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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655163/microrna-21a-5p-pdcd4-axis-regulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-induced-neuroprotection-in-acute-glaucoma
#1
Wenru Su, Zuohong Li, Yu Jia, Yingting Zhu, Wenjia Cai, Peixing Wan, Yingying Zhang, Song Guo Zheng, Yehong Zhuo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have promising therapeutic benefits for a variety of neurological diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we showed that intravitreal infusion of MSCs promoted retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in a mouse model of acute glaucoma, with significant inhibition of microglial activation, production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and reactive oxygen species, as well as caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. In vitro, MSCs inhibited both caspase-8-mediated RGC apoptosis and microglial activation, partly via the action of stanniocalcin 1 (STC1)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655099/-mononuclear-cells-of-umbilical-cord-blood-differentiation-to-granulocyte-cell-in-vitro
#2
L Chen, X Y Xie, J Q Nie, D L Chen, A P Huang, F Fang, M Y Qu, X Nan, L J He, Z Fan, W Yue, X T Pei
Objective: To explore an optimal method for granulocyte cell production from umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells. Methods: Erythrocytes were precipitated by hydroxyethyl starch. Mononuclear cells were isolated through Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. Different media, additives and cultivation model were chosen for granulocyte induction. Cell morphology was observed by microscopy, and cell phenotype was detected by flow cytometry. The CD18 expression of granulocytes was tested by immunofluorescence assay, and phagocytosis test was executed as well...
June 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655093/-long-term-follow-up-of-multiple-myeloma-after-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-single-center-results
#3
W W Sui, D H Zou, G An, S H Yi, S H Deng, W Y Huang, T Y Wang, J Li, H Liu, M W Fu, R Lyu, W Liu, Y Xu, Z J Li, Y Z Zhao, L G Qiu
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and long-term outcome of a combined protocol for multiple myeloma (MM) , including induction therapy, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and consolidation and maintenance therapy. Methods: Clinical records of 144 patients with MM from January 1, 2005 to February 1, 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The overall response rate (ORR) after ASCT was 100.0%, in which the complete remission (CR) was 64.1% and the best treatment response rate of superior to PR was 89...
June 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655071/melatonin-rescues-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-senescence-induced-by-the-uremic-toxin-p-cresol-via-inhibiting-mtor-dependent-autophagy
#4
Seung Pil Yun, Yong-Seok Han, Jun Hee Lee, Sang Min Kim, Sang Hun Lee
p-Cresol, found at high concentrations in the serum of chronic kidney failure patients, is known to cause cell senescence and other complications in different parts of the body. p-Cresol is thought to mediate cytotoxic effects through the induction of autophagy response. However, toxic effects of p-cresol on mesenchymal stem cells have not been elucidated. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether p-cresol induces senescence of mesenchymal stem cells, and whether melatonin can ameliorate abnormal autophagy response caused by p-cresol...
June 27, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654915/inhibition-of-fak-kinase-activity-preferentially-targets-cancer-stem-cells
#5
Vihren N Kolev, Winnie F Tam, Quentin G Wright, Sean P McDermott, Christian M Vidal, Irina M Shapiro, Qunli Xu, Max S Wicha, Jonathan A Pachter, David T Weaver
Because cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated in chemo-resistance, metastasis and tumor recurrence, therapeutic targeting of CSCs holds promise to address these clinical challenges to cancer treatment. VS-4718 and VS-6063 are potent inhibitors of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates cell signals transmitted by integrins and growth factor receptors. We report here that inhibition of FAK kinase activity by VS-4718 or VS-6063 preferentially targets CSCs, as demonstrated by a panel of orthogonal CSC assays in cell line models and surgically resected primary breast tumor specimens cultured ex vivo...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654896/epigenetic-regulation-during-the-differentiation-of-stem-cells-to-germ-cells
#6
REVIEW
Yuan-Chao Sun, Yong-Yong Wang, Wei Ge, Shun-Feng Cheng, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen
Gametogenesis is an essential process to ensure the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next. It also provides a mechanism by which genetic evolution can take place. Although the genome of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is exactly the same with somatic cells within an organism, there are significant differences between their developments. For example, PGCs eventually undergo meiosis to become functional haploid gametes, and prior to that they undergo epigenetic imprinting which greatly alter their genetic regulation...
