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Tuberculosis in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341430/tuberculosis-vaccines-opportunities-and-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Bingdong Zhu, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Thomas G Evans, Ying Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease around the world. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine licensed for use in human beings, and is effective in protecting infants and children against severe miliary and meningeal TB. However, BCG's protective efficacy is variable in adults. Novel TB vaccine candidates being developed include whole-cell vaccines (recombinant BCG (rBCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, killed M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium vaccae), adjuvanted protein subunit vaccines, viral vector-delivered subunit vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines, RNA-based vaccines etc...
January 17, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334827/left-ventricular-pseudoaneurysms-in-children-a-case-series
#2
Prasad Sreevathsa, Duvuru Ram, Hemachandren Munuswamy, Davulury Sri Satyavathi, Bathal Vedagiri Sai Chandran
Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are very rare in children. In children, left ventricular pseudoaneurysms can occur following infection, trauma, ischemia, or cardiac surgery. The authors report a series of three cases treated at our hospital with two of the cases having a history of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and one patient with a history of varicella zoster infection.
January 1, 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330384/detection-of-apparent-cell-free-m-tuberculosis-dna-from-plasma
#3
E S Click, W Murithi, G S Ouma, K McCarthy, M Willby, S Musau, H Alexander, E Pevzner, J Posey, K P Cain
New diagnostics are needed to improve clinicians' ability to detect tuberculosis (TB) disease in key populations such as children and persons living with HIV and to rapidly detect drug resistance. Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in plasma is a diagnostic target in new obstetric and oncologic applications, but its utility for diagnosing TB is not known. Here we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA can be detected in plasma of persons with sputum smear-positive TB, even in the absence of mycobacteremia...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326000/epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-spain-results-obtained-by-the-national-epidemiological-surveillance-network-in-2015
#4
Rosa Cano-Portero, Rocío Amillategui-Dos Santos, Raquel Boix-Martínez, Amparo Larrauri-Cámara
The epidemiological surveillance data for tuberculosis in Spain in 2015 is analysed in this report. This information was gathered through cases reported to the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica [National Epidemiological Surveillance Network]. In addition, the update of the treatment of the cases reported in 2014 is included. The incidence rate of tuberculosis in 2015 was 10.59 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, 10% less than in 2014. This decrease was mainly due to the sustained decreased trend of pulmonary tuberculosis rates, from other locations and in adults, while for cases of tuberculous meningitis and in children the decrease is less marked, with a tendency to stabilization...
January 8, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304247/resistance-and-susceptibility-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-in-tuberculosis-households-in-kampala-uganda
#5
Catherine M Stein, Sarah Zalwango, LaShaunda L Malone, Bonnie Thiel, Ezekiel Mupere, Mary Nsereko, Brenda Okware, Hussein Kisingo, Christina L Lancioni, Charles M Bark, Christopher C Whalen, Moses L Joloba, W Henry Boom, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a major public health problem. Household contact studies identify children and adults along the spectrum from Mtb exposure to disease. In the Kawempe Community Health Study, conducted in Kampala, Uganda, 872 culture-confirmed pulmonary TB cases and their 2,585 contacts were enrolled between 2002-2012 and followed for up to 2 years each. Risk factors identified by time-to-event analysis for secondary TB differed among children, women and men...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302539/prevalence-of-bronchial-asthma-and-factors-associated-with-it-among-higher-secondary-school-children-in-ernakulam-district-kerala-southern-india
#6
Jishnu Sathees Lalu, P S Rakesh, K Leelamoni
Context: Bronchial asthma is one of the leading causes of hospitalization and cause of frequent absenteeism among children and adolescents. Studies reporting the prevalence of bronchial asthma among adolescents from India are limited and the available studies report wide geographic variations in the prevalence of bronchial asthma. Aims: The current study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of bronchial asthma among higher secondary school children and to identify various factors associated with it in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301267/the-effect-of-detectable-hiv-viral-load-among-hiv-infected-children-during-antiretroviral-treatment-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Visal Moolasart, Suthat Chottanapund, Jarurnsook Ausavapipit, Sirirat Likanonsakul, Sumonmal Uttayamakul, Don Changsom, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Pilaipan Puthavathana
The RNA viral load of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is initially used to determine the status of the HIV infection. The goal of therapy following treatment failure is to achieve and maintain virologic suppression. A detectable viral load may relate to the progression of HIV infection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014 at the Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand. The aim was to determine the prevalence of detectable HIV viral load (dVL) and analyze the factors associated with post-dVL conditions that occur independently of a switch to a new antiretroviral agent...
