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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457241/can-rationing-through-inconvenience-be-ethical
#1
Nir Eyal, Paul L Romain, Christopher Robertson
In this article, we provide a comprehensive analysis and a normative assessment of rationing through inconvenience as a form of rationing. By "rationing through inconvenience" in the health sphere, we refer to a nonfinancial burden (the inconvenience) that is either intended to cause or has the effect of causing patients or clinicians to choose an option for health-related consumption that is preferred by the health system for its fairness, efficiency, or other distributive desiderata beyond assisting the immediate patient...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457239/patient-care-to-public-health-to-synthetic-biology
#2
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
The January-February 2018 issue of the Hastings Center Report includes pieces addressing patient care concerns that lie at the original core of bioethics and pieces that reflect the field's growing breadth. Among the pieces getting at the original core is an article by philosopher Daniel Brudney on the moral values underpinning surrogate decision-making. The article and the two commentaries that follow it contribute to the debate on the moral authority of surrogate decision-makers. Several items in the issue take up matters of public health and health policy...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457238/rationing-care-through-collaboration-and-shared-values
#3
James E Sabin
Although "rationing" continues to be a dirty word for the public in health policy discourse, Nir Eyal and colleagues handle the concept exactly right in their article in this issue of the Hastings Center Report. They correctly characterize rationing as an ethical requirement, not a moral abomination. They identify the key health policy question as how rationing can best be done, not whether it should be done at all. They make a cogent defense of what they call "rationing through inconvenience" as a justifiable allocational technique...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397952/proteasome-accessory-factor-a-pafa-transferase-activity-makes-sense-in-the-light-of-its-homology-with-glutamine-synthetase
#4
Nir Hecht, Ofir Regev, Daniel Dovrat, Amir Aharoni, Eyal Gur
The Pup-proteasome system (PPS) is a prokaryotic tagging and degradation system analogous in function to the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Like ubiquitin, Pup is conjugated to proteins, tagging them for proteasomal degradation. However, in the PPS, a single Pup-ligase, PafA, conjugates Pup to a wide variety of proteins. PafA couples ATP hydrolysis to formation of an isopeptide bond between Pup and a protein lysine via a mechanism similar to that used by glutamine synthetase (GS) to generate glutamine from ammonia and glutamate...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321219/what-can-the-lived-experience-of-participating-in-risky-hiv-cure-related-studies-establish
#5
Nir Eyal
This response to Gail Henderson et al argues that they were right that interviewees' appraisals of cure study participation should inform (future) protocol review decisions, but wrong to take these appraisals at face value.
April 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179624/invited-commentary-on-dub%C3%A3-et-al-perceptions-of-equipoise-risk-benefit-ratios-and-otherwise-healthy-volunteers-in-the-context-of-early-phase-hiv-cure-research-in-the-united-states-a-qualitative-inquiry-are-hiv-infected-candidates-for-participation-in-risky
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149399/overcoming-hiv-stigma-a-qualitative-analysis-of-hiv-cure-research-and-stigma-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-living-with-hiv
#7
Feng Wu, Alice Zhang, Andrew Babbitt, Qingyan Ma, Nir Eyal, Xin Pan, Weiping Cai, Fengyu Hu, Yu Cheng, Joseph D Tucker
Despite global progress in HIV stigma reduction, persistent HIV stigma thwarts effective HIV service delivery. Advances in HIV biomedical research toward a cure may shift perceptions of people living with HIV and HIV stigma. The purpose of this study was to examine how men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV in Guangzhou, China perceive HIV cure research and its potential impact on MSM and HIV stigma. We conducted in-depth interviews with 26 MSM living with HIV about their perceptions of HIV cure research and the potential impact of an HIV cure on their lives...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148951/reframing-consent-for-clinical-research-a-function-based-approach
#8
Neal W Dickert, Nir Eyal, Sara F Goldkind, Christine Grady, Steven Joffe, Bernard Lo, Franklin G Miller, Rebecca D Pentz, Robert Silbergleit, Kevin P Weinfurt, David Wendler, Scott Y H Kim
Although informed consent is important in clinical research, questions persist regarding when it is necessary, what it requires, and how it should be obtained. The standard view in research ethics is that the function of informed consent is to respect individual autonomy. However, consent processes are multidimensional and serve other ethical functions as well. These functions deserve particular attention when barriers to consent exist. We argue that consent serves seven ethically important and conceptually distinct functions...
