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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087010/breaking-the-ice-urine-proteomics-of-medullary-sponge-kidney-disease
#1
Somchai Chutipongtanate
Urinary proteomics is a promising tool for biomarker investigation, particularly in complex kidney diseases. Fabris and colleagues report that urinary laminin subunit alpha-2 is a potential diagnostic marker of medullary sponge kidney (MSK) disease by using a label-free quantitative proteomics platform and a clinically compatible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The neglected issue of stone pathogenesis was also evidenced. This commentary discusses several considerations in biomarker validation, and how urinary proteomics breaks new ground in MSK research...
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086860/nicotiana-attenuata-data-hub-nadh-an-integrative-platform-for-exploring-genomic-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-data-in-wild-tobacco
#2
Thomas Brockmöller, Zhihao Ling, Dapeng Li, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Nicotiana attenuata (coyote tobacco) is an ecological model for studying plant-environment interactions and plant gene function under real-world conditions. During the last decade, large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic data have been generated with this plant which has provided new insights into how native plants interact with herbivores, pollinators and microbes. However, an integrative and open access platform that allows for the efficient mining of these -omics data remained unavailable until now...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081273/assessing-the-impact-of-retreat-mechanisms-in-a-simple-antarctic-ice-sheet-model-using-bayesian-calibration
#3
Kelsey L Ruckert, Gary Shaffer, David Pollard, Yawen Guan, Tony E Wong, Chris E Forest, Klaus Keller
The response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to changing climate forcings is an important driver of sea-level changes. Anthropogenic climate change may drive a sizeable AIS tipping point response with subsequent increases in coastal flooding risks. Many studies analyzing flood risks use simple models to project the future responses of AIS and its sea-level contributions. These analyses have provided important new insights, but they are often silent on the effects of potentially important processes such as Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI) or Marine Ice Cliff Instability (MICI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080980/climate-forcing-of-an-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-across-a-montane-multi-host-community
#4
Frances C Clare, Julia B Halder, Olivia Daniel, Jon Bielby, Mikhail A Semenov, Thibaut Jombart, Adeline Loyau, Dirk S Schmeller, Andrew A Cunningham, Marcus Rowcliffe, Trenton W J Garner, Jaime Bosch, Matthew C Fisher
Changes in the timings of seasonality as a result of anthropogenic climate change are predicted to occur over the coming decades. While this is expected to have widespread impacts on the dynamics of infectious disease through environmental forcing, empirical data are lacking. Here, we investigated whether seasonality, specifically the timing of spring ice-thaw, affected susceptibility to infection by the emerging pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across a montane community of amphibians that are suffering declines and extirpations as a consequence of this infection...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080027/asymmetric-pentagonal-metal-meshes-for-flexible-transparent-electrodes-and-heaters
#5
Daniel Lordan, Micheal Burke, Mary Manning, Alfonso Martin, Andreas Amann, Dan O' Connell, Richard Murphy, Colin Lyons, Aidan J Quinn
Metal meshes have emerged as an important class of flexible transparent electrodes. We report on the characteristics of a new class of asymmetric meshes, tiled using a recently-discovered family of pentagons. Micron-scale meshes were fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates via optical lithography, metal evaporation (Ti 10 nm, Pt 50 nm) and lift-off. Three different designs were assessed, each with the same tessellation pattern and linewidth (5 µm), but with different sizes of the fundamental pentagonal unit...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079758/concussion-in-ice-hockey-current-gaps-and-future-directions-in-an-objective-diagnosis
#6
Aynsley M Smith, Michael J Stuart, William O Roberts, David W Dodick, Jonathan T Finnoff, Janelle K Jorgensen, David A Krause
OBJECTIVE: This review provides an update on sport-related concussion (SRC) in ice hockey and makes a case for changes in clinical concussion evaluation. Standard practice should require that concussions be objectively diagnosed and provide quantitative measures of the concussion injury that will serve as a platform for future evidence-based treatment. METHODS: The literature was surveyed to address several concussion-related topics: research in ice hockey-related head trauma, current subjective diagnosis, promising components of an objective diagnosis, and current and potential treatments...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079222/infrared-characterisation-of-acetonitrile-and-propionitrile-aerosols-under-titan-s-atmospheric-conditions
