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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080906/oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-an-aged-captive-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum
#1
Sandra Langer, Nadine Czerwonka, Kerstin Ternes, Dr Werner Herbst, Kernt Koehler
A 48-yr-old captive white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ) was euthanized due to old age, pododermatitis, and progressive laminitis of the middle toe of the left fore- and hindlimbs. Severe chronic necrotizing periodontitis and dental loss was diagnosed, although food intake prior to death had not decreased. In addition, extensive ulceration of the tongue was noted. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was diagnosed with chronic severe ulcerative glossitis. Metastatic lesions were not detected...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078757/lamellar-events-related-to-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-signaling-in-two-models-relevant-to-endocrinopathic-laminitis
#2
H E Lane, T A Burns, O C Hegedus, M R Watts, P S Weber, K A Woltman, R J Geor, L J McCutcheon, S C Eades, L E Mathes, J K Belknap
BACKGROUND: Insulin dysregulation, obesity, and exposure to high-non structural carbohydrate (NSC) forage are risk factors for equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)-associated laminitis (EMSAL); high systemic insulin concentrations in EMSAL are proposed to induce cellular dysregulation in the digital lamellae through activation of the IGF-1 receptor. OBJECTIVES: To use a dietary challenge model (DCM) and a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) model to assess lamellar growth factor-related signaling...
January 11, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078718/fabric-based-alkaline-direct-formate-microfluidic-fuel-cells
#3
Kryls Domalaon, Catherine Tang, Alex Mendez, Franky Bernal, Krutarth Purohit, Linda Pham, John Haan, Frank A Gomez
Fabric-based microfluidic fuel cells (MFCs) serve as a novel, cost-efficient alternative to traditional FCs and batteries, since fluids naturally travel across fabric via capillary action, eliminating the need for an external pump and lowering production and operation costs. Building on previous research with Y-shaped paper-based MFCs, fabric-based MFCs mitigate fragility and durability issues caused by long periods of fuel immersion. In the present work we describe a microfluidic fabric-based direct formate fuel cell (DFFC), with 5 M potassium formate and 30% hydrogen peroxide as the anode fuel and cathode oxidant, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076778/axl-mediates-zika-virus-entry-in-human-glial-cells-and-modulates-innate-immune-responses
#4
Laurent Meertens, Athena Labeau, Ophelie Dejarnac, Sara Cipriani, Laura Sinigaglia, Lucie Bonnet-Madin, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Mohamed Lamine Hafirassou, Alessia Zamborlini, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Muriel Coulpier, Dorothée Missé, Nolwenn Jouvenet, Ray Tabibiazar, Pierre Gressens, Olivier Schwartz, Ali Amara
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen responsible for neurological disorders and congenital microcephaly. However, the molecular basis for ZIKV neurotropism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Axl is expressed in human microglia and astrocytes in the developing brain and that it mediates ZIKV infection of glial cells. Axl-mediated ZIKV entry requires the Axl ligand Gas6, which bridges ZIKV particles to glial cells. Following binding, ZIKV is internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and traffics to Rab5+ endosomes to establish productive infection...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069793/decreased-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy-caused-by-mutations-in-the-lamin-a-c-gene
#5
Caroline Le Dour, Coline Macquart, Fusako Sera, Shunichi Homma, Gisele Bonne, John P Morrow, Howard J Worman, Antoine Muchir
Cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene (LMNA) mutations (hereafter referred as LMNA cardiomyopathy) is characterized by cardiac conduction abnormalities and left ventricular systolic dysfunction predisposing to heart failure. Previous cardiac transcriptional profiling of Lmna(H222P/H222P) mouse, a small animal model of LMNA cardiomyopathy, suggested decreased WNT/β-catenin signalling. We confirmed decreased WNT/β-catenin signalling in the hearts of these mice by demonstrating decreased β-catenin and WNT proteins...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063184/biologically-agglutinated-eukaryotic-microfossil-from-cryogenian-cap-carbonates
#6
K R Moore, T Bosak, F A Macdonald, D J G Lahr, S Newman, C Settens, S B Pruss
Cryogenian cap carbonates that overlie Sturtian glacial deposits were formed during a post-glacial transgression. Here, we describe microfossils from the Kakontwe Formation of Zambia and the Taishir Formation of Mongolia-both Cryogenian age, post-Sturtian cap carbonates-and investigate processes involved in their formation and preservation. We compare microfossils from these two localities to an assemblage of well-documented microfossils previously described in the post-Sturtian Rasthof Formation of Namibia...
