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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811655/a-tissue-engineered-blood-vessel-model-of-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome-using-human-ipsc-derived-smooth-muscle-cells
#1
Leigh Atchison, Haoyue Zhang, Kan Cao, George A Truskey
Hutchison-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, accelerated aging disorder caused by nuclear accumulation of progerin, an altered form of the Lamin A gene. The primary cause of death is cardiovascular disease at about 14 years. Loss and dysfunction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the vasculature may cause defects associated with HGPS. Due to limitations of 2D cell culture and mouse models, there is a need to develop improved models to discover novel therapeutics. To address this need, we produced a functional three-dimensional model of HGPS that replicates an arteriole-scale tissue engineered blood vessel (TEBV) using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived SMCs from an HGPS patient...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811362/nuclear-envelope-rupture-is-enhanced-by-loss-of-p53-or-rb
#2
Zhe Yang, John Maciejowski, Titia de Lange
The mammalian nuclear envelope (NE) forms a stable physical barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, normally breaking down only during the cell cycle phase of mitosis. However, spontaneous transient NE rupture in interphase can occur when NE integrity is compromised such as when the nucleus experiences mechanical stress. For instance, deficiencies in the nuclear lamins and their associated proteins can cause NE rupture that is promoted by forces exerted by actin filaments. NE rupture can allow cytoplasmic nucleases to access chromatin, potentially compromising genome integrity...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811278/lipodystrophic-laminopathy-lamin-a-mutation-relaxes-chromatin-architecture-to-impair-adipogenesis
#3
Eman Elzeneini, Sara A Wickström
The familial partial Dunnigan lipodystrophy, characterized by subcutaneous fat loss, is frequently caused by an R482W mutation in lamin A. In this issue, Oldenburg et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201701043) demonstrate that this mutation impairs the ability of lamin A to repress the anti-adipogenic miR-335, providing a potential molecular mechanism for the disease.
August 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809926/impact-of-fortified-versus-unfortified-lipid-based-supplements-on-morbidity-and-nutritional-status-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-in-ill-gambian-children
#4
Stefan A Unger, Saikou Drammeh, Jahid Hasan, Kabiru Ceesay, Edrisa Sinjanka, Sainey Beyai, Bakary Sonko, Bai Lamin Dondeh, Anthony J Fulford, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice
BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrients (MMN) are commonly prescribed in pediatric primary healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa to improve nutritional status and appetite without evidence for their effectiveness or international clinical guidelines. Community-wide MMN supplementation has shown limited and heterogeneous impact on growth and morbidity. Short-term ready-to-use therapeutic foods in acutely sick children in a hospital setting also had limited efficacy regarding subsequent growth. The effectiveness of MMN in improving morbidity or growth in sick children presenting for primary care has not been assessed...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809682/an-optimization-and-comparative-study-of-air-coupled-cmut-cells-with-circular-and-annular-geometries
#5
Shuai Na, Zhenhao Li, Lawrence L P Wong, Albert I-H Chen, Mirek Macecek, John T W Yeow
Air-coupled capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) with annular cell geometry have recently been reported to have a promising transmit sensitivity. This paper reports three optimization schemes, which further improve the transmit sensitivity and also help achieve a reasonable comparison between the novel annular and conventional circular cells. Lumped element models of both cell types with laminate plate structures are presented. Based on these models, a design optimization flow chart was constructed to facilitate analytical optimization on the three schemes...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808818/first-in-human-study-of-the-epichaperome-inhibitor-pu-h71-clinical-results-and-metabolic-profile
#6
Giovanna Speranza, Larry Anderson, Alice P Chen, Khanh Do, Michelle Eugeni, Marcie Weil, Larry Rubinstein, Eva Majerova, Jerry Collins, Yvonne Horneffer, Lamin Juwara, Jennifer Zlott, Rachel Bishop, Barbara A Conley, Howard Streicher, Joseph Tomaszewski, James H Doroshow, Shivaani Kummar
Background Molecular chaperone targeting has shown promise as a therapeutic approach in human cancers of various histologies and genetic backgrounds. The purine-scaffold inhibitor PU-H71 (NSC 750424), selective for Hsp90 in epichaperome networks, has demonstrated antitumor activity in multiple preclinical cancer models. The present study was a first in-human trial of PU-H71 aimed at establishing its safety and tolerability and characterizing its pharmacokinetic (PK) profile on a weekly administration schedule in human subjects with solid tumors refractory to standard treatments...
