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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812348/inhibition-of-heterogeneous-ice-nucleation-by-bioinspired-coatings-of-polyampholytes
#1
Zhiyuan He, Liuchun Zheng, Zhenqi Liu, Shenglin Jin, Chuncheng Li, Jianjun Wang
Controlling of heterogeneous ice nucleation (HIN) on foreign surfaces is of great importance for anti-ice nucleation material design. In this work, we studied the HIN behaviors on various ion-modified poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) surfaces via chain-extension reaction. Inspired by antifreeze proteins (AFPs), the PBS-based polyampholytes, containing both negative and positive charge groups on a single chain, show excellent performance of ice nucleation inhibition and freezing delay. Unlike the extremely high price and low availability of AFPs, these PBS-based polyampholytes can be commercially synthesized under mild reaction conditions...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812036/incidence-of-sports-related-concussion-among-ncaa-women-s-ice-hockey-athletes
#2
Emily M Brook, Emily Kroshus, Caroline H Hu, Marissa Gedman, Jamie E Collins, Elizabeth G Matzkin
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the incidence of concussion and concussion symptom nondisclosure among collegiate women's ice hockey athletes. PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of sports-related concussion (SRC) in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) women's ice hockey athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was completed by 459 NCAA women's ice hockey athletes...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811644/the-link-between-enso-like-forcing-and-hydroclimate-variability-of-coastal-east-asia-during-the-last-millennium
#3
Jungjae Park, Jiwoo Han, Qiuhong Jin, Junbeom Bahk, Sangheon Yi
Inconsistent reconstructions of East Asian hydroclimate for the last millennium significantly limit our understanding of the mechanisms behind climate variability during the medieval climate anomaly (MCA) and little ice age (LIA) in the region. In this study, we present new high-resolution multiproxy records (diatom, δ(13)C, C/N, TS) from the Mulyoungari swamp, Jeju Island, South Korea. Our results indicate that El Niño southern oscillation-like variations caused the dry MCA/wet LIA pattern in the study area...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811530/evidence-for-ice-ocean-albedo-feedback-in-the-arctic-ocean-shifting-to-a-seasonal-ice-zone
#4
Haruhiko Kashiwase, Kay I Ohshima, Sohey Nihashi, Hajo Eicken
Ice-albedo feedback due to the albedo contrast between water and ice is a major factor in seasonal sea ice retreat, and has received increasing attention with the Arctic Ocean shifting to a seasonal ice cover. However, quantitative evaluation of such feedbacks is still insufficient. Here we provide quantitative evidence that heat input through the open water fraction is the primary driver of seasonal and interannual variations in Arctic sea ice retreat. Analyses of satellite data (1979-2014) and a simplified ice-upper ocean coupled model reveal that divergent ice motion in the early melt season triggers large-scale feedback which subsequently amplifies summer sea ice anomalies...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811497/vertical-ocean-heat-redistribution-sustaining-sea-ice-concentration-trends-in-the-ross-sea
#5
Olivier Lecomte, Hugues Goosse, Thierry Fichefet, Casimir de Lavergne, Antoine Barthélemy, Violette Zunz
Several processes have been hypothesized to explain the slight overall expansion of Antarctic sea ice over the satellite observation era, including externally forced changes in local winds or in the Southern Ocean's hydrological cycle, as well as internal climate variability. Here, we show the critical influence of an ocean-sea-ice feedback. Once initiated by an external perturbation, it may be sufficient to sustain the observed sea-ice expansion in the Ross Sea, the region with the largest and most significant expansion...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811190/how-to-quench-your-thirst-the-effect-of-water-based-products-varying-in-temperature-and-texture-flavour-and-sugar-content-on-thirst
#6
L van Belzen, E M Postma, S Boesveldt
The sensation of thirst plays an important role in the consumption of water or other fluids to rehydrate the body in order to keep bodily functions working properly. An increase in saliva secretion, wetting the mouth by ingestion of liquids, and cooling and sour components in products can alleviate this sensation already before absorption of fluids by the body. This study aimed to investigate the thirst-quenching ability of water-based products differing in temperature and texture (cold solids and cool liquids), flavour (flavoured and non-flavoured) and sugar content in two consecutive experiments...
August 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811148/metagenomes-from-deep-baltic-sea-sediments-reveal-how-past-and-present-environmental-conditions-determine-microbial-community-composition
#7
Ian P G Marshall, Søren M Karst, Per H Nielsen, Bo Barker Jørgensen
Microbial communities that lived near the sediment surface in the past become slowly buried and are the source of deep subsurface communities thousands of years later. We used metagenomes to analyse how the composition of buried microbial communities may change to conform to altered environmental conditions at depth. Sediment samples were collected from down to 85m below sea floor during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347, "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment". The sediments vary in age, organic carbon content, porewater salinity, and other parameters that reflect the changing Baltic environment from the last ice age and throughout the Holocene...
