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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534383/in-vitro-anticancer-activity-and-cytotoxicity-screening-of-phytochemical-extracts-from-selected-traditional-chinese-medicinal-plants
#1
Chao Liang, Hui Pan, Haizhou Li, Yang Zhao, Yang Feng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of 10 selected traditional Chinese medicinal plants on 4 cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), BALL-1 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), Huh-7 (hepatocellular carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and their cytotoxicity on a normal cell line, namely MCF-10A (non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial line), about which there were few reports previously. METHODS: Six phytochemical extracts, namely petroleum ether extract (PEE), chloroform extract (CE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE), n-butanol extract (BE), the remainder after extraction (RE) and water extract (WE) from each plant were prepared...
March 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534275/sex-bias-in-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-neuroinflammation-relevance-for-dimethyl-fumarate-immunomodulatory-anti-oxidant-action
#2
Zorica Stojić-Vukanić, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Duško Kosec, Ivana Vujnović, Ivan Pilipović, Mirjana Dimitrijević, Gordana Leposavić
In the present study, upon showing sexual dimorphism in dimethyl fumarate (DMF) efficacy to moderate the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Dark Agouti rats, cellular and molecular substrate of this dimorphism was explored. In rats of both sexes, DMF administration from the day of immunization attenuated EAE severity, but this effect was more prominent in males leading to loss of the sexual dimorphism observed in vehicle-administered controls. Consistently, in male rats, DMF was more efficient in diminishing the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes infiltrating spinal cord (SC) and their reactivation, the number of IL-17+ T lymphocytes and particularly cellularity of their highly pathogenic IFN-γ+GM-CSF+IL-17+ subset...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533380/ccr8-foxp3-treg-cells-as-master-drivers-of-immune-regulation
#3
Yiftah Barsheshet, Gizi Wildbaum, Eran Levy, Alon Vitenshtein, Chika Akinseye, Jeremy Griggs, Sergio A Lira, Nathan Karin
The current study identifies CCR8(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) as drivers of immunosuppression. We show that in human peripheral blood cells, more than 30% of Treg up-regulate CCR8 following activation in the presence of CCL1. This interaction induces STAT3-dependent up-regulation of FOXp3, CD39, IL-10, and granzyme B, resulting in enhanced suppressive activity of these cells. Of the four human CCR8 ligands, CCL1 is unique in potentiating Treg cells. The relevance of these observations has been extended using an experimental model of multiple sclerosis [experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, (EAE)] and a stabilized version of mouse CCL1 (CCL1-Ig)...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522962/alterations-in-cd200-cd200r1-system-during-eae-already-manifest-at-presymptomatic-stages
#4
Tony Valente, Joan Serratosa, Unai Perpiñá, Josep Saura, Carme Solà
In the brain of patients with multiple sclerosis, activated microglia/macrophages appear in active lesions and in normal appearing white matter. However, whether they play a beneficial or a detrimental role in the development of the pathology remains a controversial issue. The production of pro-inflammatory molecules by chronically activated microglial cells is suggested to contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative processes in neurological disease. In the healthy brain, neurons control glial activation through several inhibitory mechanisms, such as the CD200-CD200R1 interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515278/critical-role-of-p2y12-receptor-in-regulation-of-th17-differentiation-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-pathogenesis
#5
Chaoyan Qin, Jinfeng Zhou, Yuan Gao, Weiming Lai, Cuixia Yang, Yingying Cai, Shuai Chen, Changsheng Du
Adenosine 5'-diphosphate is a key endogenous cell-signaling molecule that can activate P2 purinergic receptor family members. ADP-P2Y signaling is reported to be associated with inflammation, but its function in T cell differentiation and autoimmune diseases pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that the P2Y12 receptor was upregulated in the peripheral immune tissues of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. Deficiency of P2Y12 led to a reduced peak severity and cumulative disease score in EAE mice, followed by a dramatic reduction of leukocyte infiltration and less extensive demyelination...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512599/effect-of-trichilia-monadelpha-meliaceae-extracts-on-bone-histomorphology-in-complete-freund-s-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#6
Inemesit Okon Ben, Eric Woode, George Asumeng Koffuor, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Nicholas Akinwale Titiloye
AIM: This study aimed to assess the effect of petroleum ether extract (PEE), ethyl acetate extract (EthE), and ethanol extract (EAE) of Trichilia monadelpha stem bark on bone histomorphology in arthritis. METHODS: Percentage inhibition of edema and arthritic scores in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced (0.1 ml of 5 mg/ml(1) of heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in paraffin oil-injected subplantar into the right hind paw) arthritic Sprague-Dawley rats treated with PEE, EthE, or EAE (10,30, and 100 mg/kg(1), respectively), dexamethasone (0...
