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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895581/evaluation-of-near-infrared-dyes-as-markers-of-p-glycoprotein-activity-in-tumors
#1
Inessa Semenenko, Emma Portnoy, Mohammed Aboukaoud, Serge Guzy, Miriam Shmuel, Gal Itzhak, Sara Eyal
Aim: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1; P-glycoprotein) has been associated with efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from tumor cells and with poor patient prognosis. This study evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive, non-radioactive near infrared (NIR) imaging methodology for detection of MDR1 functional activity in tumors. Methods: Initial accumulation assays were conducted in MDR1-overexpressing MDCK cells (MDCK-MDR1) and control MDCK cells (MDCK-CT) using the NIR dyes indocyanine green (ICG), IR-783, IR-775, rhodamine 800, XenoLight DiR, and Genhance 750, at 0...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645199/paying-for-antiretroviral-adherence-is-it-unethical-when-the-patient-is-an-adolescent
#2
Justin Healy, Rebecca Hope, Jacqueline Bhabha, Nir Eyal
With the expansion of antiretroviral treatment programmes, many children and adolescents with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa could expect to live healthy lives. Yet adolescents have the highest levels of poor antiretroviral adherence and of loss to follow-up compared with other age groups. This can lead to increased morbidity and mortality, to the development of drug-resistant strains, and to high societal costs. While financial incentives have been extensively used to promote medication adherence among adults, their use among adolescents remains rare...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630193/distinct-biological-events-generated-by-ecm-proteolysis-by-two-homologous-collagenases
#3
Inna Solomonov, Eldar Zehorai, Dalit Talmi-Frank, Sharon G Wolf, Alla Shainskaya, Alina Zhuravlev, Elena Kartvelishvily, Robert Visse, Yishai Levin, Nir Kampf, Diego Adhemar Jaitin, Eyal David, Ido Amit, Hideaki Nagase, Irit Sagi
It is well established that the expression profiles of multiple and possibly redundant matrix-remodeling proteases (e.g., collagenases) differ strongly in health, disease, and development. Although enzymatic redundancy might be inferred from their close similarity in structure, their in vivo activity can lead to extremely diverse tissue-remodeling outcomes. We observed that proteolysis of collagen-rich natural extracellular matrix (ECM), performed uniquely by individual homologous proteases, leads to distinct events that eventually affect overall ECM morphology, viscoelastic properties, and molecular composition...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533351/can-unenhanced-ct-findings-predict-interventional-versus-conservative-treatment-in-acute-renal-colic
#4
Eyal Lotan, Omer Weissman, Larisa Guranda, Nir Kleinmann, Rachel Schor, Harry Winkler, Orith Portnoy
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the value of clinical parameters and radiologic findings on unenhanced CT to the choice between interventional and conservative management for patients with acute renal colic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unenhanced CT records of 183 consecutive patients with acute renal colic were retrospectively reviewed. Urolithiasis was confirmed at both unenhanced CT and clinical follow-up findings of 80 patients (study group)...
November 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497689/an-extended-loop-of-the-pup-ligase-pafa-mediates-interaction-with-protein-targets
#5
Ofir Regev, Maayan Korman, Nir Hecht, Ziv Roth, Nadav Forer, Raz Zarivach, Eyal Gur
Pupylation, the bacterial equivalent of ubiquitylation, involves the conjugation of a prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) to protein targets. In contrast to the ubiquitin system, where many ubiquitin ligases exist, a single bacterial ligase, PafA, catalyzes the conjugation of Pup to a wide array of protein targets. As mediators of target recognition by PafA have not been identified, it would appear that PafA alone determines pupylation target selection. Previous studies indicated that broad specificity and promiscuity are indeed inherent PafA characteristics that probably dictate which proteins are selected for degradation by the Pup-proteasome system...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400264/international-aids-society-global-scientific-strategy-towards-an-hiv-cure-2016
#6
Steven G Deeks, Sharon R Lewin, Anna Laura Ross, Jintanat Ananworanich, Monsef Benkirane, Paula Cannon, Nicolas Chomont, Daniel Douek, Jeffrey D Lifson, Ying-Ru Lo, Daniel Kuritzkes, David Margolis, John Mellors, Deborah Persaud, Joseph D Tucker, Françoise Barre-Sinoussi, Galit Alter, Judith Auerbach, Brigitte Autran, Dan H Barouch, Georg Behrens, Marina Cavazzana, Zhiwei Chen, Éric A Cohen, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Serge Eholié, Nir Eyal, Sarah Fidler, Laurindo Garcia, Cynthia Grossman, Gail Henderson, Timothy J Henrich, Richard Jefferys, Hans-Peter Kiem, Joseph McCune, Keymanthri Moodley, Peter A Newman, Monique Nijhuis, Moses Supercharger Nsubuga, Melanie Ott, Sarah Palmer, Douglas Richman, Asier Saez-Cirion, Matthew Sharp, Janet Siliciano, Guido Silvestri, Jerome Singh, Bruno Spire, Jeffrey Taylor, Martin Tolstrup, Susana Valente, Jan van Lunzen, Rochelle Walensky, Ira Wilson, Jerome Zack
Antiretroviral therapy is not curative. Given the challenges in providing lifelong therapy to a global population of more than 35 million people living with HIV, there is intense interest in developing a cure for HIV infection. The International AIDS Society convened a group of international experts to develop a scientific strategy for research towards an HIV cure. This Perspective summarizes the group's strategy.