December 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953445/when-ancillary-care-clashes-with-study-aims
#9
Henry S Richardson, Nir Eyal, Jeffrey I Campbell, Jessica E Haberer
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 377, Issue 13, Page 1213-1215, September 2017.
September 28, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887055/how-to-control-an-intracellular-proteolytic-system-coordinated-regulatory-switches-in-the-mycobacterial-pup-proteasome-system
#10
REVIEW
Eyal Gur, Maayan Korman, Nir Hecht, Ofir Regev, Shai Schlussel, Nimrod Silberberg, Yifat Elharar
Intracellular proteolysis is critical for the proper functioning of all cells, owing to its involvement in a wide range of processes. Because of the destructive nature of protein degradation, intracellular proteolysis is restricted by control mechanisms at almost every step of the proteolytic process. Understanding the coordination of such mechanisms is a challenging task, especially in systems as complex as the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In comparison, the bacterial analog of the UPS, the Pup-proteasome system (PPS) is much simpler and, therefore, allows for insight into the control of a proteolytic system...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812790/coordinating-between-medical-professions-tasks-to-optimize-sub-saharan-health-systems-a-response-to-recent-commentaries
#11
COMMENT
Nir Eyal, Corrado Cancedda, Samia A Hurst, Patrick Kyamanywa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808031/changes-in-aggregation-states-of-light-harvesting-complexes-as-a-mechanism-for-modulating-energy-transfer-in-desert-crust-cyanobacteria
#12
Leeat Bar Eyal, Reza Ranjbar Choubeh, Eyal Cohen, Ido Eisenberg, Carmen Tamburu, Márta Dorogi, Renata Ünnep, Marie-Sousai Appavou, Reinat Nevo, Uri Raviv, Ziv Reich, Győző Garab, Herbert van Amerongen, Yossi Paltiel, Nir Keren
In this paper we propose an energy dissipation mechanism that is completely reliant on changes in the aggregation state of the phycobilisome light-harvesting antenna components. All photosynthetic organisms regulate the efficiency of excitation energy transfer (EET) to fit light energy supply to biochemical demands. Not many do this to the extent required of desert crust cyanobacteria. Following predawn dew deposition, they harvest light energy with maximum efficiency until desiccating in the early morning hours...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746417/immunological-and-inflammatory-mapping-of-vascularized-composite-allograft-rejection-processes-in-a-rat-model
#13
Or Friedman, Narin Carmel, Meirav Sela, Ameen Abu Jabal, Amir Inbal, Moshe Ben Hamou, Yakov Krelin, Eyal Gur, Nir Shani
BACKGROUND: Hand and face vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is an evolving and challenging field with great opportunities. During VCA, massive surgical damage is inflicted on both donor and recipient tissues, which may contribute to the high VCA rejection rates. To segregate between the damage-induced and rejection phase of post-VCA responses, we compared responses occurring up to 5 days following syngeneic versus allogeneic vascularized groin flap transplantations, culminating in transplant acceptance or rejection, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706038/improving-vaccine-trials-in-infectious-disease-emergencies
#14
REVIEW
Marc Lipsitch, Nir Eyal
Unprecedented global effort is under way to facilitate the testing of countermeasures in infectious disease emergencies. Better understanding of the various options for trial design is needed in advance of outbreaks, as is preliminary global agreement on the most suitable designs for the various scenarios. What would enhance the speed, validity, and ethics of clinical studies of such countermeasures? Focusing on studies of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness in emergencies, we highlight three needs: for formal randomized trials-even in most emergencies; for individually randomized trials-even in many emergencies; and for six areas of innovation in trial methodology...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626601/long-term-efficacy-of-gmp-grade-xeno-free-hesc-derived-rpe-cells-following-transplantation
#15
Trevor J McGill, Osnat Bohana-Kashtan, Jonathan W Stoddard, Michael D Andrews, Neelay Pandit, Lior R Rosenberg-Belmaker, Ofer Wiser, Limor Matzrafi, Eyal Banin, Benjamin Reubinoff, Nir Netzer, Charles Irving
PURPOSE: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction underlies the retinal degenerative process in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and thus RPE cell replacement provides an optimal treatment target. We characterized longitudinally the efficacy of RPE cells derived under xeno-free conditions from clinical and xeno-free grade human embryonic stem cells (OpRegen) following transplantation into the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. METHODS: Postnatal (P) day 20 to 25 RCS rats (n = 242) received a single subretinal injection of 25,000 (low)-, 100,000 (mid)-, or 200,000 (high)-dose xeno-free RPE cells...