January 1, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298496/tuberculosis-testing-in-children
#8
Jessica L Coleman, Barley R Halton, Russell W Steele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297424/household-context-and-psychosocial-impact-of-childhood-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#9
M Loveday, B Sunkari, I Master, A Daftary, V Mehlomakulu, S Hlangu, B J Marais
SETTING: Referral hospital for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: We conducted interviews with primary care givers of children admitted with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) during a 3-month period in 2015 to identify broader household challenges. RESULTS: We interviewed 26 care givers, most of whom were women (85%). Most households had been decimated by TB/MDR-TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and were dependent upon government grants...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291251/gaps-in-the-child-tuberculosis-care-cascade-in-32-rural-communities-in-uganda-and-kenya
#10
Florence Mwangwa, Gabriel Chamie, Dalsone Kwarisiima, James Ayieko, Asiphas Owaraganise, Theodore D Ruel, Albert Plenty, Khai Hoan Tram, Tamara D Clark, Craig R Cohen, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Maya Petersen, Moses R Kamya, Edwin D Charlebois, Diane V Havlir, Carina Marquez
Background: Reducing tuberculosis (TB) deaths among children requires a better understanding of the gaps in the care cascade from TB diagnosis to treatment completion. We sought to assess the child TB care cascade in 32 rural communities in Uganda and Kenya using programmatic data. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 160,851 children (ages <15 years) living in 12 rural communities in Kenya and 22 in Uganda. We reviewed national TB registries from health centers in and adjacent to the 32 communities, and we included all child TB cases recorded from January 1, 2013 to June 30, 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280783/isoniazid-for-the-prevention-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Jaykaran Charan, Jagdish Prasad Goyal, Tea Reljic, Patricia Emmanuel, Atul Patel, Ambuj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid is recommended for prevention of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV- infected adults but its efficacy in children living with HIV (CLHIV) is not known. We performed a systematic review to assess the efficacy of isoniazid for prevention of TB in CLHIV. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Trial Registry, and Google Scholar from inception to December, 2016. Any randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the role of isoniazid for prevention of TB in CLHIV was eligible for inclusion...
December 26, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280409/challenges-of-using-new-and-repurposed-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#12
H Simon Schaaf, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Lindsay McKenna, James A Seddon
New and repurposed antituberculosis drugs are urgently needed to more safely and effectively treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in children. Multiple challenges limit timely access to new MDR-TB treatments in children. Areas covered: Diagnosis of MDR-TB in children remains a barrier, with few children with MDR-TB diagnosed and treated. Other barriers to timely access to new and repurposed drugs are discussed, and include delayed initiation of paediatric trials, limited funding for paediatric drug development, fragmented regulatory systems and operational challenges...
December 27, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278611/utility-of-point-of-care-ultrasound-in-children-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#13
Sabine Bélard, Charlotte C Heuvelings, Ebrahim Banderker, Lindy Bateman, Tom Heller, Savvas Andronikou, Lesley Workman, Martin P Grobusch, Heather J Zar
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) detects extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in HIV-infected adults but has not been evaluated in children despite their higher risk of EPTB. This study's aims were to investigate feasibility of POCUS for EPTB in children, frequency of POCUS findings suggestive of EPTB, and time to sonographic resolution of findings with treatment. METHODS: This prospective South African cohort study enrolled children with suspected PTB...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273539/effectiveness-of-who-s-pragmatic-screening-algorithm-for-child-contacts-of-tuberculosis-cases-in-resource-constrained-settings-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-uganda
#14
Leonardo Martinez, Ye Shen, Andreas Handel, Srijita Chakraburty, Catherine M Stein, LaShaunda L Malone, W Henry Boom, Frederick D Quinn, Moses L Joloba, Christopher C Whalen, Sarah Zalwango
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality; however, interventions to detect undiagnosed tuberculosis in children are underused. Child contact tracing has been widely recommended but poorly implemented in resource-constrained settings. WHO has proposed a pragmatic screening approach for managing child contacts. We assessed the effectiveness of this screening approach and alternative symptom-based algorithms in identifying secondary tuberculosis in a prospectively followed cohort of Ugandan child contacts...