August 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354247/afterword-returning-to-philosophical-foundations-in-research-ethics
#7
Nir Eyal
This is an afterword to the JME symposium on the benefit/risk ratio challenge in clinical research, and the case of HIV cure. It notes implications of the symposium for research ethics in general.
June 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215763/the-benefit-risk-ratio-challenge-in-clinical-research-and-the-case-of-hiv-cure-an-introduction
#8
Nir Eyal
This piece introduces the JME symposium 'The benefit/risk ratio challenge in clinical research, and the case of HIV cure.'
May 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182822/jejunal-diverticulitis
#9
Nir Horesh, Eyal Klang, Aviad Gravetz, Yehonatan Nevo, Imri Amiel, Michal Marianne Amitai, Danny Rosin, Mordechai Gutman, Oded Zmora
BACKGROUND: Jejunal diverticulitis is a rare clinical entity often overlooked by physicians as a cause for abdominal pain. Although diagnostic capabilities improved in recent years, there is little data about diverticular disease in the proximal small bowel. The aim of this study is to present the clinical course and management in a series of eight cases of jejunal diverticulitis and possible therapeutic interventions. METHODS: A cohort retrospective analysis of all patients admitted for acute jejunal diverticulitis between January 2010 and June 2015 was conducted...
August 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092927/comparison-of-ishihara-booklet-with-color-vision-smartphone-applications
#10
Nir Sorkin, Amir Rosenblatt, Eyal Cohen, Oded Ohana, Chaim Stolovitch, Gad Dotan
PURPOSE: To compare the standard Ishihara booklet with color-vision-testing smartphone applications. METHODS: A prospective observational diagnostic study on 42 normal trichromats and 38 color-deficient subjects. Patients were presented with three color vision tests in random order: an Ishihara test booklet and two color-vision-testing smartphone applications: Eye2Phone and the Color Vision Test application (CVT app). Sensitivity and specificity of the electronic tests was compared with Ishihara results, and in each one of these applications every plate was individually analyzed for success/failure rate...
July 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26951665/posttranslational-regulation-of-coordinated-enzyme-activities-in-the-pup-proteasome-system
#11
Yifat Elharar, Ziv Roth, Nir Hecht, Ron Rotkopf, Isam Khalaila, Eyal Gur
The proper functioning of any biological system depends on the coordinated activity of its components. Regulation at the genetic level is, in many cases, effective in determining the cellular levels of system components. However, in cases where regulation at the genetic level is insufficient for attaining harmonic system function, posttranslational regulatory mechanisms are often used. Here, we uncover posttranslational regulatory mechanisms in the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup)-proteasome system (PPS), the bacterial equivalent of the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system...
March 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26769998/a-staff-support-programme-for-rural-hospitals-in-nepal
#12
Mark Zimmerman, Sharada Shah, Rabina Shakya, Bal Sundar Chansi, Kashim Shah, Daniel Munday, Nir Eyal, Bruce Hayes
PROBLEM: District hospitals in Nepal struggle to provide essential services such as caesarean sections. APPROACH: Retention of health workers is critical to the delivery of long-term, quality health-care services. To promote retention and enhance performance in rural public hospitals, the Government of Nepal and the Nick Simons Institute progressively implemented a rural staff support programme in remote hospitals. After competitive selection for a compulsory-service scholarship and training, family practice doctors who could do basic surgery, orthopaedics and obstetrics were hired under a binding three-year contract in each participating hospital...