June 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654842/haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-pediatric-philadelphia-chromosome-positive-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-the-imatinib-era
#7
Huan Chen, Kai-Yan Liu, Lan-Ping Xu, Yu-Hong Chen, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Yu Wang, Ya-Zhen Qin, Yan-Rong Liu, Yue-Yun Lai, Xiao-Jun Huang
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains an important curative option for children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) who have a poor response to chemotherapy plus imatinib. For such children, if there are no matched related or unrelated donors, alternative donor transplantation may be a choice. The role of haploidentical donor (HID) HSCT in pediatric patients with Ph+ ALL has not been reported. The study population included pediatric patients with Ph+ ALL who underwent HID-HSCT...
June 1, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654819/the-expression-of-connexins-and-sox2-reflects-the-plasticity-of-glioma-stem-like-cells
#8
Joana Balça-Silva, Diana Matias, Luiz Gustavo Dubois, Brenno Carneiro, Anália do Carmo, Henrique Girão, Fernanda Ferreira, Valeria Pereira Ferrer, Leila Chimelli, Paulo Niemeyer Filho, Hermínio Tão, Olinda Rebelo, Marcos Barbosa, Ana Bela Sarmento-Ribeiro, Maria Celeste Lopes, Vivaldo Moura-Neto
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor, with an average survival rate of 15 months. GBM is highly refractory to therapy, and such unresponsiveness is due, primarily, but not exclusively, to the glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). This subpopulation express stem-like cell markers and is responsible for the heterogeneity of GBM, generating multiple differentiated cell phenotypes. However, how GBMs maintain the balance between stem and non-stem populations is still poorly understood. We investigated the GBM ability to interconvert between stem and non-stem states through the evaluation of the expression of specific stem cell markers as well as cell communication proteins...
June 24, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654683/a-data-analysis-framework-for-biomedical-big-data-application-on-mesoderm-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Benjamin Ulfenborg, Alexander Karlsson, Maria Riveiro, Caroline Améen, Karolina Åkesson, Christian X Andersson, Peter Sartipy, Jane Synnergren
The development of high-throughput biomolecular technologies has resulted in generation of vast omics data at an unprecedented rate. This is transforming biomedical research into a big data discipline, where the main challenges relate to the analysis and interpretation of data into new biological knowledge. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for biomedical big data analytics, and apply it for analyzing transcriptomics time series data from early differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells towards the mesoderm and cardiac lineages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654596/a-microbiological-and-ultrastructural-comparison-of-aseptic-versus-sterile-acellular-dermal-matrix-as-a-reconstructive-material-and-a-scaffold-for-stem-cell-ingrowth
#10
Shaun D Mendenhall, Ryan W Schmucker, Timothy H F Daugherty, Katherine M Kottwitz, Joel D Reichensperger, Janak Koirala, Paul S Cederna, Michael W Neumeister
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest an increased risk for infection when acellular dermal matrix is used in breast reconstruction. This may be because some acellular dermal matrices are actually not terminally sterilized but are instead "aseptically processed." This study evaluates aseptic and sterile matrices for evidence of bacterial contamination and whether or not terminal sterilization affects matrix collagen architecture and stem cell ingrowth. METHODS: Five separate samples of 14 different matrices were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization using a bacterial DNA probe to detect bacterial DNA on the matrices...
July 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654473/regenerative-rehabilitation-combining-stem-cell-therapies-and-activity-dependent-stimulation
#11
Chet T Moritz, Fabrisia Ambrosio
The number of clinical trials in regenerative medicine is burgeoning, and stem cell/tissue engineering technologies hold the possibility of becoming the standard of care for a multitude of diseases and injuries. Advances in regenerative biology reveal novel molecular and cellular targets, with potential to optimize tissue healing and functional recovery, thereby refining rehabilitation clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to (1) highlight the potential for synergy between the fields of regenerative medicine and rehabilitation, a convergence of disciplines known as regenerative rehabilitation; (2) provide translational examples of regenerative rehabilitation within the context of neuromuscular injuries and diseases; and (3) offer recommendations for ways to leverage activity dependence via combined therapy and technology, with the goal of enhancing long-term recovery...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654425/association-between-gene-polymorphisms-and-clinical-features-in-idiopathic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-patients
#12
Hadi Rezaeeyan, Kaveh Jaseb, Arash Alghasi, Ali Amin Asnafi, Najmaldin Saki
: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease in which increased platelet destruction and thrombocytopenia are diagnostic features. In fact, the exact pathogenesis of this disease is still unknown, but genetic changes can be a potential factor in the development of ITP. In this study, the relationship between polymorphisms with platelet destruction has been studied, which leads to decreased platelet count. Relevant literature was identified by a PubMed search (2000-2016) of English language papers using the terms 'ITP', 'polymorphism,' and 'immune system'...
