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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437593/tabula-rasa-in-the-patagonian-channels-the-phylogeography-of-oreobolus-obtusangulus-cyperaceae
#1
Simon Pfanzelt, Dirk C Albach, Klaus Bernhard von Hagen
The extent of the Pleistocene glaciations in the Patagonian Channel region (southwesternmost South America) and their impact on the vegetation there is largely unknown. Whether the regional flora was wiped out completely (tabula rasa) or survived in ice-free pockets (in situ survival) is still an open question. The molecular imprint of either scenario should still be visible in extant populations. Therefore, DNA sequence data of Oreobolus obtusangulus Gaudich. (Cyperaceae) were analyzed. This species is an abundant constitutent of Patagonian cushion peat bogs, one of the Patagonian Channel region's major vegetation types...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437184/control-of-mosquito-borne-diseases-in-northwestern-italy-preparedness-from-one-season-to-the-next
#2
Federica Verna, Paola Modesto, Maria Cristina Radaelli, Danila Raffaella Francese, Enrico Monaci, Rosanna Desiato, Carla Grattarola, Simone Peletto, Andrea Mosca, Giovanni Savini, Rosa Chianese, Vittorio Demicheli, Marino Prearo, Laura Chiavacci, Alessandra Pautasso, Cristina Casalone
INTRODUCTION: Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are spreading worldwide due to globalization and climate change, representing a threat for both humans and animals. Of great concern are the infections caused by viruses belonging to the Flavivirus genus as West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) transmitted by Culex sp. or Dengue virus and Zika virus (ZIKV), transmitted by Aedes sp. This work describes the surveillance protocol enforced in Piedmont (Northwestern Italy) to control MBDs spread, focusing on the activities performed on mosquitoes during the 2015 vector season...
February 23, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436533/left-atrial-appendage-electrical-isolation-for-atrial-fibrillation-ice-and-fire
#3
EDITORIAL
Jorge Romero, Andrea Natale, Luigi Di Biase
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436421/abnormal-gas-liquid-solid-phase-transition-behaviour-of-water-observed-with-in-situ-environmental-sem
#4
Xin Chen, Jiapei Shu, Qing Chen
Gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water is studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Abnormal phenomena are observed. At a fixed pressure of 450 Pa, with the temperature set to -7 °C, direct desublimation happens, and ice grows continuously along the substrate surface. At 550 Pa, although ice is the stable phase according to the phase diagram, metastable liquid droplets first nucleate and grow to ~100-200 μm sizes. Ice crystals nucleate within the large sized droplets, grow up and fill up the droplets...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435966/water-structuring-above-solutes-with-planar-hydrophobic-surfaces
#5
Udo Schnupf, John W Brady
Many important biological solutes possess not only polar and hydrogen bonding functionalities, but also weakly-hydrating, or hydrophobic, surfaces. Theories of the hydration of such surfaces predict that their solvent interactions will change from a wetting type interaction to a dewetting regime as a function of the solute size, with a gradual transition in behavior taking place around characteristic lengths of ∼1 nm. Aggregations of non-polar species over this size range will undergo a transition from being dominated by entropy to being dominated by enthalpy...
April 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435965/conformational-and-hydration-properties-modulate-ice-recognition-by-type-i-antifreeze-protein-and-its-mutants
#6
Sandipan Chakraborty, Biman Jana
The mechanism of ice recognition by antifreeze protein (AFP) is a topic of recent interest. Here, using equilibrium simulations and free energy calculations, we provide structural rationale to the observed experimental anomalies on type I AFP (wfAFP isoform HPLC6) and its mutants as well as probe the molecular origin of ice recognition by them. Our results clearly demonstrate that the interplay between the conformational and hydration properties dictates the ice binding ability of type I AFP and its mutants...