June 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601279/escitalopram-or-novel-herbal-treatments-differentially-alter-cytokine-and-behavioral-responses-to-immune-challenge
#16
Ronit Avitsur, Shalva Paley, Motty Franko, Nizan Wolff, Nir Eyal, Ravid Doron
Studies suggest that inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study examined the effects of the commonly used antidepressant escitalopram, in comparison with a novel herbal treatment (NHT) consisted of Crataegus pinnatifida, Triticum aestivum, Lilium brownii and Fructus Ziziphus jujuba, on cytokine and behavioral responses to an immune challenge. Escitalopram augmented lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α peripheral secretion and induced a faster kinetics of interleukin-1β secretion, while marginally reducing sickness behavior...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559673/three-case-studies-in-making-fair-choices-on-the-path-to-universal-health-coverage
#17
Alex Voorhoeve, Tessa T T Edejer, Lydia Kapiriri, Ole F Norheim, James Snowden, Olivier Basenya, Dorjsuren Bayarsaikhan, Ikram Chentaf, Nir Eyal, Amanda Folsom, Rozita Halina Tun Hussein, Cristian Morales, Florian Ostmann, Trygve Ottersen, Phusit Prakongsai, Carla Saenz, Karima Saleh, Angkana Sommanustweechai, Daniel Wikler, Afisah Zakariah
The goal of achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) can generally be realized only in stages. Moreover, resource, capacity, and political constraints mean governments often face difficult trade-offs on the path to UHC. In a 2014 report, Making fair choices on the path to UHC, the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage articulated principles for making such trade-offs in an equitable manner. We present three case studies which illustrate how these principles can guide practical decision-making...
December 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440944/the-regulatory-significance-of-tag-recycling-in-the-mycobacterial-pup-proteasome-system
#18
Yifat Elharar, Shai Schlussel, Nir Hecht, Michael M Meijler, Eyal Gur
Pup, a ubiquitin analog, tags proteins for degradation by the bacterial proteasome. As an intracellular proteolytic system, the Pup-proteasome system (PPS) must be carefully regulated to prevent excessive protein degradation. Currently, those factors underlying PPS regulation remain poorly understood. Here, experimental analysis combined with theoretical modeling of in vivo protein pupylation revealed how the basic PPS design allows stable and controlled protein pupylation. Specifically, the recycling of Pup when targets are degraded allows the PPS to maintain steady-state levels of protein pupylation and degradation at a rate limited by proteasome function, and at a pupylome level limited by Pup concentrations...
June 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422434/rat-hindlimb-cryopreservation-and-transplantation-a-step-toward-organ-banking
#19
A Arav, O Friedman, Y Natan, E Gur, N Shani
In 2016, over 5 million reconstructive procedures were performed in the United States. The recent successes of clinical vascularized composite allotransplantations, hand and face transplantations included, established the tremendous potential of these life-enhancing reconstructions. Nevertheless, due to limited availability and lifelong immunosuppression, application is limited. Long-term banking of composite transplants may increase the availability of esthetically compatible parts with partial or complete HLA matching, reducing the risk of rejection and the immunosuppressive burden...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402651/dna-bipedal-motor-achieves-a-large-number-of-steps-due-to-operation-using-microfluidics-based-interface
#20
Toma E Tomov, Roman Tsukanov, Yair Glick, Yaron Berger, Miran Liber, Dorit Avrahami, Doron Gerber, Eyal Nir
Realization of bioinspired molecular machines that can perform many and diverse operations in response to external chemical commands is a major goal in nanotechnology, but current molecular machines respond to only a few sequential commands. Lack of effective methods for introduction and removal of command compounds and low efficiencies of the reactions involved are major reasons for the limited performance. We introduce here a user interface based on a microfluidics device and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy that allows efficient introduction and removal of chemical commands and enables detailed study of the reaction mechanisms involved in the operation of synthetic molecular machines...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
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