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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449528/the-link-between-tuberculosis-and-body-mass-index
#1
EDITORIAL
Aaron R Casha, Marco Scarci
The evidence behind the strong correlation between reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) and low body mass index (BMI) was reviewed. This strong association between TB and BMI occurred only with pulmonary TB and not extra-pulmonary TB, indicating that a low-BMI body build may in some way predispose to TB reactivation in the lungs. A possible explanation may be the congenital apical lung bullae that occur in 15% of the population and are likely to enlarge in young low-BMI males since biomechanical modeling of pleural stress has shown a massive 40x increase in apical pleural stress in low antero-posterior (AP) diameter chests associated with a low-BMI build...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449481/procalcitonin-as-preoperative-marker-for-surgery-in-advanced-parapneumonic-empyema
#2
Claudio Caviezel, Philipp Schuetz, Stephan Gerdes, Franco Gambazzi
BACKGROUND: The optimal time point for surgical management of advanced parapneumonic empyema in need of open pleurectomy and decortication remains unclear. We hypothesized that surgical outcomes will be better when procalcitonin (PCT) levels have dropped to normal ranges as evidence for resolution of the underlying pneumonia. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 38 patients with advanced parapneumonic empyema who underwent open decortication and pleurectomy with available preoperative PCT (pPCT) values...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449395/breast-milk-iga-to-foods-has-different-epitope-specificity-than-serum-iga-evidence-for-entero-mammary-link-for-food-specific-iga
#3
Antti E Seppo, Emma M Savilahti, M Cecilia Berin, Hugh A Sampson, Kirsi M Järvinen
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that maternal cow's milk (CM) elimination results in down-regulation of CM-specific IgA antibody levels in BM, but not in serum, suggesting that an entero-mammary link may exist for food-specific antibody-secreting cells. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether food-specific IgA epitope profiles differ intra-individually between mother's serum and BM. We also examined how infants' food epitope-specific IgA develops in early infancy and the relationship of IgA epitope recognition with development of cow's milk allergy (CMA)...
April 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449392/osmotic-stress-decreases-complexity-underlying-the-electrophysiological-dynamic-in-soybean
#4
G F R Saraiva, A S Ferreira, G M Souza
Research rationale: Studies on plant electrophysiology are mostly focused on specific traits of single cells. Inspired by the complexity of the signaling network in plants and by analogies with neurons in human brains, we have sought for evidences of high complexity in the electrical dynamics of plant signaling and a likely relation with environmental cues. Central methods: An EEG-like standard protocol was adopted for high-resolution measurements of the electrical signal in Glycine max seedlings. The signals were continuously recorded in the same plants before and after the osmotic stimuli with a -2 MPa mannitol solution...
April 27, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449307/the-efficacy-of-non-narcotic-analgesics-on-postoperative-endodontic-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Armin Shirvani, Sayna Shamszadeh, Mohammad Jafar Eghbal, Saeed Asgary
The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of non-narcotic analgesics including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or paracetamol in the treatment of postoperative endodontic pain. Additionally, we aimed to examine the possible association of study covariates on the pain scores using meta-regression analysis. An electronic search was performed in 2016. After data extraction and quality assessment of the included studies (n=27, representing 2188 patients), meta-analysis was performed using a random-effect inverse-variance method...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449266/frailty-as-a-predictor-of-future-fracture-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Kuo-Wei Chen, Shu-Fang Chang, Pei-Ling Lin
BACKGROUND: Studies have identified frailty as an effective predictor of fracture; however, the correlation between frailty and fracture differs between various stages of frailty. OBJECTIVES: The main aim is to determine the correlation between various stages of frailty and fracture risk; a secondary purpose is to determine the correlation between subgroups (e.g., females, females with a hip fracture, or aged 65 years or older) within the stages of frailty and fracture risk...
