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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454153/muscle-carnosine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Charly Keytsman, Laura Blancquaert, Inez Wens, Maarten Missine, Pieter Van Noten, Frank Vandenabeele, Wim Derave, Bert O Eijnde
BACKGROUND: Muscle carnosine is related to contractile function (Ca ++ handling) and buffering of exercise-induced acidosis. As these muscular functions are altered in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) it is relevant to understand muscle carnosine levels in MS. METHODS: Tibialis anterior muscle carnosine was measured in an animal MS model (EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, n = 40) and controls (CON, n = 40) before and after exercise training (EAE EX , CON EX , 10d, 1 h/d, 24 m/min treadmill running) or sedentary conditions (EAE SED , CON SED )...
February 11, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453977/amelioration-of-progressive-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-epigenetic-regulation-involves-selective-repression-of-mature-neutrophils-during-the-preclinical-phase
#2
Arathi Jayaraman, Monica Sharma, Bellur Prabhakar, Mark Holterman, Sundararajan Jayaraman
We have recently demonstrated that treatment of NOD mice with the epigenetic drug Trichostatin A (TSA) ameliorated myelin peptide induced progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (P-EAE). Protection was accompanied by induction of antigen-specific T-cell tolerance in the periphery and reduced the influx of T cells into the spinal cord. In this investigation, we examined whether the epigenetic drug could impact the innate immune system as well. Whereas the mature (MHC class II + ) CD11b + Ly-6G + neutrophils expanded substantially in the peripheral lymphoid compartment during the preclinical phase, the MHC class II + , CD11b + Ly-6C + mature monocytes increased modestly throughout the disease course...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450696/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-experimental-allergic-encephalomyelitis-mice-via-anti-oxidative-stress-activity
#3
Ting Long, Yuan Yang, Ling Peng, Zuoxiao Li
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic auto-inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and hard to heal. This study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used MS model, and its potential mechanism underlying the action of MT on anti-oxidative stress. Female C57BL/6 mice were injected with MOG35-55 peptide to set up the EAE model, and for detection of the effect of melatonin (10 mg/kg i.p.) on the development and progression of EAE...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447086/vitamin-d-down-regulates-the-expression-of-some-th17-cell-related-cytokines-key-inflammatory-chemokines-and-chemokine-receptors-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Abdollah Jafarzadeh, Sayyed Vahab Azizi, Zahra Arabi, Rayhaneh Ahangar-Parvin, Marziyeh Mohammadi-Kordkhayli, Tiziana Larussa, Fariba Khatami, Maryam Nemati
OBJECTIVES: A spectrum of immunomodulatory properties was attributed to vitamin D (VD). Here, the VD effects on expression of some Th17 cell- related cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors were investigated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: One group of C57BL/6 mice, considered as healthy group, was treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). EAE was induced in other three groups and treated from day +3 to +30 with PBS, olive oil (VD vehicle) or 200 ng of VD...
February 15, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446144/animal-models-of-multiple-sclerosis-focus-on-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#5
REVIEW
Ivana Bjelobaba, Vesna Begovic-Kupresanin, Sanja Pekovic, Irena Lavrnja
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects more than two million people worldwide. Several animal models resemble MS pathology; the most employed are experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and toxin- and/or virus-induced demyelination. In this review we will summarize our knowledge on the utility of different animal models in MS research. Although animal models cannot replicate the complexity and heterogeneity of the MS pathology, they have proved to be useful for the development of several drugs approved for treatment of MS patients...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445144/lenalidomide-regulates-cns-autoimmunity-by-promoting-m2-macrophages-polarization
#6
Qinjie Weng, Jiaying Wang, Jiajia Wang, Jing Wang, Fahmida Sattar, Zhikang Zhang, Jiahuan Zheng, Zijie Xu, Mengting Zhao, Xuan Liu, Lijun Yang, Guifeng Hao, Liang Fang, Q Richard Lu, Bo Yang, Qiaojun He
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and debilitating neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by infiltration of leukocytes into CNS and subsequent demyelination. Emerging evidences have revealed the beneficial roles of M2 macrophages in ameliorating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for MS. Here, we identify that lenalidomide alone could promote macrophages M2 polarization to prevent the progression of EAE, which is associated with subsequent inhibition of proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells both in peripheral lymph system and CNS...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444620/differential-anxiety-like-responses-in-nod-shiltj-and-c57bl-6j-mice-following-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-induction-and-oral-gavage
#7
Pece Kocovski, Phuc T Dang, Claretta S D'Souza, Christopher E Stamper, Matthew W Hale, Jacqueline M Orian
