda Nedeljkovic, Sanja Pekovic, Irena Lavrnja
Kv1.3 is a voltage gated potassium channel that has been implicated in pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study we investigated temporal and cellular expression pattern of this channel in the lumbar part of spinal cords of animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of MS. EAE was actively induced in female Dark Agouti rats. Expression of Kv1.3 was analyzed at different time points of disease progression, at the onset, peak and end of EAE. We here show that Kv1...
March 24, 2018: Neurochemical Research
N Reusche, A Beineke, C Urhausen, M Beyerbach, M Schmicke, S Kramer, A R Günzel-Apel
Proliferation and apoptosis play an important role in cyclic changes in the healthy canine endometrium. Proteins of the Bcl-2-family are known to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. However, only few reports mention their expression patterns during cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH). In order to correlate proliferative and apoptotic processes, expression of the apoptosis-regulatory proteins Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic) and Bax (pro-apoptotic) in healthy and cystic hyperplastic endometrial tissue as well as in pyometra was investigated...
March 15, 2018: Theriogenology
Rodolfo Thome, Amanda Pires Bonfanti, Javad Rasouli, Elisabeth Rose Mari, Guang-Xian Zhang, Abdolmohamad Rostami, Liana Verinaud
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are T cell-driven autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) where interleukin (IL)-17-producing Th17 cells promote damage and are pathogenic. Conversely, tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) induce regulatory T (Treg) cells and suppress Th17 cells. Chloroquine (CQ) suppresses EAE through the modulation of DCs by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 is necessary for CQ-induced tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) to efficiently suppress EAE...
March 23, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
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