August 12, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808665/hla-class-ii-allele-haplotype-and-genotype-associations-with-type-1-diabetes-in-benin-a-pilot-study
#7
Kaossarath A Fagbemi, Thierry C Marc Medehouenou, Simon Azonbakin, Marius Adjagba, Razack Osseni, Jocelyne Ahoueya, Arnaud Agbanlinsou, Raphael Darboux, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Anatole Laleye
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported the implication of HLA-DR/DQ loci in the susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Since no such study has yet been performed in Benin, this pilot one aimed at assessing HLA class II allele, haplotype, and genotype associations with T1D. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Class II HLA genotyping was performed in 51 patients with T1D and 51 healthy unrelated controls by means of the PCR-SSP method. The diagnosis of T1D was set up according to American Diabetes Association criteria...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806747/low-lamin-a-expression-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-from-pleural-effusions-is-a-pejorative-factor-associated-with-high-number-of-metastatic-sites-and-poor-performance-status
#8
Elise Kaspi, Diane Frankel, Julien Guinde, Sophie Perrin, Sophie Laroumagne, Andrée Robaglia-Schlupp, Kevin Ostacolo, Karim Harhouri, Rachid Tazi-Mezalek, Joelle Micallef, Hervé Dutau, Pascale Tomasini, Annachiara De Sandre-Giovannoli, Nicolas Lévy, Pierre Cau, Philippe Astoul, Patrice Roll
The type V intermediate filament lamins are the principal components of the nuclear matrix, including the nuclear lamina. Lamins are divided into A-type and B-type, which are encoded by three genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. The alternative splicing of LMNA produces two major A-type lamins, lamin A and lamin C. Previous studies have suggested that lamins are involved in cancer development and progression. A-type lamins have been proposed as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and/or follow-up. The aim of the present study was to investigate lamins in cancer cells from metastatic pleural effusions using immunofluorescence, western blotting, and flow cytometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802583/cytoskeleton-and-nuclear-lamina-affection-in-recessive-osteogenesis-imperfecta-a-functional-proteomics-perspective
#9
Assunta Gagliardi, Roberta Besio, Chiara Carnemolla, Claudia Landi, Alessandro Armini, Mona Aglan, Ghada Otaify, Samia A Temtamy, Antonella Forlino, Luca Bini, Laura Bianchi
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a collagen-related disorder associated to dominant, recessive or X-linked transmission, mainly caused by mutations in type I collagen genes or in genes involved in type I collagen metabolism. Among the recessive forms, OI types VII, VIII, and IX are due to mutations in CRTAP, P3H1, and PPIB genes, respectively. They code for the three components of the endoplasmic reticulum complex that catalyzes 3-hydroxylation of type I collagen α1Pro986. Under-hydroxylation of this residue leads to collagen structural abnormalities and results in moderate to lethal OI phenotype, despite the exact molecular mechanisms are still not completely clear...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802445/the-dibber-designing-a-standardised-handheld-tool-for-lay-up-tasks
#10
Helene Jones, Anne Roudaut, Anna Chatzimichali, Kevin Potter, Carwyn Ward
We present an application of engineering and ergonomics principles in the design of a standardised tool, The Dibber, which is a tool with multiple geometric features to fit the diversity of lay-up tasks used in the composites industry. The Dibber is the result of a design process, which consists of a series of observations and prototyping to extract geometric requirements for lay-up tasks. To demonstrate that it is possible to design a standardised tool prototypes of the Dibber were distributed and 91 participants gave feedback...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798307/baculovirus-infection-induces-disruption-of-the-nuclear-lamina
#11
Xiaomei Zhang, Kaiyan Xu, Denghui Wei, Wenbi Wu, Kai Yang, Meijin Yuan
Baculovirus nucleocapsids egress from the nucleus primarily via budding at the nuclear membrane. The nuclear lamina underlying the nuclear membrane represents a substantial barrier to nuclear egress. Whether the nuclear lamina undergoes disruption during baculovirus infection remains unknown. In this report, we generated a clonal cell line, Sf9-L, that stably expresses GFP-tagged Drosophila lamin B. GFP autofluorescence colocalized with immunofluorescent anti-lamin B at the nuclear rim of Sf9-L cells, indicating GFP-lamin B was incorporated into the nuclear lamina...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797757/micro-textured-films-for-reducing-microbial-colonization-in-a-clinical-setting