December 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259216/cytokine-profiling-in-healthy-children-shows-association-of-age-with-cytokine-concentrations
#15
Marie-Luise Decker, Verena Gotta, Sven Wellmann, Nicole Ritz
Cytokine-based diagnostic assays are increasingly used in research and clinical practice. Assays developed for adults such as the interferon-gamma release assay for tuberculosis show inferior performance in children. Limited evidence suggests that release of cytokines is influenced by age but normal ranges of cytokines in children are lacking. Whole blood of healthy children (0-12 years) undergoing elective/diagnostic procedures was stimulated with SEB, PHA, Candida albicans for 24 hours or left unstimulated...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258581/trend-and-outcome-of-notified-children-with-tuberculosis-during-2011-2015-in-kampala-uganda
#16
Eric Wobudeya, Moorine Sekadde-Kasirye, Derrick Kimuli, Frank Mugabe, Deus Lukoye
BACKGROUND: The road map for childhood tuberculosis launched in 2013 provided strong renewed efforts focused towards zero deaths due to tuberculosis in children. From 2010, there were efforts to improve childhood tuberculosis diagnosis in Kampala and this study aimed to document the trend and outcome of tuberculosis in children over the period. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of tuberculosis data for Kampala city for the period 2011-2015. We extracted data from the unit TB registers in the 52 Diagnostic and treatment units (DTUs) in the Kampala...
December 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249072/surgical-approaches-to-upper-thoracic-pott-s-disease-with-spinal-instability-during-childhood-two-cases
#17
Gokhan Cavus, Yurdal Gezercan, Ali Ihsan Ökten, Orkun Tolunay, Tamer Çelik, Ali Arslan, Ümit Çelik
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis is a common disease worldwide that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is primarily a pulmonary disease, but extrapulmonary manifestations are not uncommon, especially in children and adolescents. METHODS: We present two pediatric patients who underwent surgery in our clinic for Pott's disease in the upper thoracic region. The patients were investigated to describe their age, complaints, neurological examination results, disease location, surgical procedure, and complications...
December 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247506/suboptimal-anti-tuberculosis-drug-concentrations-and-outcomes-in-small-and-hiv-coinfected-children-in-india-recommendations-for-dose-modifications
#18
Benjamin Guiastrennec, Geetha Ramachandran, Mats O Karlsson, A K Hemanth Kumar, Perumal Kannabiran Bhavani, N Poorana Gangadevi, Soumya Swaminathan, Amita Gupta, Kelly E Dooley, Radojka M Savic
This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily anti-tuberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis undergoing thrice-weekly dosing as per previous Indian pediatric guidelines. The exposure-response relationships were established using a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach. Rifampin exposure was identified as the unique predictor of treatment outcome...
December 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245168/-school-entrance-examination-for-lateral-entrants-what-can-and-what-should-they-be-able-to-do-a-discussion-contribution-based-on-the-data-from-the-health-authority-frankfurt-am-main-2006-2016
#19
Maria Karathana, Bernhard Krackhardt, Manuela Schade, Ursel Heudorf
Question The medical investigation of school beginners is one of the essential tasks of the child and youth services of the health authorities. While in all federal states in Germany, the examination of all school beginners is legally clearly stipulated, the situation for "lateral entry", that is, children of school age, who are moving from a foreign country to a local German community and attending school there, is not clearly regulated in the respective school laws. This article presents the experiences of the lateral entry investigations in Frankfurt am Main...
December 15, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241821/isoniazid-and-rifampicin-concentrations-in-children-with-tuberculosis-on-either-daily-or-intermittent-regimen-implications-for-the-revised-rntcp-2012-doses-in-india
#20
Jaya Ranjalkar, Sumith K Mathew, Valsan Philip Verghese, Anuradha Bose, Winsley Rose, Dulari Gupta, Denise H Fleming, Binu Susan Mathew
BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal plasma drug concentrations of Anti-Tubercular Therapy (ATT) could lead to delayed response and emergence of acquired drug-resistance. OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the plasma concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin in children treated for tuberculosis (TB) on daily or intermittent ATT regimen. To study the effect of the exposure of isoniazid and rifampicin on clinical outcome at the end of therapy. METHODS: Forty-one children aged 2 to 16 years, initiated on either daily or three-times a week (intermittent) ATT regimen were recruited into the study...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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