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Traumatic brain injury in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049053/treatment-options-for-posttraumatic-epilepsy
#1
Lara L Zimmermann, Ryan M Martin, Fady Girgis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic seizures (PTS) and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are common and debilitating consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early PTS result in secondary brain injury by raising intracranial pressure and worsening cerebral edema and metabolic crisis. PTE is a localization-related epilepsy strongly associated with TBI severity, but risk factors for PTE and epileptogenesis are incompletely understood and are active areas of research. Medical management of PTS in adults and children is reviewed...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040247/use-of-ondansetron-for-vomiting-after-head-trauma-does-it-mask-clinically-significant-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Israel Green-Hopkins, Michael C Monuteaux, Lois Lee, Lise Nigrovic, Rebekah Mannix, Sara Schutzman
OBJECTIVES: We describe ondansetron use in children with head injury evaluated in pediatric emergency departments and its association with return visits and late diagnoses of intracranial injuries requiring intervention. METHODS: Children ages 6 months to 18 years discharged without neuroimaging from 35 pediatric emergency departments with a diagnosis of head injury from 2009 to 2013 were identified retrospectively from the Pediatric Health Information System. We evaluated the rates of ondansetron use during the study period and of the association of ondansetron treatment with the diagnosis of intracranial injury, skull fracture, and return visits within 72 hours requiring admission or operative intervention...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029289/post-traumatic-hydrocephalus-in-children-a-retrospective-study-in-42-pediatric-hospitals-using-the-pediatric-health-information-system
#3
Robert H Bonow, Assaf P Oron, Brian W Hanak, Samuel R Browd, Randall M Chesnut, Richard G Ellenbogen, Monica S Vavilala, Frederick P Rivara
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is a potentially treatable cause of poor recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI) that remains poorly understood, particularly among children. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the risk factors for pediatric PTH using a large, multi-institutional database. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using administrative data from 42 pediatric hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System...
October 6, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025454/an-audit-of-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-in-a-busy-developing-world-trauma-service-exposes-a-significant-deficit-in-resources-available-to-manage-severe-tbi
#4
Ellen Jerome, Grant L Laing, John L Bruce, Ben Sartorius, Petra Brysiewicz, Damian L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects large numbers of patients, both adults and children, and significant resources are needed to manage it. OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of TBI and the adequacy of available resources to manage in the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS). METHODS: All patients with a TBI were identified from the hybrid electronic medical registry at Grey's and Edendale hospitals in Pietermaritzburg (PMB), KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016432/is-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-relevant-to-pulmonary-complications-and-mortality-in-multiply-injured-children
#5
Waleed Al-Mahdi, Mazen M Ibrahim, David A Spiegel, Alexandre Arkader, Michael Nance, Keith Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a well-recognized phenomenon in adult trauma populations. The "initial hit" of the traumatic event is often coupled with a systemic immune response characterized by changes in vital signs and laboratory indicators. A "second hit" from surgery during this time frame often results in acute lung injury, along with deterioration of the patient's clinical condition. We hypothesized that children and adolescents would experience SIRS physiology, but would not experience adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or "second hit" related death to the extent seen in the adult populations...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994623/exploring-functional-outcomes-and-allied-health-staffing-levels-in-an-inpatient-paediatric-rehabilitation-unit
#6
Penelope J Ireland, Amanda Francis, Shani Jackman, Kim McLennan
PURPOSE: This study provides data from a paediatric tertiary hospital on the length of stay, functional improvement and allied health workload for children and adolescents on active inpatient rehabilitation programs. METHODS: An audit was conducted of records of patients managed through an inpatient rehabilitation program at a 359 bed tertiary children's hospital in Brisbane, Australia between December 2014 and December 2015. Data relating to diagnosis, length of stay, functional change, occasions of allied health service and hours of patient attributable allied health professional time were collected...