#12
Alon R Mendez, Thean Yen Tan, Hong Yee Low, Katja Holtta Otto, Helena Tan, Xiaojuan Khoo
Transmission of microbes in the hospital environment occurs frequently through human interactions with high touch surfaces such as patient beds and over-bed tables. Although stringent cleaning routines are implemented as a preventive measure to minimize transmission of microbes, it is desirable to have high touch surfaces made of anti-microbial materials. Physical texturing of solid surfaces offers a non-bactericidal approach to control the colonization of such surfaces by microbes. This study investigated the efficacy of micro-textured polycarbonate (PC) films in reducing bacterial load on over-bed tables in a hospital ward...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797100/mapping-the-contact-surfaces-in-the-lamin-a-aimp3-complex-by-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-ft-icr-mass-spectrometry
#13
Yeqing Tao, Pengfei Fang, Sunghoon Kim, Min Guo, Nicolas L Young, Alan G Marshall
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases-interacting multifunctional protein3 (AIMP3/p18) is involved in the macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex via its interaction with several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Recent reports reveal a novel function of AIMP3 as a tumor suppressor by accelerating cellular senescence and causing defects in nuclear morphology. AIMP3 specifically mediates degradation of mature Lamin A (LmnA), a major component of the nuclear envelope matrix; however, the mechanism of how AIMP3 interacts with LmnA is unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790202/tethered-magnets-are-the-key-to-magnetotaxis-direct-observations-of-magnetospirillum-magneticum-amb-1-show-that-mamk-distributes-magnetosome-organelles-equally-to-daughter-cells
#14
Azuma Taoka, Ayako Kiyokawa, Chika Uesugi, Yousuke Kikuchi, Zachery Oestreicher, Kaori Morii, Yukako Eguchi, Yoshihiro Fukumori
Magnetotactic bacteria are a unique group of bacteria that synthesize a magnetic organelle termed the magnetosome, which they use to assist with their magnetic navigation in a specific type of bacterial motility called magneto-aerotaxis. Cytoskeletal filaments consisting of the actin-like protein MamK are associated with the magnetosome chain. Previously, the function of MamK was thought to be in positioning magnetosome organelles; this was proposed based on observations via electron microscopy still images...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790152/lamin-a-c-related-cardiac-disease-late-onset-with-a-variable-and-mild-phenotype-in-a-large-cohort-of-patients-with-the-lamin-a-c-p-arg331gln-founder-mutation
#15
Edgar T Hoorntje, Ilse A Bollen, Daniela Q Barge-Schaapveld, Florence H van Tienen, Gerard J Te Meerman, Joeri A Jansweijer, Anthonie J van Essen, Paul G Volders, Alina A Constantinescu, Peter C van den Akker, Karin Y van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Rogier A Oldenburg, Carlo L Marcelis, Jasper J van der Smagt, Eric A Hennekam, Aryan Vink, Marianne Bootsma, Emmelien Aten, Arthur A Wilde, Arthur van den Wijngaard, Jos L Broers, Jan D Jongbloed, Jolanda van der Velden, Maarten P van den Berg, J Peter van Tintelen
BACKGROUND: Interpretation of missense variants can be especially difficult when the variant is also found in control populations. This is what we encountered for the LMNA c.992G>A (p.(Arg331Gln)) variant. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of this variant, we combined an evaluation of clinical data with functional experiments and morphological studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical data of 23 probands and 35 family members carrying this variant were retrospectively collected...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783057/failure-behavior-of-unidirectional-composites-under-compression-loading-effect-of-fiber-waviness
#16
Swaroop Narayanan Nair, Aravind Dasari, Chee Yoon Yue, Srikanth Narasimalu
The key objective of this work is to highlight the effect of manufacturing-induced fiber waviness defects on the compressive failure of glass fiber-reinforced unidirectional specimens. For this purpose, in-plane, through-thickness waviness defects (with different waviness severities) are induced during the manufacturing of the laminate. Numerical and experimental results show that the compressive strength of the composites decreases as the severity of the waviness defects increases. A reduction of up to 75% is noted with a wave severity of 0...
