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Nir eyal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179624/invited-commentary-on-dub%C3%A3-et-al-perceptions-of-equipoise-risk-benefit-ratios-and-otherwise-healthy-volunteers-in-the-context-of-early-phase-hiv-cure-research-in-the-united-states-a-qualitative-inquiry-are-hiv-infected-candidates-for-participation-in-risky
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149399/overcoming-hiv-stigma-a-qualitative-analysis-of-hiv-cure-research-and-stigma-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-living-with-hiv
#2
Feng Wu, Alice Zhang, Andrew Babbitt, Qingyan Ma, Nir Eyal, Xin Pan, Weiping Cai, Fengyu Hu, Yu Cheng, Joseph D Tucker
Despite global progress in HIV stigma reduction, persistent HIV stigma thwarts effective HIV service delivery. Advances in HIV biomedical research toward a cure may shift perceptions of people living with HIV and HIV stigma. The purpose of this study was to examine how men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV in Guangzhou, China perceive HIV cure research and its potential impact on MSM and HIV stigma. We conducted in-depth interviews with 26 MSM living with HIV about their perceptions of HIV cure research and the potential impact of an HIV cure on their lives...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148951/reframing-consent-for-clinical-research-a-function-based-approach
#3
Neal W Dickert, Nir Eyal, Sara F Goldkind, Christine Grady, Steven Joffe, Bernard Lo, Franklin G Miller, Rebecca D Pentz, Robert Silbergleit, Kevin P Weinfurt, David Wendler, Scott Y H Kim
Although informed consent is important in clinical research, questions persist regarding when it is necessary, what it requires, and how it should be obtained. The standard view in research ethics is that the function of informed consent is to respect individual autonomy. However, consent processes are multidimensional and serve other ethical functions as well. These functions deserve particular attention when barriers to consent exist. We argue that consent serves seven ethically important and conceptually distinct functions...
December 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953445/when-ancillary-care-clashes-with-study-aims
#4
Henry S Richardson, Nir Eyal, Jeffrey I Campbell, Jessica E Haberer
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 377, Issue 13, Page 1213-1215, September 2017.
September 28, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887055/how-to-control-an-intracellular-proteolytic-system-coordinated-regulatory-switches-in-the-mycobacterial-pup-proteasome-system
#5
REVIEW
Eyal Gur, Maayan Korman, Nir Hecht, Ofir Regev, Shai Schlussel, Nimrod Silberberg, Yifat Elharar
Intracellular proteolysis is critical for the proper functioning of all cells, owing to its involvement in a wide range of processes. Because of the destructive nature of protein degradation, intracellular proteolysis is restricted by control mechanisms at almost every step of the proteolytic process. Understanding the coordination of such mechanisms is a challenging task, especially in systems as complex as the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In comparison, the bacterial analog of the UPS, the Pup-proteasome system (PPS) is much simpler and, therefore, allows for insight into the control of a proteolytic system...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812790/coordinating-between-medical-professions-tasks-to-optimize-sub-saharan-health-systems-a-response-to-recent-commentaries
#6
COMMENT
Nir Eyal, Corrado Cancedda, Samia A Hurst, Patrick Kyamanywa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808031/changes-in-aggregation-states-of-light-harvesting-complexes-as-a-mechanism-for-modulating-energy-transfer-in-desert-crust-cyanobacteria
#7
Leeat Bar Eyal, Reza Ranjbar Choubeh, Eyal Cohen, Ido Eisenberg, Carmen Tamburu, Márta Dorogi, Renata Ünnep, Marie-Sousai Appavou, Reinat Nevo, Uri Raviv, Ziv Reich, Győző Garab, Herbert van Amerongen, Yossi Paltiel, Nir Keren
In this paper we propose an energy dissipation mechanism that is completely reliant on changes in the aggregation state of the phycobilisome light-harvesting antenna components. All photosynthetic organisms regulate the efficiency of excitation energy transfer (EET) to fit light energy supply to biochemical demands. Not many do this to the extent required of desert crust cyanobacteria. Following predawn dew deposition, they harvest light energy with maximum efficiency until desiccating in the early morning hours...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746417/immunological-and-inflammatory-mapping-of-vascularized-composite-allograft-rejection-processes-in-a-rat-model
#8
Or Friedman, Narin Carmel, Meirav Sela, Ameen Abu Jabal, Amir Inbal, Moshe Ben Hamou, Yakov Krelin, Eyal Gur, Nir Shani