April 27, 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449205/impact-of-pharmacist-involved-collaborative-care-on-the-clinical-humanistic-and-cost-outcomes-of-high-risk-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-impact-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
M Y L Siaw, Y Ko, D C Malone, K Y K Tsou, Y-J Lew, D Foo, E Tan, S C Chan, A Chia, S S Sinaram, K C Goh, J Y-C Lee
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, the physician-centred model is challenged to deliver holistic care in Asia. Diabetes may be managed effectively within a multidisciplinary collaborative care model; however, evidence on its effectiveness in Asian patients is lacking. Therefore, the primary objective was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of multidisciplinary collaborative care vs physician-centred care in diabetes. The secondary objectives were to evaluate humanistic and economic outcomes among the two types of care...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449200/species-traits-as-predictors-of-range-shifts-under-contemporary-climate-change-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Sarah A MacLean, Steven R Beissinger
A growing body of literature seeks to explain variation in range shifts using species' ecological and life history traits, with expectations that shifts should be greater in species with greater dispersal ability, reproductive potential, and ecological generalization. Despite strong theoretical support for species' traits as predictors of range shifts, empirical evidence from contemporary range shift studies remains limited in extent and consensus. We conducted the first comprehensive review of species' traits as predictors of range shifts, collecting results from 51 studies across multiple taxa encompassing over 11,000 species' responses for 54 assemblages of taxonomically-related species occurring together in space...
April 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449077/executive-network-activation-is-linked-to-walking-speed-in-older-adults-functional-mri-and-tcd-ultrasound-evidence-from-the-mobilize-boston-study
#9
Azizah J Jor'dan, Victoria N Poole, Ikechukwu Iloputaife, William Milberg, Brad Manor, Michael Esterman, Lewis A Lipsitz
Background: Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBF) in response to a cognitive task (task-related ΔCBF) have been shown by Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) to be reduced in slow walkers. However, it is unknown whether reduced task-related ΔCBF is associated with reduced neural activity in specific brain regions, as measured by blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: We assessed the regional changes in neural activity associated with reduced middle cerebral artery (MCA) task-related ΔCBF to an executive task and slow walking speed in 67 community-dwelling older adults from the MOBILIZE Boston Study...
April 26, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449054/i-learn-therefore-i-am-a-phenomenological-analysis-of-meanings-of-lifelong-learning-for-vulnerable-older-adults
#10
Miya Narushima, Jian Liu, Naomi Diestelkamp
Background and Objectives: This study explores the lifelong learning experience of vulnerable older adults to find out (a) what is involved in their activities, (b) what meanings they take from their learning, and (c) how participation in a learning program helps to maintain their well-being and independent living despite their daily challenges. Research Design and Methods: This study employed a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. As part of a larger study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with older learners enrolled in general interest courses at a public continuing education program...
April 26, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449049/professional-burnout-in-european-young-oncologists-results-of-the-european-society-for-medical-oncology-esmo-young-oncologists-committee-burnout-survey
#11
S Banerjee, R Califano, J Corral, E de Azambuja, L De Mattos-Arruda, V Guarneri, M Hutka, K Jordan, E Martinelli, G Mountzios, M A Ozturk, M Petrova, S Postel-Vinay, M Preusser, C Qvortrup, M N M Volkov, J Tabernero, D Olmos, M H Strijbos
Background: Burnout in health care professionals could have serious negative consequences on quality of patient care, professional satisfaction and personal life. Our aim was to investigate the burnout prevalence, work and lifestyle factors potentially affecting burnout amongst European oncologists ≤40 (YOs). Methods: A survey was conducted using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and additional questions exploring work/lifestyle factors. Statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with burnout...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449039/polyphyllin-i-induces-g2-m-phase-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-u251-human-glioma-cells-via-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-the-jnk-signaling-pathway
#12
Jiaxin Liu, Yueting Zhang, Li Chen, Fei Yu, Xiaojin Li, Dan Tao, Jianhua Zhao, Shuai Zhou
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor, and its prognosis remains poor. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are needed for glioma therapy. Polyphyllin I (PPI), a bioactive constituent extracted from Paris polyphylla, was reported to have anti-tumor activity. However, the detailed mechanism for this activity remains unclear. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PPI on glioma cells and its mechanisms in vitro. U251 cells were treated with various concentrations of PPI (2-9 μM) for 24 to 72 h...