August 5, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776034/prediction-and-synthesis-of-a-family-of-atomic-laminate-phases-with-kagom%C3%A3-like-and-in-plane-chemical-ordering
#17
Martin Dahlqvist, Jun Lu, Rahele Meshkian, Quanzheng Tao, Lars Hultman, Johanna Rosen
The enigma of MAX phases and their hybrids prevails. We probe transition metal (M) alloying in MAX phases for metal size, electronegativity, and electron configuration, and discover ordering in these MAX hybrids, namely, (V2/3Zr1/3)2AlC and (Mo2/3Y1/3)2AlC. Predictive theory and verifying materials synthesis, including a judicious choice of alloying M from groups III to VI and periods 4 and 5, indicate a potentially large family of thermodynamically stable phases, with Kagomé-like and in-plane chemical ordering, and with incorporation of elements previously not known for MAX phases, including the common Y...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773866/drilling-of-hybrid-titanium-composite-laminate-htcl-with-electrical-discharge-machining
#18
M Ramulu, Mathew Spaulding
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the application of die sinker electrical discharge machining (EDM) as it applies to a hybrid titanium thermoplastic composite laminate material. Holes were drilled using a die sinker EDM. The effects of peak current, pulse time, and percent on-time on machinability of hybrid titanium composite material were evaluated in terms of material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate, and cut quality. Experimental models relating each process response to the input parameters were developed and optimum operating conditions with a short cutting time, achieving the highest workpiece MRR, with very little tool wear were determined to occur at a peak current value of 8...
September 1, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773826/coating-and-patterning-functional-materials-for-large-area-electrofluidic-arrays
#19
Hao Wu, Biao Tang, Robert A Hayes, Yingying Dou, Yuanyuan Guo, Hongwei Jiang, Guofu Zhou
Industrialization of electrofluidic devices requires both high performance coating laminates and efficient material utilization on large area substrates. Here we show that screen printing can be effectively used to provide homogeneous pin-hole free patterned amorphous fluoropolymer dielectric layers to provide both the insulating and fluidic reversibility required for devices. Subsequently, we over-coat photoresist using slit coating on this normally extremely hydrophobic layer. In this way, we are able to pattern the photoresist by conventional lithography to provide the chemical contrast required for liquids dosing by self-assembly and highly-reversible electrofluidic switching...
August 19, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773821/transverse-crack-detection-in-3d-angle-interlock-glass-fibre-composites-using-acoustic-emission
#20
Matthieu Gresil, Mohamed Nasr Saleh, Constantinos Soutis
In addition to manufacturing cost and production rates, damage resistance has become a major issue for the composites industry. Three-dimensional (3D) woven composites have superior through-thickness properties compared to two-dimensional (2D) laminates, for example, improved impact damage resistance, high interlaminar fracture toughness and reduced notch sensitivity. The performance of 3D woven preforms is dependent on the fabric architecture, which is determined by the binding pattern. For this study, angle interlock (AI) structures with through-thickness binding were manufactured...
August 16, 2016: Materials
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