BACKGROUND: Hand and face vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is an evolving and challenging field with great opportunities. During VCA, massive surgical damage is inflicted on both donor and recipient tissues, which may contribute to the high VCA rejection rates. To segregate between the damage-induced and rejection phase of post-VCA responses, we compared responses occurring up to 5 days following syngeneic versus allogeneic vascularized groin flap transplantations, culminating in transplant acceptance or rejection, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706038/improving-vaccine-trials-in-infectious-disease-emergencies
#9
REVIEW
Marc Lipsitch, Nir Eyal
Unprecedented global effort is under way to facilitate the testing of countermeasures in infectious disease emergencies. Better understanding of the various options for trial design is needed in advance of outbreaks, as is preliminary global agreement on the most suitable designs for the various scenarios. What would enhance the speed, validity, and ethics of clinical studies of such countermeasures? Focusing on studies of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness in emergencies, we highlight three needs: for formal randomized trials-even in most emergencies; for individually randomized trials-even in many emergencies; and for six areas of innovation in trial methodology...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626601/long-term-efficacy-of-gmp-grade-xeno-free-hesc-derived-rpe-cells-following-transplantation
#10
Trevor J McGill, Osnat Bohana-Kashtan, Jonathan W Stoddard, Michael D Andrews, Neelay Pandit, Lior R Rosenberg-Belmaker, Ofer Wiser, Limor Matzrafi, Eyal Banin, Benjamin Reubinoff, Nir Netzer, Charles Irving
PURPOSE: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction underlies the retinal degenerative process in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and thus RPE cell replacement provides an optimal treatment target. We characterized longitudinally the efficacy of RPE cells derived under xeno-free conditions from clinical and xeno-free grade human embryonic stem cells (OpRegen) following transplantation into the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. METHODS: Postnatal (P) day 20 to 25 RCS rats (n = 242) received a single subretinal injection of 25,000 (low)-, 100,000 (mid)-, or 200,000 (high)-dose xeno-free RPE cells...
June 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601279/escitalopram-or-novel-herbal-treatments-differentially-alter-cytokine-and-behavioral-responses-to-immune-challenge
#11
Ronit Avitsur, Shalva Paley, Motty Franko, Nizan Wolff, Nir Eyal, Ravid Doron
Studies suggest that inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study examined the effects of the commonly used antidepressant escitalopram, in comparison with a novel herbal treatment (NHT) consisted of Crataegus pinnatifida, Triticum aestivum, Lilium brownii and Fructus Ziziphus jujuba, on cytokine and behavioral responses to an immune challenge. Escitalopram augmented lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α peripheral secretion and induced a faster kinetics of interleukin-1β secretion, while marginally reducing sickness behavior...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559673/three-case-studies-in-making-fair-choices-on-the-path-to-universal-health-coverage
#12
Alex Voorhoeve, Tessa T T Edejer, Lydia Kapiriri, Ole F Norheim, James Snowden, Olivier Basenya, Dorjsuren Bayarsaikhan, Ikram Chentaf, Nir Eyal, Amanda Folsom, Rozita Halina Tun Hussein, Cristian Morales, Florian Ostmann, Trygve Ottersen, Phusit Prakongsai, Carla Saenz, Karima Saleh, Angkana Sommanustweechai, Daniel Wikler, Afisah Zakariah
The goal of achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) can generally be realized only in stages. Moreover, resource, capacity, and political constraints mean governments often face difficult trade-offs on the path to UHC. In a 2014 report, Making fair choices on the path to UHC, the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage articulated principles for making such trade-offs in an equitable manner. We present three case studies which illustrate how these principles can guide practical decision-making...
December 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440944/the-regulatory-significance-of-tag-recycling-in-the-mycobacterial-pup-proteasome-system
#13
Yifat Elharar, Shai Schlussel, Nir Hecht, Michael M Meijler, Eyal Gur
Pup, a ubiquitin analog, tags proteins for degradation by the bacterial proteasome. As an intracellular proteolytic system, the Pup-proteasome system (PPS) must be carefully regulated to prevent excessive protein degradation. Currently, those factors underlying PPS regulation remain poorly understood. Here, experimental analysis combined with theoretical modeling of in vivo protein pupylation revealed how the basic PPS design allows stable and controlled protein pupylation. Specifically, the recycling of Pup when targets are degraded allows the PPS to maintain steady-state levels of protein pupylation and degradation at a rate limited by proteasome function, and at a pupylome level limited by Pup concentrations...