October 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988852/assessment-of-a-nutritional-supplement-containing-resveratrol-prebiotic-fiber-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#7
Sabrina Salberg, Glenn Yamakawa, Jennaya Christensen, Bryan Kolb, Richelle Mychasiuk
Children and adolescents have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI), with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for most of these injuries. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable and often suffer from post-injury symptomologies that may persist for months. We hypothesized that the combination of resveratrol (RES), prebiotic fiber (PBF), and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) would be an effective therapeutic supplement for the mitigation of mTBI outcomes in the developing brain. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the supplement (3S) or control condition, which was followed by a mTBI or sham insult...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985200/cellular-therapy-for-traumatic-neurological-injury
#8
REVIEW
Charles S Cox
Neurological injury is the primary lethal mechanism of injury in children, and the primary etiology of long-term disability after trauma. Laboratories and clinical/translational teams have sought to develop stem/progenitor cell therapies to improve recovery in a clinical setting in which there is no significant reparative option. While none of these treatments are currently standard therapeutics, Phase 2b clinical trials are underway in both adults and children in severe traumatic brain injury and Phase 1/2a trials in spinal cord injury...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984377/age-and-sex-related-effects-in-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-properties-a-comparison-of-voxelwise-and-tractography-methods
#9
Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Tracy J Abildskov, Garrett Black, Erin D Bigler, Daniel M Cohen, Leslie K Mihalov, Barbara A Bangert, H Gerry Taylor, Keith O Yeates
Although there are several techniques to analyze diffusion-weighted imaging, any technique must be sufficiently sensitive to detect clinical abnormalities. This is especially critical in disorders like mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), where pathology is likely to be subtle. mTBI represents a major public health concern, especially for youth under 15 years of age. However, the developmental period from birth to 18 years is also a time of tremendous brain changes. Therefore, it is important to establish the degree of age- and sex-related differences...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981346/the-need-for-va-leadership-in-advancing-traumatic-brain-injury-care
#10
Geoffrey Ling
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) afflicts veterans, active duty service members and the civilian community. An estimated 5.3 million US men, women, and children live with a permanent TBI-related disability. There is no cure for TBI, and the discovery of new and effective treatments is complicated by the fact that TBI is multifaceted and varies from individual to individual. Due to its established research centers, wealth of veteran health data, and commitment to veteran health, the VA should be considered a natural leader for expanded TBI research...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980490/the-prevalence-of-traumatic-brain-injury-comorbid-anxiety-and-other-psychiatric-disorders-in-an-outpatient-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-service
#11
Michelle Albicini, Matthew Eggleston, Audrey McKinlay
BACKGROUND: A history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is prevalent in children and adolescents within the health system, which may be accompanied with higher rates of poor mental health outcomes including anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. AIMS: To explore rates of TBI and associated anxiety and other psychiatric diagnoses in children and adolescents aged 5-18 years within the mental health system. METHODS: Participants were recruited from an outpatient mental health service in Canterbury, New Zealand...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972396/intranasal-nerve-growth-factor-administration-improves-cerebral-functions-in-a-child-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#12
Antonio Chiaretti, Giorgio Conti, Benedetto Falsini, Danilo Buonsenso, Matteo Crasti, Luigi Manni, Marzia Soligo, Claudia Fantacci, Orazio Genovese, Maria Lucia Calcagni, Daniela Di Giuda, Maria Vittoria Mattoli, Fabrizio Cocciolillo, Pietro Ferrara, Antonio Ruggiero, Susanna Staccioli, Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Riccardo Riccardi
BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes neural recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) supporting neuronal growth, differentiation and survival of brain cells and up-regulating the neurogenesis-associated protein Doublecortin (DCX). Only a few studies reported NGF administration in paediatric patients with severe TBI. METHODS: A four-year-old boy in a persistent unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) was treated with intranasal murine NGF administration 6 months after severe TBI...
October 3, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970241/does-the-addition-of-a-black-bone-sequence-to-a-fast-multisequence-trauma-mr-protocol-allow-mri-to-replace-ct-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-children
#13
M H G Dremmen, M W Wagner, T Bosemani, A Tekes, D Agostino, E Day, B P Soares, T A G M Huisman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Head CT is the current neuroimaging tool of choice in acute evaluation of pediatric head trauma. The potential cancer risks of CT-related ionizing radiation should limit its use in children. We evaluated the role of MR imaging, including a "black bone" sequence, compared with CT in detecting skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhages in children with acute head trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective evaluation of 2D head CT and brain MR imaging studies including the black bone sequence of children with head trauma...