January 6, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058697/macro-scale-model-study-of-a-tunable-drug-dispensation-mechanism-for-controlled-drug-delivery-in-potential-wound-healing-applications
#7
Mariam Mir, Umar Ansari, Murtaza Najabat Ali
BACKGROUND: Auxetic materials tend to exhibit stretching in the direction of the applied load as well as in the perpendicular direction. This may be an inherent property of the material, or it might be a particular structural characteristic that confers it with auxetic properties. In this study, the auxetic properties of a rotating squares auxetic design were utilized in tandem with a stretching mechanism to manufacture a device that offers the advantages of adjustable pore size and hence tunable drug delivery characteristics...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057959/a-q-band-free-space-characterization-of-carbon-nanotube-composites
#8
Ahmed M Hassan, Jan Obrzut, Edward J Garboczi
We present a free-space measurement technique for non-destructive non-contact electrical and dielectric characterization of nano-carbon composites in the Q-band frequency range of 30 GHz to 50 GHz. The experimental system and error correction model accurately reconstruct the conductivity of composite materials that are either thicker than the wave penetration depth, and therefore exhibit negligible microwave transmission (less than -40 dB), or thinner than the wave penetration depth and, therefore, exhibit significant microwave transmission...
November 2016: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057760/chromatin-and-lamin-a-determine-two-different-mechanical-response-regimes-of-the-cell-nucleus
#9
Andrew D Stephens, Edward J Banigan, Stephen A Adam, Robert D Goldman, John F Marko
The cell nucleus must continually resist and respond to inter- and intracellular mechanical forces to transduce mechanical signals and maintain proper genome organization and expression. Altered nuclear mechanics are associated with many human diseases, including heart disease, progeria, and cancer. Chromatin and nuclear envelope A-type lamin proteins are known to be key nuclear mechanical components perturbed in these diseases, but their distinct mechanical contributions are not known. Here, we directly establish the separate roles of chromatin and lamin A/C and show that they determine two distinct mechanical regimes via micromanipulation of single isolated nuclei...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056360/nuclear-envelope-localization-of-lemd2-is-developmentally-dynamic-and-lamin-a-c-dependent-yet-insufficient-for-heterochromatin-tethering
#10
Katharina Thanisch, Congdi Song, Dieter Engelkamp, Jeannette Koch, Audrey Wang, Einar Hallberg, Roland Foisner, Heinrich Leonhardt, Colin L Stewart, Boris Joffe, Irina Solovei
Peripheral heterochromatin in mammalian nuclei is tethered to the nuclear envelope by at least two mechanisms here referred to as the A- and B-tethers. The A-tether includes lamins A/C and additional unknown components presumably INM protein(s) interacting with both lamins A/C and chromatin. The B-tether includes the inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein Lamin B-receptor, which binds B-type lamins and chromatin. Generally, at least one of the tethers is always present in the nuclear envelope of mammalian cells...
January 2, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055184/realization-of-a-high-sensitivity-microphone-for-a-hearing-aid-using-a-graphene-pmma-laminated-diaphragm
#11
SeongTak Woo, Jae-Hyung Han, Jyung Hyun Lee, Sunghun Cho, Ki-Woong Seong, Muhan Choi, Jin-Ho Cho
Microphones for hearing aid systems are required to have high sensitivity, an appropriate bandwidth, and a wide dynamic range. In this paper, a high sensitivity microphone, 4 mm in diameter and using a multilayer graphene-PMMA laminated diaphragm that can be applied in hearing aids, is designed, optimized, and implemented. Typically, polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) has been used for the diaphragm of electret condenser microphones (ECM), and this method provides simple, low cost mass production. Generally, the sensitivity of the commercial 4 mm diameter ECM is about -30 to 35 dB (0 dB = 1 V/Pa)...
January 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054396/incremental-value-of-contrast-echocardiography-in-the-evaluation-of-a-cardiac-thrombus
#12
Jose Ricardo F Po, Matthew S Tong, Erica L Grove, Robert W W Biederman
A 52-year-old man presented with altered mental status and report of prior complaint of chest pain. On electrocardiography, anterolateral ST-segment elevations with Q-waves in the septal leads were seen. Initial echocardiography images demonstrated a thickened anteroseptum. Further imaging showed the presence of a well-attached laminated apical thrombus. Contrast echocardiography images showed that the thrombus had minimal attachment to the endocardial surface. CT head subsequently showed the presence of acute stroke...