#7
C Ennis, R Auchettl, M Ruzi, E G Robertson
Pure, crystalline acetonitrile (CH3CN) and propionitrile (CH3CH2CN) particles were formed in a collisional cooling cell allowing for infrared (IR) signatures to be compiled from 50 to 5000 cm(-1). The cell temperature and pressure conditions were controlled to simulate Titan's lower atmosphere (80-130 K and 1-100 mbar), allowing for the comparison of laboratory data to the spectra obtained from the Cassini-Huygens mission. The far-IR features confirmed the morphology of CH3CN aerosols as the metastable β-phase (monoclinic) ice, however, a specific crystalline phase for CH3CH2CN could not be verified...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078677/stable-and-rapid-thiol-bioconjugation-by-light-triggered-thiomaleimide-ring-hydrolysis
#8
Dimpy Kalia, Sharad P Pawar, Jyoti S Thopate
Maleimide-mediated thiol-specific derivatization of biomolecules is one of the most efficacious bioconjugation approaches currently available. Alarmingly, however, recent work demonstrates that the resulting thiomaleimide conjugates are susceptible to breakdown via thiol exchange reactions. Herein, we report a new class of maleimides, namely o-CH2 NH(i) Pr phenyl maleimides, that undergo unprecedentedly rapid ring hydrolysis after thiol conjugation to form stable thiol exchange-resistant conjugates. Furthermore, we overcome the problem of low shelf lives of maleimide reagents owing to their propensity to undergo ring hydrolysis prior to bioconjugation by developing a photocaged version of this scaffold that resists ring hydrolysis...
January 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076623/low-cost-simulator-for-heart-surgery-training
#9
Roberto Rocha E Silva, Artur Lourenção, Maxim Goncharov, Fabio B Jatene
Objective: Introduce the low-cost and easy to purchase simulator without biological material so that any institution may promote extensive cardiovascular surgery training both in a hospital setting and at home without large budgets. Methods: A transparent plastic box is placed in a wooden frame, which is held by the edges using elastic bands, with the bottom turned upwards, where an oval opening is made, "simulating" a thoracotomy. For basic exercises in the aorta, the model presented by our service in the 2015 Brazilian Congress of Cardiovascular Surgery: a silicone ice tray, where one can train to make aortic purse-string suture, aortotomy, aortorrhaphy and proximal and distal anastomoses...
November 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076438/the-roles-of-sea-ice-light-and-sedimentation-in-structuring-shallow-antarctic-benthic-communities
#10
Graeme F Clark, Jonathan S Stark, Anne S Palmer, Martin J Riddle, Emma L Johnston
On polar coasts, seasonal sea-ice duration strongly influences shallow marine environments by affecting environmental conditions, such as light, sedimentation, and physical disturbance. Sea-ice dynamics are changing in response to climate, but there is limited understanding of how this might affect shallow marine environments and benthos. Here we present a unique set of physical and biological data from a single region of Antarctic coast, and use it to gain insights into factors shaping polar benthic communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075495/oral-tactile-sensitivity-and-masticatory-performance-are-impaired-in-stroke-patients
#11
Martin Schimmel, Garance Voegeli, Elena Duvernay, Beatrice Leemann, Frauke Müller
BACKGROUND: Orofacial impairment following stroke frequently involves reduced chewing performance, i.e., oral phase dysphagia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sensitivity of oral tissues following stroke and its potential impact on masticatory function. METHODS: Hospitalized post-stroke patients were recruited and compared to healthy controls. Outcome measures comprised masticatory performance employing a colour-mixing ability-, i.e. bolus-kneading test, maximum lip and bite force, and the one-point and two-point tactile thresholds...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075353/biochemical-and-structural-insights-into-a-novel-thermostable-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosidase-from-marinomonas-sp-bsi20414
#12
Haitao Ding, Qian Zeng, Lili Zhou, Yong Yu, Bo Chen
A novel β-1,3-galactosidase, designated as MaBGA (β-galactosidase from Marinomonas sp. BSi20414), was successfully purified to homogeneity from Marinomonas sp. BSi20414 isolated from Arctic sea ice by ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion exchange chromatography, resulting in an 8.12-fold increase in specific activity and 9.9% recovery in total activity. MaBGA displayed its maximum activity at pH 6.0 and 60 °C, and maintained at least 90% of its initial activity over the pH range of 5.0-8.0 after incubating for 1 h...