Oral gavage is commonly used in pre-clinical drug evaluation, but is potentially aversive and may induce behavioral effects independent of compounds under investigation. This study examined the combined effects of repeated oral gavage and disease induction on anxiety-like behavior in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis. The C57BL/6J and NOD/ShiLtJ EAE variants were exposed to sham-EAE induction or untreated control conditions, and either daily oral gavage or home cage conditions...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440425/bryostatin-1-alleviates-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Michael D Kornberg, Matthew D Smith, Hasti Atashi Shirazi, Peter A Calabresi, Solomon H Snyder, Paul M Kim
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder targeting the central nervous system (CNS). The relapsing-remitting phase of MS is largely driven by peripheral activation of autoreactive T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17 lymphocytes. In contrast, compartmentalized inflammation within the CNS, including diffuse activation of innate myeloid cells, characterizes the progressive phase of MS, the most debilitating phase that currently lacks satisfactory treatments. Recently, bryostatin-1 (bryo-1), a naturally occurring, CNS-permeable compound with a favorable safety profile in humans, has been shown to act on antigen-presenting cells to promote differentiation of lymphocytes into Th2 cells, an action that might benefit Th1-driven inflammatory conditions such as MS...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436030/activating-transcription-factor-6%C3%AE-deficiency-exacerbates-oligodendrocyte-death-and-myelin-damage-in-immune-mediated-demyelinating-diseases
#9
Sarrabeth Stone, Shuangchan Wu, Stephanie Jamison, Wilaiwan Durose, Jean Pierre Pallais, Wensheng Lin
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) play a critical role in immune-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by regulating the viability of oligodendrocytes. Our previous studies show that activation of the PERK branch of the UPR protects myelinating oligodendrocytes against ER stress in young, developing mice that express IFN-γ, a key pro-inflammatory cytokine in MS and EAE, in the CNS...
February 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435754/eaes-classification-of-intraoperative-adverse-events-in-laparoscopic-surgery
#10
N K Francis, N J Curtis, J A Conti, J D Foster, H J Bonjer, G B Hanna
BACKGROUND: Surgical outcomes are traditionally evaluated by post-operative data such as histopathology and morbidity. Although these outcomes are reported using accepted systems, their ability to influence operative performance is limited by their retrospective application. Interest in direct measurement of intraoperative events is growing but no available systems applicable to routine practice exist. We aimed to develop a structured, practical method to report intraoperative adverse events enacted during minimal access surgical procedures...
February 12, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428242/bu-shen-yi-sui-capsule-promotes-remyelination-correlating-with-sema3a-nrp-1-lif-lifr-and-nkx6-2-in-mice-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#11
Pei-Yuan Zhao, Yong-Qiang Wang, Xi-Hong Liu, Ying-Jun Zhu, Hui Zhao, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Fang Qi, Jun-Ling Li, Nan Zhang, Yong-Ping Fan, Kang-Ning Li, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Jian-Feng Lei, Lei Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bu Shen Yi Sui capsule (BSYSC), based on traditional Chinese formula Liu Wei Di Huang pill, is effective for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinical experience and trials. Our previous studies confirmed that BSYSC had the neuroprotective effect in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, its mechanism of action was not clear. Thus, the effect of BSYSC on remyelination and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in the EAE mice...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426403/putative-virulence-factors-and-clonal-relationship-of-o174-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-human-food-and-animal-sources
#12
Cecilia Cundon, Claudia Carolina Carbonari, Gisela Zolezzi, Marta Rivas, Adriana Bentancor
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is th etiological agent of gastrointestinal diseases as haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor. There are two types, Stx1 and Stx2, and several subtypes. Other virulence factors are involved in pathogenesis. While O157:H7 is the predominant serotype, at present non-O157 STEC strains are increasingly recognized as foodborne pathogens worldwide. In Argentina, STEC O174 stands out as an emerging pathogen and is one of the four most prevalent non-O157 STEC serogroups...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424466/differential-local-tissue-permissiveness-influences-the-final-fate-of-gpr17-expressing-oligodendrocyte-precursors-in-two-distinct-models-of-demyelination
#13
Giusy T Coppolino, Davide Marangon, Camilla Negri, Gianluca Menichetti, Marta Fumagalli, Paolo Gelosa, Leda Dimou, Roberto Furlan, Davide Lecca, Maria P Abbracchio
Promoting remyelination is recognized as a novel strategy to foster repair in neurodegenerative demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In this respect, the receptor GPR17, recently emerged as a new target for remyelination, is expressed by early oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) and after a certain differentiation stage it has to be downregulated to allow progression to mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Here, we took advantage of the first inducible GPR17 reporter mouse line (GPR17-iCreERT2 xCAG-eGFP mice) allowing to follow the final fate of GPR17+ cells by tamoxifen-induced GFP-labeling to unveil the destiny of these cells in two demyelination models: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by marked immune cell activation and inflammation, and cuprizone induced demyelination, where myelin dysfunction is achieved by a toxic insult...