August 12, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810774/effect-of-solute-nature-on-the-polyamorphic-transition-in-glassy-polyol-aqueous-solutions
#8
Yoshiharu Suzuki
I examined the polyamorphic behavior of glassy dilute aqueous solutions of polyols (ethylene glycol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, xylitol, and D-sorbitol) under pressure at low temperatures. Although the volume change of the glassy aqueous solution varied continuously against pressure, the rate of the volume change appeared to vary discontinuously at the onset pressure of the gradual polyamorphic transition. It is thought that low-density liquid-like solvent water and high-density liquid-like solvent water coexist during the transition...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808854/assessing-landscape-and-contaminant-point-sources-as-spatial-determinants-of-water-quality-in-the-vermilion-river-system-ontario-canada
#9
Carrie Strangway, Michelle F Bowman, Andrea E Kirkwood
The Vermilion River and major tributaries (VRMT) are located in the Vermilion watershed (4272 km(2)) in north-central Ontario, Canada. This watershed not only is dominated by natural land-cover but also has a legacy of mining and other development activities. The VRMT receive various point (e.g., sewage effluent) and non-point (e.g., mining activity runoff) inputs, in addition to flow regulation features. Further development in the Vermilion watershed has been proposed, raising concerns about cumulative impacts to ecosystem health in the VRMT...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808685/structure-of-a-1-5-mda-adhesin-that-binds-its-antarctic-bacterium-to-diatoms-and-ice
#10
Shuaiqi Guo, Corey A Stevens, Tyler D R Vance, Luuk L C Olijve, Laurie A Graham, Robert L Campbell, Saeed R Yazdi, Carlos Escobedo, Maya Bar-Dolev, Victor Yashunsky, Ido Braslavsky, David N Langelaan, Steven P Smith, John S Allingham, Ilja K Voets, Peter L Davies
Bacterial adhesins are modular cell-surface proteins that mediate adherence to other cells, surfaces, and ligands. The Antarctic bacterium Marinomonas primoryensis uses a 1.5-MDa adhesin comprising over 130 domains to position it on ice at the top of the water column for better access to oxygen and nutrients. We have reconstructed this 0.6-μm-long adhesin using a "dissect and build" structural biology approach and have established complementary roles for its five distinct regions. Domains in region I (RI) tether the adhesin to the type I secretion machinery in the periplasm of the bacterium and pass it through the outer membrane...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805338/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-episodic-frost-on-plant-growth-and-reproduction-in-subalpine-wildflowers
#11
Gabriella L Pardee, David W Inouye, Rebecca E Irwin
Frost is an important episodic event that damages plant tissues through the formation of ice crystals at or below freezing temperatures. In montane regions, where climate change is expected to cause earlier snowmelt but may not change the last frost-free day of the year, plants that bud earlier might be directly impacted by frost through damage to flower buds and reproductive structures. However, the indirect effects of frost mediated through changes in plant-pollinator interactions have rarely been explored...
August 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805256/effects-of-euthanasia-methods-on-stable-carbon-%C3%AE-13-c-value-and-nitrogen-%C3%AE-15-n-value-isotopic-composition-of-fry-and-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#12
Sarah Nahon, Sarah Séité, Joanna Kolasinski, Pierre Aguirre, Inge Geurden
RATIONALE: Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of fish tissues are now commonly used in ecological studies but mostly require the sacrifice of the animal. Ethical considerations recommend the use of anesthetics for tissue sampling. This study examines how anesthetics affect stable isotope ratios of fish compared with other euthanasia methods. METHODS: Rainbow trout fry and juveniles were sacrificed using ice-freezing (as this common method used to kill fish does not affect natural isotopic ratios), electronarcosis or an overdose of chemical anesthetics (2-phenoxyethanol, benzocaine and clove oil)...
August 14, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805031/-ice-or-not-to-ice-during-laao-what-are-the-benefits-and-disadvantages-of-ice-during-laao
#13
EDITORIAL
Wassim Shatila, Zvonimir Krajcer
For left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO), intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) could be a safe alternative to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). ICE obviates the need for general anesthesia and can be readily implemented in practice. Randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the noninferiority of ICE to TEE for LAAO.