January 8, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#13
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072433/effects-of-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-on-nucleation-and-crystal-growth-in-the-vitrified-vs55-during-warming
#14
Y Xu, H M Yu, Y Q Niu, S C Luo, X Cheng
:   BACKGROUND:Magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs), once excited by radiofrequency (RF) energy, could heat uniformly and rapidly the vitrified biospecimens. However, there are few studies about the impact of mNPs on crystallization kinetics of vitrified samples. OBJECTIVES: The present work aims to investigate the nucleation and crystal growth in the vitrification solution VS55 with mNPs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ferrotec EMG308 superparamagnetic nanoparticles (10 ± 2...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072432/closed-vitrification-system-as-a-platform-for-cryopreservation-of-tissue-engineered-constructs
#15
N A Trufanova, V S Zaikov, A V Zinchenko, A Yu Petrenko, Y A Petrenko
BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSCs-based tissue engineered constructs (TECs) is a promising strategy for regenerative medicine. OBJECTIVE: To examine vitrification system consisting of multicomponent vitreous solution, closed type container, human adult MSCs and two-step exposure procedure as a platform for cryopreservation of MSCs-based TECs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vitrification properties of solutions were studied by visual analysis and calorimetry...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072427/calorimetric-studies-on-thermal-properties-of-nano-cryoprotectant-solutions-during-vitrification
#16
H F Xu, B T Hao, L J Liu, L L Tang, B L Liu
:   BACKGROUND: Vitrification, the ice-free cryopreservation, develops rapidly and can become an ideal method for long-term preservation of cells and tissues. But up to now it is not practical for samples with large size because of the ultra-rapid cooling rate required. It has been reported that nanoparticles improve heat conductivity of solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles(20, 40 or 60nm)at 0.1 %, 0.5 % or 1 % (w/w) were added into glycerol solutions...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072425/direct-microscale-measurement-of-mouse-oocyte-membrane-permeability-to-water-and-ethylene-glycol-at-subzero-temperatures-using-cryomicroscopy
#17
X Han
:   BACKGROUND: Investigation of cell osmotic behavior at subzero temperatures is of critical importance to the optimization of cooling procedures for cryopreservation. Based on established thermodynamic models, plasma membrane permeability coefficients for water and cryoprotectant agent (CPA) (Lcpa, Pp) and their activation energies (Ea(Lp), Ea(Pcpa)) are essential to predict the change of cell volume and composition of intracellular solutions corresponding to different cooling procedures...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072424/a-theoretical-and-experimental-investigation-of-mechanical-damage-to-rodent-sperm-generated-by-microscale-ice-formation
#18
X Han, J K Critser
:   BACKGROUND: Rodent sperm cryopreservation is of critical importance for the maintenance of lines or strains of genetically engineered mice and rats. However, rodent sperm are extremely mechanically sensitive due to their unusual morphology, and are severely damaged using current methods of cryopreservation. Those methods result in poor post thaw motility (PTM) for mouse. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of mechanical damage introduced to rodent sperm during freezing, a micro-mechanical model was established to analyze the sperm radial and axial thermal stresses generated by microscale extracellular ice formation...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071777/radical-recombination-in-interstellar-ices-a-not-so-simple-mechanism
#19
Teddy Butscher, Fabrice Duvernay, Albert Rimola, Mireia Segado-Centellas, Thierry Chiavassa
Many complex organic molecules (hereafter COMs) have been detected in different regions of the interstellar medium (ISM). In each region, different energetic processes - UV irradiation, atom bombardments, etc. - that could be linked to the formation of detected COMs may occur depending on the environment. Several formation mechanisms were proposed but increasing attention is paid to radical recombination reactions. Previous studies showed that glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) are formed by radical recombination between HC˙O and ˙CH2OH, and by ˙CH2OH dimerisation, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071137/seasonal-variation-in-an-acid-mine-drainage-microbial-community
#20
Ryan R Auld, Nadia C S Mykytczuk, Leo G Leduc, Thomas J S Merritt
Environmental oxidation and microbial metabolism drive production of acid mine drainage (AMD). Understanding changes in the microbial community, due to geochemical and seasonal characteristics, is fundamental to AMD monitoring and remediation. Using direct sequencing of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes to identify bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic members of the microbial community at an AMD site in Northern Ontario, Canada, we found a dynamic community varying significantly across winter and summer sampling times...
September 27, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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