June 24, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654212/growth-independent-cross-feeding-modifies-boundaries-for-coexistence-in-a-bacterial-mutualism
#13
Alexandra L McCully, Breah LaSarre, James B McKinlay
Nutrient cross-feeding can stabilize microbial mutualisms, including those important for carbon cycling in nutrient-limited anaerobic environments. It remains poorly understood how nutrient limitation within natural environments impacts mutualist growth, cross-feeding levels, and ultimately mutualism dynamics. We examined the effects of nutrient limitation within a mutualism using theoretical and experimental approaches with a synthetic anaerobic coculture pairing fermentative Escherichia coli and phototrophic Rhodopseudomonas palustris...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654205/driving-toward-precision-medicine-for-acute-leukemias-are-we-there-yet
#14
Clement Chung, Hilary Ma
Despite recent progress in the understanding of the molecular basis of acute leukemias, treatment options for these diseases have not shown significant changes over the last few decades. In this review, we present a nonexhaustive key summary of the current cytogenetic and molecular changes associated with acute leukemias in disease prognostication and potential targeted therapies. An emerging paradigm is that many genetic or molecular alterations target similar signal transduction, transcriptional, and epigenetic pathways...
June 27, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654079/in-situ-immunofluorescent-staining-of-autophagy-in-muscle-stem-cells
#15
Francesco Castagnetti, Elisabetta Fiacco, Carol Imbriano, Lucia Latella
Increasing evidence points to autophagy as a crucial regulatory process to preserve tissue homeostasis. It is known that autophagy is involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, and the autophagic process has been described in several muscular pathologies and age-related muscle disorders. A recently described block of the autophagic process that correlates with the functional exhaustion of satellite cells during muscle repair supports the notion that active autophagy is coupled with productive muscle regeneration...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654077/protocol-for-the-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-mixed-cultures-of-neurons-and-glia-for-neurotoxicity-testing
#16
Francesca Pistollato, David Canovas-Jorda, Dimitra Zagoura, Anna Price
Human pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into various cell types that can be applied to human-based in vitro toxicity assays. One major advantage is that the reprogramming of somatic cells to produce human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) avoids the ethical and legislative issues related to the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). HiPSCs can be expanded and efficiently differentiated into different types of neuronal and glial cells, serving as test systems for toxicity testing and, in particular, for the assessment of different pathways involved in neurotoxicity...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654067/bidirectional-retroviral-integration-site-pcr-methodology-and-quantitative-data-analysis-workflow
#17
Gajendra W Suryawanshi, Song Xu, Yiming Xie, Tom Chou, Namshin Kim, Irvin S Y Chen, Sanggu Kim
Integration Site (IS) assays are a critical component of the study of retroviral integration sites and their biological significance. In recent retroviral gene therapy studies, IS assays, in combination with next-generation sequencing, have been used as a cell-tracking tool to characterize clonal stem cell populations sharing the same IS. For the accurate comparison of repopulating stem cell clones within and across different samples, the detection sensitivity, data reproducibility, and high-throughput capacity of the assay are among the most important assay qualities...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654049/chondrogenic-pellet-formation-from-cord-blood-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Yoojun Nam, Yeri Alice Rim, Ji Hyeon Ju
Human articular cartilage lacks the ability to repair itself. Cartilage degeneration is thus treated not by curative but by conservative treatments. Currently, efforts are being made to regenerate damaged cartilage with ex vivo expanded chondrocytes or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). However, the restricted viability and instability of these cells limit their application in cartilage reconstruction. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have received scientific attention as a new alternative for regenerative applications...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654000/long-lived-epidermal-cancer-initiating-cells
#19
REVIEW
Marina Youssef, Andrew Cuddihy, Charbel Darido
Non-melanomatous skin cancers (NMSCs), which include basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC respectively), represent a significant burden on the population, as well as an economic load to the health care system; yet treatments of these preventable cancers remain ineffective. Studies estimate that there has been a 2-fold increase in the incidence of NMSCs between the 1960s and 1980s. The increase in cases of NMSCs, as well as the lack of effective treatments, makes the need for novel therapeutic approaches all the more necessary...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653884/photobiomodulation-of-breast-and-cervical-cancer-stem-cells-using-low-intensity-laser-irradiation
#20
N E Kiro, M R Hamblin, H Abrahamse
Breast and cervical cancers are dangerous threats with regard to the health of women. The two malignancies have reached the highest record in terms of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. Despite the use of novel strategies with the aim to treat and cure advanced stages of cancer, post-therapeutic relapse believed to be caused by cancer stem cells is one of the challenges encountered during tumor therapy. Therefore, further attention should be paid to cancer stem cells when developing novel anti-tumor therapeutic approaches...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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