February 9, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424049/astrocyte-disruption-of-neurovascular-communication-is-linked-to-cortical-damage-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Raya Eilam, Menahem Segal, Rafael Malach, Michael Sela, Ruth Arnon, Rina Aharoni
To elucidate mechanisms contributing to cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated neurovascular aberrations, in particular the association of astrocytes with cortical neurons and blood vessels, in mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction was evident by leakage of the tracer sodium fluorescein, along with reduced expression of claudin-5 by endothelial cells and desmin by pericytes. Immunohistological and ultrastructural analyses revealed detachment of the astroglial cell bodies from the blood vessels and loss of their connections with both the blood vessels and the neuronal synapses...
February 9, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423730/tellurite-resistance-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#15
Gentry L Lewis, Quentin R Jorgensen, John D Loy, Rodney A Moxley
Potassium tellurite (K2TeO3) is an effective selective agent for O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), whereas tellurite resistance in non-O157 STEC is variable with information on O45 minimal. High-level K2TeO3 resistance in STEC is attributable to the ter gene cluster with terD an indicator of the cluster's presence. Polymerase chain reactions for terD and K2TeO3 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations in broth cultures were conducted on 70 STEC and 40 non-STEC control organisms...
February 8, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422898/cyclic-amp-pathway-suppress-autoimmune-neuroinflammation-by-inhibiting-functions-of-encephalitogenic-cd4-t-cells-and-enhancing-m2-macrophage-polarization-at-the-site-of-inflammation
#16
Tatyana Veremeyko, Amanda W Y Yung, Marina Dukhinova, Inna S Kuznetsova, Igor Pomytkin, Alexey Lyundup, Tatyana Strekalova, Natasha S Barteneva, Eugene D Ponomarev
Although it has been demonstrated that cAMP pathway affect both adaptive and innate cell functions, the role of this pathway in the regulation of T-cell-mediated central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune inflammation, such as in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), remains unclear. It is also unclear how cAMP pathway affects the function of CD4 T cells in vivo at the site of inflammation. We found that adenylyl cyclase activator Forskolin besides inhibition of functions autoimmune CD4 T cells also upregulated microRNA (miR)-124 in the CNS during EAE, which is associated with M2 phenotype of microglia/macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409838/deciphering-the-microstructure-of-hippocampal-subfields-with-in-vivo-dti-and-noddi-applications-to-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Amandine Crombe, Vincent Planche, Gerard Raffard, Julien Bourel, Nadège Dubourdieu, Aude Panatier, Hikaru Fukutomi, Vincent Dousset, Stephane Oliet, Bassem Hiba, Thomas Tourdias
The hippocampus contains distinct populations of neurons organized into separate anatomical subfields and layers with differential vulnerability to pathological mechanisms. The ability of in vivo neuroimaging to pinpoint regional vulnerability is especially important for better understanding of hippocampal pathology at the early stage of neurodegenerative disorders and for monitoring future therapeutic strategies. This is the case for instance in multiple sclerosis whose neurodegenerative component can affect the hippocampus from the early stage...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408931/inhibition-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-tolerance-promoting-dna-vaccination-focused-to-dendritic-cells
#18
Timo Castor, Nir Yogev, Thomas Blank, Christina Barwig, Marco Prinz, Ari Waisman, Matthias Bros, Angelika B Reske-Kunz
In this study we analysed the effects of prophylactic biolistic DNA vaccination with plasmids encoding the encephalitogenic protein myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) on the severity of a subsequently MOGp35-55-induced EAE and on the underlying immune response. We compared the outcome of vaccination with MOG-encoding plasmids alone or in combination with vectors encoding the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-ß1, respectively. MOG expression was restricted to skin dendritic cells (DCs) by the use of the DC-specific promoter of the fascin1 gene (pFscn-MOG)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407174/butylphthalide-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-suppressing-pgam5-induced-necroptosis-and-inflammation-in-microglia
#19
Ying Wang, Yue Bi, Zhilun Xia, Wei Shi, Bo Li, Bin Li, Liping Chen, Li Guo
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a long-lasting autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Currently, the etiology of MS is not known. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), has been recognized as the most widely used animal models to study the molecular mechanisms underlying MS and the efficacy of potential drugs for treatment of MS. In the present study, we found that Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP), a neuroprotective drug in ischemic brain injury, prevented development of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and significantly reduced inflammatory factors and necroptosis-associated genes, including PGAM5 in the spinal cord tissues...
February 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404650/-coagulation-factors-and-multiple-sclerosis-key-factors-in-the-pathogenesis
#20
REVIEW
K Göbel, C Kleinschnitz, S G Meuth
Environmental factors and genetic predisposition influence the individual risk to develop multiple sclerosis (MS). Preclinical results in animal models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), prove a significant contribution of the corpuscular and plasmatic coagulation system for the severity of MS. It was recently shown that key molecules of the coagulation cascade, such as fibrinogen, thrombin and factor XII can influence neuroinflammatory disorders such as MS. The inhibition of both fibrinogen and factor XII led to a significantly improved disease course in animal models...
February 5, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
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