January 5, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053025/activity-dependent-dynamics-of-the-transcription-factor-of-camp-response-element-binding-protein-in-cortical-neurons-revealed-by-single-molecule-imaging
#13
Hironobu Kitagawa, Noriyuki Sugo, Masatoshi Morimatsu, Yoshiyuki Arai, Toshio Yanagida, Nobuhiko Yamamoto
: Transcriptional regulation is crucial for neuronal activity-dependent processes that govern neuronal circuit formation and synaptic plasticity. An intriguing question is how neuronal activity influences the spatiotemporal interactions between transcription factors and their target sites. Here, using a single-molecule imaging technique, we investigated the activity dependence of DNA binding and dissociation events of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a principal factor in activity-dependent transcription, in mouse cortical neurons...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051133/orthotropic-laminated-open-cell-frameworks-retaining-strong-auxeticity-under-large-uniaxial-loading
#14
Hiro Tanaka, Kaito Suga, Naoki Iwata, Yoji Shibutani
Anisotropic materials form inside living tissue and are widely applied in engineered structures, where sophisticated structural and functional design principles are essential to employing these materials. This paper presents a candidate laminated open-cell framework, which is an anisotropic material that shows remarkable mechanical performance. Using additive manufacturing, artificial frameworks are fabricated by lamination of in-plane orthotropic microstructures made of elbowed beam and column members; this fabricated structure features orthogonal anisotropy in three-dimensional space...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050601/progeroid-syndrome-patients-with-zmpste24-deficiency-could-benefit-when-treated-with-rapamycin-and-dimethylsulfoxide
#15
Baris Akinci, Shireesha Sankella, Christopher Gilpin, Keiichi Ozono, Abhimanyu Garg, Anil K Agarwal
Patients with progeroid syndromes such as mandibuloacral dysplasia, type B (MADB) and restrictive dermopathy (RD) harbor mutations in zinc metalloproteinase (ZMPSTE24), an enzyme essential for posttranslational proteolysis of prelamin A to form mature lamin A. Dermal fibroblasts from these patients show increased nuclear dysmorphology and reduced proliferation; however, the efficacy of various pharmacological agents in reversing these cellular phenotypes remains unknown. In this study, fibroblasts from MADB patients exhibited marked nuclear abnormalities and reduced proliferation that improved upon treatment with rapamycin and dimethylsulfoxide but not with other agents, including farnesyl transferase inhibitors...
January 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046052/integrative-analysis-of-immunological-data-to-explore-chronic-immune-t-cell-activation-in-successfully-treated-hiv-patients
#16
Marie-Quitterie Picat, Isabelle Pellegrin, Juliette Bitard, Linda Wittkop, Cécile Proust-Lima, Benoît Liquet, Jean-François Moreau, Fabrice Bonnet, Patrick Blanco, Rodolphe Thiébaut
OBJECTIVES: To unravel the complex relationships between cytomegalovirus-induced-, autoimmune-induced responses, microbial translocation and chronic immune activation (CIA) in successfully treated HIV-infected patients and to explore the mediating role of alpha-interferon in these processes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study nested in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in South-Western France. METHODS: Patients initiated antiretroviral therapy between 2005 and 2008 and were treated with sustained virological suppression for at least two years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045568/tissue-specific-nets-alter-genome-organization-and-regulation-even-in-a-heterologous-system
#17
Jose I de Las Heras, Nikolaj Zuleger, Dzmitry G Batrakou, Rafal Czapiewski, Alastair R W Kerr, Eric C Schirmer
Different cell types exhibit distinct patterns of 3D genome organization that correlate with changes in gene expression in tissue and differentiation systems. Several tissue-specific nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) have been found to influence the spatial positioning of genes and chromosomes that normally occurs during tissue differentiation. Here we study 3 such NETs: NET29, NET39, and NET47, which are expressed preferentially in fat, muscle and liver, respectively. We found that even when exogenously expressed in a heterologous system they can specify particular genome organization patterns and alter gene expression...
January 3, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044285/capillary-driven-microfluidic-chips-for-miniaturized-immunoassays-patterning-capture-antibodies-using-microcontact-printing-and-dry-film-resists
#18
Yuksel Temiz, Robert D Lovchik, Emmanuel Delamarche
The miniaturization of immunoassays using microfluidic devices is attractive for many applications, but an important challenge remains the patterning of capture antibodies (cAbs) on the surface of microfluidic structures. Here, we describe how to pattern cAbs on planar poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps and how to microcontact print the cAbs on a dry-film resist (DFR). DFRs are new types of photoresists having excellent chemical resistance and good mechanical, adhesive, and optical properties. Instead of being liquid photoresists, DFRs are thin layers that are easy to handle, cut, photo-pattern, and laminate over surfaces...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044284/capillary-driven-microfluidic-chips-for-miniaturized-immunoassays-efficient-fabrication-and-sealing-of-chips-using-a-chip-olate-process
#19
Yuksel Temiz, Emmanuel Delamarche
The fabrication of silicon-based microfluidic chips is invaluable in supporting the development of many microfluidic concepts for research in the life sciences and in vitro diagnostic applications such as the realization of miniaturized immunoassays using capillary-driven chips. While being extremely abundant, the literature covering microfluidic chip fabrication and assay development might not have addressed properly the challenge of fabricating microfluidic chips on a wafer level or the need for dicing wafers to release chips that need then to be further processed, cleaned, rinsed, and dried one by one...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043971/mechanosensing-by-the-nucleus-from-pathways-to-scaling-relationships
#20
REVIEW
Sangkyun Cho, Jerome Irianto, Dennis E Discher
The nucleus is linked mechanically to the extracellular matrix via multiple polymers that transmit forces to the nuclear envelope and into the nuclear interior. Here, we review some of the emerging mechanisms of nuclear mechanosensing, which range from changes in protein conformation and transcription factor localization to chromosome reorganization and membrane dilation up to rupture. Nuclear mechanosensing encompasses biophysically complex pathways that often converge on the main structural proteins of the nucleus, the lamins...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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