January 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26630055/scrotal-hematoma-precipitated-by-centrifuge-training-in-a-fighter-pilot-with-an-asymptomatic-varicocele
#13
Liyona Kampel, Eyal Klang, Harry Winkler, Barak Gordon, Yael Frenkel-Nir, Yifat Erlich Shoam
BACKGROUND: Varicocele is quite common in the general population, affecting up to 15% of men. It is not considered disqualifying for the pilot's training program of the Israeli Air Force as long as there are no related symptoms or associated pathologies. During combat flight, increased venous pressure due to acceleration forces and anti-G straining maneuvers, used to counteract high gravitational G forces, can theoretically aggravate the venous blood pooling in varicocele, leading to rupture...
December 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527772/alternating-laser-excitation-for-solution-based-single-molecule-fret
#14
Achillefs Kapanidis, Devdoot Majumdar, Mike Heilemann, Eyal Nir, Shimon Weiss
Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) has been widely applied to the study of fluorescently labeled biomolecules on surfaces and in solution. Sorting single molecules based on fluorescent dye stoichiometry provides one with further layers of information and also enables "filtering" of unwanted molecules from the analysis. We accomplish this sorting by using alternating laser excitation (ALEX) in combination with smFRET measurements; here we describe the implementation of these methodologies for the study of biomolecules in solution...
November 2015: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527767/sample-preparation-and-data-acquisition-for-%C3%AE-s-alex
#15
Achillefs Kapanidis, Devdoot Majumdar, Mike Heilemann, Eyal Nir, Shimon Weiss
This protocol describes the preparation of samples and data acquisition for microsecond-alternating laser excitation. Sample preparation requires a dilution that ensures the detection of single events.
November 2015: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527766/aligning-the-%C3%AE-s-alex-setup
#16
Achillefs Kapanidis, Devdoot Majumdar, Mike Heilemann, Eyal Nir, Shimon Weiss
To achieve single-molecule sensitivity and thus have the ability to detect single diffusing fluorophores, careful alignment of the microsecond-alternating laser excitation (μs-Alex) setup is crucial. The following protocol describes routine alignment for 2c-ALEX (532 nm/635 nm) with spectral windows G(550-620)R(650-750).
November 2015: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527765/assembling-the-%C3%AE-s-alex-setup
#17
Achillefs Kapanidis, Devdoot Majumdar, Mike Heilemann, Eyal Nir, Shimon Weiss
This protocol describes the construction of a microsecond-alternating laser excitation (μs-ALEX) using two lasers, a green 532-nm acousto-optically modulated laser and a red 635-nm directly modulated laser.
November 2015: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26488658/nucleosome-core-particle-disassembly-and-assembly-kinetics-studied-using-single-molecule-fluorescence
#18
Noa Plavner Hazan, Toma E Tomov, Roman Tsukanov, Miran Liber, Yaron Berger, Rula Masoud, Katalin Toth, Joerg Langowski, Eyal Nir
The stability of the nucleosome core particle (NCP) is believed to play a major role in regulation of gene expression. To understand the mechanisms that influence NCP stability, we studied stability and dissociation and association kinetics under different histone protein (NCP) and NaCl concentrations using single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer and alternating laser excitation techniques. The method enables distinction between folded, unfolded, and intermediate NCP states and enables measurements at picomolar to nanomolar NCP concentrations where dissociation and association reactions can be directly observed...
October 20, 2015: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26487250/quantitative-study-of-optical-and-mechanical-bone-status-using-multispectral-photoacoustics
#19
Idan Steinberg, Nir Turko, Omri Levi, Israel Gannot, Avishay Eyal
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem worldwide. Here, we present a quantitative multispectral photoacoustic method for the evaluation of bone pathologies which has significant advantages over pure ultrasonic or pure optical methods as it provides both molecular information and bone mechanical status. This is enabled via a simultaneous measurement of the bone's optical properties as well as the speed of sound and ultrasonic attenuation in the bone. To test the method's quantitative predictions, a combined ultrasonic and photoacoustic system was developed...
September 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26358284/ethical-questions-in-medical-electronic-adherence-monitoring
#20
Jeffrey I Campbell, Nir Eyal, Angella Musiimenta, Jessica E Haberer
Electronic adherence monitors (EAMs) record and report an array of health behaviors, ranging from taking daily medications to wearing medical devices. EAMs are utilized in research worldwide and are being investigated for clinical use. However, there is also growing popular concern about the extent to which electronic devices may be used to monitor individuals, including allegations in the media that EAMs represent a move towards "Big Brother" in medicine. Here, we highlight the unique benefits as well as the potential ethical challenges that electronic adherence monitoring generates...
March 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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