April 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511127/neurophysiology-of-synaptic-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Francesco Mori, Fabio Buttari, Girolama A Marfia, Andrea Sancesario, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory immune-mediate disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), primarily affecting the myelin sheath and followed by neurodegeneration. Synaptic alterations are emerging as critical determinants of early neurodegeneration in MS. Inflammation-induced alterations of synaptic transmission and plasticity have been investigated in vitro and also in human MS using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques. Specific inflammatory cytokines alter glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission, resulting in synaptic hyperexcitability...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507026/lineage-specific-metabolic-properties-and-vulnerabilities-of-t-cells-in-the-demyelinating-central-nervous-system
#8
Scott M Seki, Max Stevenson, Abagail M Rosen, Sanja Arandjelovic, Lelisa Gemta, Timothy N J Bullock, Alban Gaultier
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that is characterized by immune-mediated destruction of CNS myelin. Current MS therapies aim to block peripheral immune cells from entering the CNS. Although these treatments limit new inflammatory activity in the CNS, no treatment effectively prevents long-term disease progression and disability accumulation in MS patients. One explanation for this paradox is that current therapies are ineffective at targeting immune responses already present in the CNS. To this end, we sought to understand the metabolic properties of T cells that mediate ongoing inflammation in the demyelinating CNS...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505283/oxidative-injury-and-iron-redistribution-are-pathological-hallmarks-of-marmoset-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#9
Jordon Dunham, Jan Bauer, Graham R Campbell, Don J Mahad, Nikki van Driel, Susanne M A van der Pol, Bert A 't Hart, Hans Lassmann, Jon D Laman, Jack van Horssen, Yolanda S Kap
Oxidative damage and iron redistribution are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS), but these aspects are not entirely replicated in rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models. Here, we report that oxidative burst and injury as well as redistribution of iron are hallmarks of the MS-like pathology in the EAE model in the common marmoset. Active lesions in the marmoset EAE brain display increased expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (p22phox, p47phox, and gp91phox) and inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity within lesions with active inflammation and demyelination, coinciding with enhanced expression of mitochondrial heat-shock protein 70 and superoxide dismutase 1 and 2...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503491/variation-in-the-distribution-of-putative-virulence-and-colonization-factors-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-different-categories-of-cattle
#10
María E Cáceres, Analía I Etcheverría, Daniel Fernández, Edgardo M Rodríguez, Nora L Padola
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogens of significant public health concern. Several studies have confirmed that cattle are the main reservoir of STEC in Argentina and other countries. Although Shiga toxins represent the primary virulence factors of STEC, the adherence and colonization of the gut are also important in the pathogenesis of the bacteria. The aim of this study was to analyze and to compare the presence of putative virulence factors codified in plasmid -katP, espP, subA, stcE- and adhesins involved in colonization of cattle -efa1, iha- in 255 native STEC strains isolated from different categories of cattle from different production systems...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499934/matrine-promotes-oligodendrocyte-development-in-cns-autoimmunity-through-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#11
Shuqing Liu, Mingliang Zhang, Huijun Zhang, Fangzhou Liu, Raojuan Chu, Guang-Xian Zhang, Lin Zhu
AIMS: Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae flavescens, has been recently found to be beneficial in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, mainly through its anti-inflammatory effect. In the present study, we tested the effect of MAT on ongoing EAE and defined possible mechanisms underlying its effects on myelination and oligodendrocytes. MAIN METHODS: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice and MAT treatment was started at disease onset...