April 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435859/the-frequency-and-extent-of-sub-ice-phytoplankton-blooms-in-the-arctic-ocean
#7
Christopher Horvat, David Rees Jones, Sarah Iams, David Schroeder, Daniela Flocco, Daniel Feltham
In July 2011, the observation of a massive phytoplankton bloom underneath a sea ice-covered region of the Chukchi Sea shifted the scientific consensus that regions of the Arctic Ocean covered by sea ice were inhospitable to photosynthetic life. Although the impact of widespread phytoplankton blooms under sea ice on Arctic Ocean ecology and carbon fixation is potentially marked, the prevalence of these events in the modern Arctic and in the recent past is, to date, unknown. We investigate the timing, frequency, and evolution of these events over the past 30 years...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435857/dominant-100-000-year-precipitation-cyclicity-in-a-late-miocene-lake-from-northeast-tibet
#8
Junsheng Nie, Carmala Garzione, Qingda Su, Qingsong Liu, Rui Zhang, David Heslop, Cristian Necula, Shihong Zhang, Yougui Song, Zeng Luo
East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation received by northern China over the past 800 thousand years (ky) is characterized by dominant 100-ky periodicity, mainly attributed to CO2 and Northern Hemisphere insolation-driven ice sheet forcing. We established an EASM record in the Late Miocene from lacustrine sediments in the Qaidam Basin, northern China, which appears to exhibit a dominant 100-ky periodicity similar to the EASM records during the Late Quaternary. Because evidence suggests that partial or ephemeral ice existed in the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Miocene, we attribute the 100-ky cycles to CO2 and Southern Hemisphere insolation-driven Antarctic ice sheet forcing...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434200/land-use-for-animal-production-in-global-change-studies-defining-and-characterizing-a-framework
#9
Leanne N Phelps, Jed O Kaplan
Land use for animal production influences the earth system in a variety of ways, including local-scale modification to biodiversity, soils, and nutrient cycling; regional changes in albedo and hydrology; and global-scale changes in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations. Pasture is furthermore the single most extensive form of land cover, currently comprising about 22 - 26% of the earth's ice-free land surface. Despite the importance and variable expressions of animal production, distinctions among different systems are effectively absent from studies of land use and land cover change...
April 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432906/hydrophobic-and-hydrophilic-properties-of-pollutants-as-a-factor-influencing-their-redistribution-during-snowpack-melt
#10
Krystyna Kozioł, Katarzyna Kozak, Żaneta Polkowska
Glaciers accumulate organic pollutants delivered by snow. However, our understanding of the exact dynamics of organic pollutants in the snowpack relies primarily on laboratory experiments and mathematical models. To fill the gap related to the detailed field data, we have conducted observations of melting snow profiles in two locations and three different stages of melting on one High Arctic glacier, as well as in superimposed ice. We monitored the chemical concentrations of formaldehyde, phenols, short-chain carboxylic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and snow water equivalents to derive chemical loads...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432796/an-acetone-based-phantom-for-quantitative-diffusion-mri
#11
Xiaoke Wang, Scott B Reeder, Diego Hernando
PURPOSE: To propose and evaluate an acetone-D2 O phantom that has an extended range of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for quantitative diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as to compare its properties to previously described water-based phantoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed acetone-D2 O, and previously described sucrose water solution and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) water solution phantoms, were constructed in a number of concentrations between 0% and 50%...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432304/decreasing-temperature-enhances-the-formation-of-sixfold-hydrogen-bonded-rings-in-water-rich-water-methanol-mixtures
#12
Imre Bakó, László Pusztai, László Temleitner
The evolution of the structure of liquid water-methanol mixtures as a function of temperature has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations, with a focus on hydrogen bonding. The combination of the OPLS-AA (all atom) potential model of methanol and the widely used SPC/E water model has provided excellent agreement with measured X-ray diffraction data over the temperature range between 298 and 213 K, for mixtures with methanol molar fractions of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. Hydrogen bonds (HB-s) have been identified via a combined geometric/energetic, as well as via a purely geometric definition...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432093/diversity-of-integrative-and-conjugative-elements-of-streptococcus-salivarius-and-their-intra-and-interspecies-transfer
#13
Narimane Dahmane, Virginie Libante, Florence Charron-Bourgoin, Eric Guédon, Gérard Guédon, Nathalie Leblond-Bourget, Sophie Payot
Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) are widespread chromosomal mobile genetic elements, which can transfer autonomously by conjugation in bacteria. Thirteen ICEs with a conjugation module closely related to that of ICESt3 of Streptococcus thermophilus were characterized in Streptococcus salivarius by whole genome sequencing. Sequence comparison highlighted ICE evolution by shuffling of 3 different integration/excision modules (for integration in the 3' end of fda, rpsI or rpmG genes) with the conjugation module of the ICESt3 subfamily...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431891/-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-an-old-disease-with-new-challenges
#14
María Soledad Miró, Emilse Rodríguez, Cecilia Vigezzi, Paula Alejandra Icely, Marcelo Gonzaga de Freitas Araújo, Fernando Oscar Riera, Lara Vargas, Claudio Abiega, Juan Pablo Caeiro, Claudia Elena Sotomayor
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is an old disease that, even in a modern world, continues to have a high incidence. Despite the therapeutic advances, treatments are not always effective, and our understanding of the pathogenesis of this fungal infection is still incomplete. A discussion is presented in this article on the most significant developments related to the fungal virulence factors, the role of the immunological mechanisms involved in the vaginal protection, and the genetic alterations that confer susceptibility to the recurrent form of this mycosis...