September 28, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953005/do-children-who-sustain-traumatic-brain-injury-in-early-childhood-need-and-receive-academic-services-7-years-after-injury
#14
Kathleen M Kingery, Megan E Narad, H Gerry Taylor, Keith Owen Yeates, Terry Stancin, Shari L Wade
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of academic need, academic service utilization, and unmet need as well as factors associated with academic service utilization 6.8 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. METHODS: Fifty-eight (16 severe, 14 moderate, 28 complicated mild) children with TBI and 72 children with orthopedic injury (OI) completed the long-term follow-up 6.8 years after injury in early childhood (ages 3-7 years). Injury group differences in rates of need for academic services, academic service utilization, and unmet need as well as factors associated with service utilization and unmet need were examined...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952326/education-on-the-brain-a-partnership-between-a-pediatric-primary-care-center-and-neurology-residency
#15
Eric Zwemer, Miya Bernson-Leung, Corinna Rea, Archana A Patel, Rejean Guerriero, David K Urion, Sara L Toomey
The national shortage of pediatric neurologists is worsening, yet referral rates by pediatricians are high. Suboptimal training of pediatric residents in care of patients with neurologic disease may be a contributing factor. We formed a partnership between the Boston Children's Primary Care at Longwood clinic and Child Neurology Residency Training Program. The educational intervention included lectures, observed neurologic examinations, in-person and virtual triage, and an electronic medical record-based consult system...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947894/transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-use-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Karin Reuter-Rice
Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) is an inexpensive portable diagnostic tool commonly available within most healthcare systems. A team of trained individuals perform and interpret the test to inform patient care management. The benefit of TCD is well established in adult patients with traumatic brain injury. However, in children with TBI, it is still considered exploratory and its use is not a part of the standard of care. This article describes what TCD is, its use in children, and how TCD measurements apply to children and adolescents in an effort to establish criteria for the use of TCD for children with TBI...
March 2017: Journal of Radiology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945629/critical-care-resource-utilization-and-outcomes-of-children-with-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Theerada Chandee, Vivian H Lyons, Monica S Vavilala, Vijay Krishnamoorthy, Nophanan Chaikittisilpa, Arraya Watanitanon, Abhijit V Lele
OBJECTIVES: To characterize admission patterns, critical care resource utilization, and outcomes in moderate pediatric traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: National Trauma Data Bank. PATIENTS: Children under 18 years old with a diagnosis of moderate traumatic brain injury (admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 9-13) in the National Trauma Data Bank between 2007 and 2014. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: We examined clinical characteristics, critical care resource utilization, and discharge outcomes...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944949/the-research-progress-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Gang Li, Yue Yang, Hua-Jiang Dong, Ling Lin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adults throughout the world. It is urgent to ameliorate TBI damage and reduce the disability and case-fatality rate. Stem cell therapy is another medical revolution after drug and surgical medication. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a class of cells with significant self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties and be favorable for the treatment of various diseases and injuries, it could be envisioned that MSCs transplantation may be a promising treatment for TBI...
July 16, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938340/paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-prognostic-insights-and-outlooks
#19
Alicia K Au, Robert S B Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Prognostication of outcome following TBI is challenging in this population and likely requires complex, multimodal models to achieve clinically relevant accuracy. This review highlights injury characteristics, physiological indicators, biomarkers and neuromonitoring modalities predictive of outcome that may be integrated for future development of sensitive and specific prognostic models...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933514/hypothermia-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Sharon R Lewis, David Jw Evans, Andrew R Butler, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Phil Alderson
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia has been used in the treatment of brain injury for many years. Encouraging results from small trials and laboratory studies led to renewed interest in the area and some larger trials. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of mild hypothermia for traumatic brain injury (TBI) on mortality, long-term functional outcomes and complications. SEARCH METHODS: We ran and incorporated studies from database searches to 21 March 2016...
September 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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