May 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499121/molecular-characterization-of-o157-h7-o26-h11-and-o103-h2-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-dairy-products
#12
T Douëllou, S Delannoy, S Ganet, P Fach, E Loukiadis, M-C Montel, D Sergentet-Thevenot
Pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are recognized worldwide as environment and foodborne pathogens which can be transmitted by ingestion of ready-to-eat food such as raw milk-derived products. STEC show a prevalence rate in dairy products of 0.9%, yet comparably few outbreaks have been related to dairy products consumption. In this study, we used rt-qPCR to identify the virulence potential of O157, O26 and O103 STEC strains isolated from raw-milk dairy products by analyzing virulence-related gene frequencies and associations with O-island (OI) 44, OI-48, OI-50, OI-57, OI-71 and OI-122...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495132/predicting-the-effects-of-potentially-therapeutic-modified-peptides-on-polyclonal-t-cell-populations-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Evan L Sauer, Elisabeth Trifilieff, Judith M Greer
Altered peptide ligands (APLs) have routinely been studied in clonal populations of Th cells that express a single T cell receptor (TCR), but results generated in this manner poorly predict the effects of APLs on polyclonal Th cells in vivo, contributing to the failure of phase II clinical trials of APLs in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). We have used a panel of APLs derived from an encephalitogenic epitope of myelin proteolipid protein to investigate the relationship between antigen cross-reactivity in a polyclonal environment, encephalitogenicity, and the capacity of an APL to provide protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL mice...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494768/inhibition-of-cd40-traf6-interactions-by-the-small-molecule-inhibitor-6877002-reduces-neuroinflammation
#14
Suzanne A B M Aarts, Tom T P Seijkens, Pascal J H Kusters, Susanne M A van der Pol, Barbara Zarzycka, Priscilla D A M Heijnen, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Marion J J Gijbels, Louis Boon, Christian Weber, Helga E de Vries, Gerry A F Nicolaes, Christine D Dijkstra, Gijs Kooij, Esther Lutgens
BACKGROUND: The influx of leukocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) is a key hallmark of the chronic neuro-inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Strategies that aim to inhibit leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are therefore regarded as promising therapeutic approaches to combat MS. As the CD40L-CD40 dyad signals via TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in myeloid cells to induce inflammation and leukocyte trafficking, we explored the hypothesis that specific inhibition of CD40-TRAF6 interactions can ameliorate neuro-inflammation...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494085/atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-aepec-in-children-under-five-years-old-with-diarrhea-in-quito-ecuador
#15
Francisco X Mora, Rolando X Avilés-Reyes, Laura Guerrero-Latorre, Esteban Fernández-Moreira
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) remain one the most important pathogens infecting children and they are one of the main causes of persistent diarrhea worldwide. In this study, we have isolated EPEC from 94 stool samples of children under five years old with diarrheal illness in the area of Quito (Ecuador), and we have determined the occurrence of the two subtypes of EPEC, typical EPEC (tEPEC) and atypical (aEPEC), by PCR amplification of the genes eae (attaching and effacing) and bfp (bundle- forming pilus)...
September 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491244/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-frequency-in-khuzestan-province-of-iran
#16
Atieh Darbandi, Parviz Owlia, Saeid Bouzari, Horieh Saderi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is an emerging agent among pathogens that causes diarrhea. Studies showed that diarrheagenic E. coli such as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), diffusely adhering E. coli (DAEC) and shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains are among the most frequent causative agents in acute diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of DEC pathotypes in Khuzestan province...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488176/24th-international-congress-of-the-european-association-for-endoscopic-surgery-eaes-amsterdam-the-netherlands-15-18-june-2016-poster-presentations
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486971/a-role-for-cathepsin-z-in-neuroinflammation-provides-mechanistic-support-for-an-epigenetic-risk-factor-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Euan R O Allan, Rhiannon I Campden, Benjamin W Ewanchuk, Pankaj Tailor, Dale R Balce, Neil T McKenna, Catherine J Greene, Amy L Warren, Thomas Reinheckel, Robin M Yates
BACKGROUND: Hypomethylation of the cathepsin Z locus has been proposed as an epigenetic risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Cathepsin Z is a unique lysosomal cysteine cathepsin expressed primarily by antigen presenting cells. While cathepsin Z expression has been associated with neuroinflammatory disorders, a role for cathepsin Z in mediating neuroinflammation has not been previously established. METHODS: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in both wildtype mice and mice deficient in cathepsin Z...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484224/suppression-of-autoimmune-demyelinating-disease-by-preferential-stimulation-of-cns-specific-cd8-t-cells-using-listeria-encoded-neuroantigen
#19
Farah R Itani, Sushmita Sinha, Ashley A Brate, Lecia L Pewe, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, John T Harty, Nitin J Karandikar
CD8 T-cells predominate in CNS lesions of MS patients and display oligoclonal expansion. However, the role of myelin-specific CD8 T-cells in disease remains unclear, with studies showing protective and pathogenic roles in EAE. We demonstrated a disease-suppressive function for CNS-specific CD8 T-cells in a model where the antigen is exogenously administered in vivo and used for in vitro activation. To probe the nature of the CD8 response elicited by endogenously presented myelin antigens in vivo, we developed a novel approach utilizing infection with Listeria monocytogenes (LM) encoding proteolipid protein peptide (PLP) amino acids 178-191 (LM-PLP)...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479730/anti-hepatocarcinogenic-and-anti-oxidant-effects-of-mangrove-plant-scyphiphora-hydrophyllacea
#20
Sameera R Samarakoon, Chanthirika Shanmuganathan, Meran K Ediriweera, Poorna Piyathilaka, Kamani H Tennekoon, Ira Thabrew, Prasanna Galhena, E Dilip De Silva
CONTEXT: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea is a shrub mangrove plant of the family Rubiaceae and not yet been studied for anti-hepatocarcinogenic effects. OBJECTIVES: We investigated possible in vitro anti-hepatocarcinogenic and antioxidant properties of S. hydrophyllacea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried leaves of S. hydrophyllacea were sequentially extracted into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol and tested for cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and sulforhodamine B assays, and for antioxidant activities by the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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