April 18, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431604/a-reappraisal-of-diagnostic-tests-for-myasthenia-gravis-in-a-large-asian-cohort
#15
Yew Long Lo, Raymond P Najjar, Kelvin Y Teo, Sharon L Tow, Jing Liang Loo, Dan Milea
BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by weakness of bodily skeletal muscles. Office-based diagnostic tests such as repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS), single fiber electromyography (SFEMG), and the ice test, are used to refine the differential clinical diagnosis of this disease. Evaluating the clinical sensitivity and specificity of these tests, however, may be confounded by lack of a gold standard, non-blinding, incorporation bias, use of non-representative populations and retrospective data...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430956/achieving-high-reliability-in-histology-%C3%A2-an-improvement-series-to-reduce-errors
#16
Yael K Heher, Yigu Chen, Sergey Pyatibrat, Edward Yoon, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Kenneth E Sands
Objectives: Despite sweeping medical advances in other fields, histology processes have by and large remained constant over the past 175 years. Patient label identification errors are a known liability in the laboratory and can be devastating, resulting in incorrect diagnoses and inappropriate treatment. The objective of this study was to identify vulnerable steps in the histology workflow and reduce the frequency of labeling errors (LEs). Methods: In this 36-month study period, a numerical step key (SK) was developed to capture LEs...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429776/global-distribution-of-particle-phase-state-in-atmospheric-secondary-organic-aerosols
#17
Manabu Shiraiwa, Ying Li, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Thomas Berkemeier, Spyros N Pandis, Jos Lelieveld, Thomas Koop, Ulrich Pöschl
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a large source of uncertainty in our current understanding of climate change and air pollution. The phase state of SOA is important for quantifying their effects on climate and air quality, but its global distribution is poorly characterized. We developed a method to estimate glass transition temperatures based on the molar mass and molecular O:C ratio of SOA components, and we used the global chemistry climate model EMAC with the organic aerosol module ORACLE to predict the phase state of atmospheric SOA...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429510/mixing-of-water-masses-caused-by-a-drifting-iceberg-affects-bacterial-activity-community-composition-and-substrate-utilization-capability-in-the-southern-ocean
#18
Julie Dinasquet, Inga Richert, Ramiro Logares, Patricia Yager, Stefan Bertilsson, Lasse Riemann
The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429262/movement-of-a-female-polar-bear-ursus-maritimus-in-the-kara-sea-during-the-summer-sea-ice-break-up
#19
V V Rozhnov, N G Platonov, S V Naidenko, I N Mordvintsev, E A Ivanov
The polar bear movement trajectory in relation to onset date of the sea-ice break-up was studied in the coastal zone of the Taimyr Peninsula, eastern part of the Kara Sea, using as an example a female polar bear tagged by a radio collar with an Argos satellite transmitter. Analysis of the long-term pattern of ice melting and tracking, by means of satellite telemetry, of the female polar bear who followed the ice-edge outgoing in the north-eastern direction (in summer 2012) suggests that direction of the polar bear movement depends precisely on the direction of the sea-ice cover break-up...
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428938/effects-of-supplementation-with-antifreeze-proteins-on-the-follicular-integrity-of-vitrified-warmed-mouse-ovaries-comparison-of-two-types-of-antifreeze-proteins-alone-and-in-combination
#20
Min Kyung Kim, Hyun Sun Kong, Hye Won Youm, Byung Chul Jee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementing vitrification and warming solutions with two types of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and the combination thereof on the follicular integrity of vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries. METHODS: Ovaries (n=154) were obtained from 5-week-old BDF1 female mice (n=77) and vitrified using ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide with the supplementation of 10 mg/mL of Flavobacterium frigoris ice-binding protein (FfIBP), 10 mg/mL of type III AFP, or the combination thereof...
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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