August 1, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804477/glaciers-and-ice-sheets-as-analog-environments-of-potentially-habitable-icy-worlds
#14
REVIEW
Eva Garcia-Lopez, Cristina Cid
Icy worlds in the solar system and beyond have attracted a remarkable attention as possible habitats for life. The current consideration about whether life exists beyond Earth is based on our knowledge of life in terrestrial cold environments. On Earth, glaciers and ice sheets have been considered uninhabited for a long time as they seemed too hostile to harbor life. However, these environments are unique biomes dominated by microbial communities which maintain active biochemical routes. Thanks to techniques such as microscopy and more recently DNA sequencing methods, a great biodiversity of prokaryote and eukaryote microorganisms have been discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801624/stingray-venom-activates-il-33-producing-cardiomyocytes-but-not-mast-cell-to-promote-acute-neutrophil-mediated-injury
#15
Janaina Cardoso Dos Santos, Lidiane Zito Grund, Carla Simone Seibert, Elineide Eugênio Marques, Anderson Brito Soares, Valerie F Quesniaux, Bernhard Ryffel, Monica Lopes-Ferreira, Carla Lima
One of the hallmarks of acute inflammation is neutrophil infiltration of tissues. We investigated molecular mechanisms implicated in acute neutrophilic inflammation induced by the venom of a freshwater stingray (Potamotrygon cf. henlei) in mice. Ray venom induced early mobilization of neutrophil in the microvasculature of cremaster mice and infiltration of the peritoneal cavity 2 hours after injury, in a dose-response manner. IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and KC were produced. The neutrophilic infiltration did not occur in mice with ST2 receptor and MyD88 adapters neutralized, or in those with PI3K and p38 MAPK signaling blocked...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799795/could-it-be-snowing-microbes-on-enceladus-assessing-conditions-in-its-plume-and-implications-for-future-missions
#16
Carolyn C Porco, Luke Dones, Colin Mitchell
We analyzed Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images of the plume of Enceladus to derive particle number densities for the purpose of comparing our results with those obtained from other Cassini instrument investigations. Initial discrepancies in the results from different instruments, as large as factors of 10-20, can be reduced to ∼2 to 3 by accounting for the different times and geometries at which measurements were taken. We estimate the average daily ice production rate, between 2006 and 2010, to be 29 ± 7 kg/s, and a solid-to-vapor ratio, S/V > 0...
August 11, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799378/heterogeneous-nucleation-from-a-supercooled-ionic-liquid-on-a-carbon-surface
#17
Xiaoxia He, Yan Shen, Francisco R Hung, Erik E Santiso
Classical molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the nucleation of the crystal phase of the ionic liquid [dmim(+)][Cl(-)] from its supercooled liquid phase, both in the bulk and in contact with a graphitic surface of D = 3 nm. By combining the string method in collective variables [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)], with Markovian milestoning with Voronoi tessellations [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 2589-2594 (2009)] and order parameters for molecular crystals [Santiso and Trout, J...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799377/ice-formation-on-kaolinite-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#18
Gabriele C Sosso, Gareth A Tribello, Andrea Zen, Philipp Pedevilla, Angelos Michaelides
The formation of ice affects many aspects of our everyday life as well as important technologies such as cryotherapy and cryopreservation. Foreign substances almost always aid water freezing through heterogeneous ice nucleation, but the molecular details of this process remain largely unknown. In fact, insight into the microscopic mechanism of ice formation on different substrates is difficult to obtain even if state-of-the-art experimental techniques are used. At the same time, atomistic simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation frequently face extraordinary challenges due to the complexity of the water-substrate interaction and the long time scales that characterize nucleation events...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799369/a-physically-constrained-classical-description-of-the-homogeneous-nucleation-of-ice-in-water
#19
Thomas Koop, Benjamin J Murray
Liquid water can persist in a supercooled state to below 238 K in the Earth's atmosphere, a temperature range where homogeneous nucleation becomes increasingly probable. However, the rate of homogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled water is poorly constrained, in part, because supercooled water eludes experimental scrutiny in the region of the homogeneous nucleation regime where it can exist only fleetingly. Here we present a new parameterization of the rate of homogeneous ice nucleation based on classical nucleation theory...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799362/on-the-time-required-to-freeze-water
#20
J R Espinosa, C Navarro, E Sanz, C Valeriani, C Vega
By using the seeding technique the nucleation rate for the formation of ice at room pressure will be estimated for the TIP4P/ICE model using longer runs and a smaller grid of temperatures than in the previous work. The growth rate of ice will be determined for TIP4P/ICE and for the mW model of water. Although TIP4P/ICE and mW have a similar melting point and melting enthalpy, they differ significantly in the dynamics of freezing. The nucleation rate of mW is lower than that of TIP4P/ICE due to its higher interfacial free energy...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
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