April 26, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449038/real-time-imaging-of-single-neuronal-cell-apoptosis-in-patients-with-glaucoma
#13
Maria F Cordeiro, Eduardo M Normando, M Jorge Cardoso, Serge Miodragovic, Seham Jeylani, Benjamin M Davis, Li Guo, Sebastien Ourselin, Roger A'Hern, Philip A Bloom
Retinal cell apoptosis occurs in many ocular neurodegenerative conditions including glaucoma-the major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Using a new imaging technique that we have called DARC (detection of apoptosing retinal cells), which until now has only been demonstrated in animal models, we assessed if annexin 5 labelled with fluorescent dye DY-776 (ANX776) could be used safely in humans to identify retinal cell apoptosis. Eight patients with glaucomatous neurodegeneration and evidence of progressive disease, and eight healthy subjects were randomly assigned to intravenous ANX776 doses of 0...
April 26, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449034/parental-break-ups-and-stress-roles-of-age-family-structure-in-44-509-pre-adolescent-children
#14
Agnete S Dissing, Nadya Dich, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Rikke Lund, Naja H Rod
Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children's well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre-adolescent children with a specific focus on age at break-up and post-breakup family arrangements. We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants included 44 509 children followed from birth to age 11. Stress was self-reported by children at age 11, when the children also reported on parental break-up and post break-up family arrangements...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448883/exploring-the-attitudes-knowledge-and-beliefs-of-nurses-and-midwives-of-the-healthcare-needs-of-the-lgbtq-population-an-integrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Kate Stewart, Pauline O'Reilly
OBJECTIVES: To explore current literature surrounding the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of nurses and midwives of the healthcare needs of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer (LGBTQ) patients and their influence on equal and non-discriminatory care for LGBTQ individuals. DESIGN: Systematic integrative review. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, InterNurse. REVIEW METHODS: This integrative review used Wakefield's (2014) framework to establish the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of nurses and midwives of the healthcare needs of LGBTQ patients...
April 18, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448849/regulation-of-the-human-papillomavirus-type-16-late-promoter-by-transcriptional-elongation
#16
William K Songock, Matthew L Scott, Jason M Bodily
Transcripts from the late promoter of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are upregulated upon host cell differentiation. Differentiation-dependent transcript regulation is thought to sequester viral antigens in the uppermost epithelial layers, facilitating immune evasion. The mechanisms regulating late promoter upregulation during differentiation are poorly characterized. We show that the late promoter is upregulated at the transcriptional level and that the viral enhancer stimulates promoter activity. Using kinase inhibition and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we show evidence for differentiation-dependent enhancement of transcript elongation...
April 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#17
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448826/generalized-anxiety-disorder-worry-and-attention-to-threat-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Huw Goodwin, Jenny Yiend, Colette R Hirsch
Among anxious populations, attention has been demonstrated to be preferentially biased to threatening material compared to neutral or other valenced material. Individuals who have high levels of trait worry, such as those with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), may be biased to threat but research has produced equivocal findings. This review aimed to systematically review the extant experimental literature to establish the current evidence of attentional bias to threat among trait worriers compared to healthy controls and other clinical populations...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448810/associations-between-blood-btexs-concentrations-and-hematologic-parameters-among-adult-residents-of-the-u-s-gulf-states
#19
Brett T Doherty, Richard K Kwok, Matthew D Curry, Christine Ekenga, David Chambers, Dale P Sandler, Lawrence S Engel
BACKGROUND: Studies of workers exposed to benzene at average air concentrations below one part per million suggest that benzene, a known hematotoxin, causes hematopoietic damage even at low exposure levels. However, evidence of such effects outside of occupational settings and for other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between ambient exposures to five VOCs, including benzene, and hematologic parameters among adult residents of the U...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448728/does-an-injection-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-in-fibrin-glue-influence-rotator-cuff-repair-outcomes-a-clinical-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Yong Sang Kim, Chang Hun Sung, Sung Hoon Chung, Sang Joon Kwak, Yong Gon Koh
BACKGROUND: The mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based tissue engineering approach has been developed to improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to determine the effect of an injection of adipose-derived MSCs loaded in fibrin glue during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair on clinical outcomes and to evaluate its effect on structural integrity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hypothesis was that the application of adipose-derived MSCs would improve outcomes after the surgical repair of a rotator cuff tear...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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