June 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422434/rat-hindlimb-cryopreservation-and-transplantation-a-step-toward-organ-banking
#14
A Arav, O Friedman, Y Natan, E Gur, N Shani
In 2016, over 5 million reconstructive procedures were performed in the United States. The recent successes of clinical vascularized composite allotransplantations, hand and face transplantations included, established the tremendous potential of these life-enhancing reconstructions. Nevertheless, due to limited availability and lifelong immunosuppression, application is limited. Long-term banking of composite transplants may increase the availability of esthetically compatible parts with partial or complete HLA matching, reducing the risk of rejection and the immunosuppressive burden...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402651/dna-bipedal-motor-achieves-a-large-number-of-steps-due-to-operation-using-microfluidics-based-interface
#15
Toma E Tomov, Roman Tsukanov, Yair Glick, Yaron Berger, Miran Liber, Dorit Avrahami, Doron Gerber, Eyal Nir
Realization of bioinspired molecular machines that can perform many and diverse operations in response to external chemical commands is a major goal in nanotechnology, but current molecular machines respond to only a few sequential commands. Lack of effective methods for introduction and removal of command compounds and low efficiencies of the reactions involved are major reasons for the limited performance. We introduce here a user interface based on a microfluidics device and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy that allows efficient introduction and removal of chemical commands and enables detailed study of the reaction mechanisms involved in the operation of synthetic molecular machines...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396558/vaccine-testing-for-emerging-infections-the-case-for-individual-randomisation
#16
Nir Eyal, Marc Lipsitch
During the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, many opposed the use of individually randomised controlled trials to test candidate Ebola vaccines. For a raging fatal disease, they explained, it is unethical to relegate some study participants to control arms. In Zika and future emerging infections, similar opposition may hinder urgent vaccine research, so it is best to address these questions now. This article lays out the ethical case for individually randomised control in testing vaccines against many emerging infections, including lethal infections in low-income countries, even when at no point in the trial do the controls receive the countermeasures being tested...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330904/autonomous-tnf-is-critical-for-in-vivo-monocyte-survival-in-steady-state-and-inflammation
#17
Yochai Wolf, Anat Shemer, Michal Polonsky, Mor Gross, Alexander Mildner, Simon Yona, Eyal David, Ki-Wook Kim, Tobias Goldmann, Ido Amit, Mathias Heikenwalder, Sergei Nedospasov, Marco Prinz, Nir Friedman, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are circulating mononuclear phagocytes, poised to extravasate to sites of inflammation and differentiate into monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors are up-regulated during monopoiesis and expressed by circulating monocytes, as well as effector monocytes infiltrating certain sites of inflammation, such as the spinal cord, during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, using competitive in vitro and in vivo assays, we show that monocytes deficient for TNF or TNF receptors are outcompeted by their wild-type counterpart...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220549/somatic-psychological-and-sexual-triggers-for-overactive-bladder-syndrome-in-women
#18
Ariel Zilberlicht, Nir Haya, Ido Feferkorn, Eyal Goldschmidt, Anis Kaldawy, Yoram Abramov
AIMS: Patients with overactive bladder (OAB) often describe somatic, psychological, and sexual triggers for their symptoms. The aim of this study was to characterize these triggers and assess their impact on patients' symptoms and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Patients who visited our urogynecologic clinic between August 2015 and March 2016 and diagnosed with OAB syndrome were asked to fill a questionnaire comprising 34 statements regarding SOmatic, Psychological, and Sexual Triggers for OAB (SOPSETO)...
February 21, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152672/intraoperative-localization-of-rectal-tumors-using-liposomal-indocyanine-green
#19
Shlomo Magdassi, Shoshi Bar-David, Yael Friedman-Levi, Ehud Zigmond, Chen Varol, Guy Lahat, Joseph Klausner, Sara Eyal, Eran Nizri
BACKGROUND: Tumor localization may pose a significant challenge during minimally invasive rectal resection. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging can penetrate biological tissue and afford tumor localization from the external surface of the rectum. Our aim was to develop an NIR-based tool for rectal tumor imaging that can be administered intravenously. METHODS: We prepared indocyanine-green (ICG)-loaded liposomes by sonication. Liposomes were evaluated for their size and morphology...
February 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977207/photon-by-photon-hidden-markov-model-analysis-for-microsecond-single-molecule-fret-kinetics
#20
Menahem Pirchi, Roman Tsukanov, Rashid Khamis, Toma E Tomov, Yaron Berger, Dinesh C Khara, Hadas Volkov, Gilad Haran, Eyal Nir
The function of biological macromolecules involves large-scale conformational dynamics spanning multiple time scales, from microseconds to seconds. Such conformational motions, which may involve whole domains or subunits of a protein, play a key role in allosteric regulation. There is an urgent need for experimental methods to probe the fastest of these motions. Single-molecule fluorescence experiments can in principle be used for observing such dynamics, but there is a lack of analysis methods that can extract the maximum amount of information from the data, down to the microsecond time scale...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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