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Adam gazzaley

Bradley Voytek, Jason Samaha, Camarin E Rolle, Zachery Greenberg, Navdeep Gill, Shai Porat, Tahim Kader, Sabahat Rahman, Rick Malzyner, Adam Gazzaley
Our attentional focus is constantly shifting: In one moment, our attention may be intently concentrated on a specific spot, whereas in another moment we might spread our attention more broadly. Although much is known about the mechanisms by which we shift our visual attention from place to place, relatively little is known about how we shift the aperture of attention from more narrowly to more broadly focused. Here we introduce a novel attentional distribution task to examine the neural mechanisms underlying this process...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Peter E Wais, Sahar Jahanikia, Daniel Steiner, Craig E L Stark, Adam Gazzaley
Medial temporal lobe (MTL) function is well established as necessary for memory of facts and events. It is likely that lateral cortical regions critically guide cognitive control processes to tune in high-fidelity details that are most relevant for memory retrieval. Here, convergent results from functional and structural MRI show that retrieval of detailed episodic memory arises from lateral cortical-MTL networks, including regions of inferior frontal and angular gyrii. Results also suggest that recognition of items based on low-fidelity, generalized information, rather than memory arising from retrieval of relevant episodic details, is not associated with functional connectivity between MTL and lateral cortical regions...
April 1, 2017: NeuroImage
Patricia A Arean, Kevin A Hallgren, Joshua T Jordan, Adam Gazzaley, David C Atkins, Patrick J Heagerty, Joaquin A Anguera
BACKGROUND: Mobile apps for mental health have the potential to overcome access barriers to mental health care, but there is little information on whether patients use the interventions as intended and the impact they have on mental health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to document and compare use patterns and clinical outcomes across the United States between 3 different self-guided mobile apps for depression. METHODS: Participants were recruited through Web-based advertisements and social media and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 mood apps...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Namita A Padgaonkar, Theodore P Zanto, Jacob Bollinger, Adam Gazzaley
Older adults, compared to younger adults, do not benefit from predictive information regarding either what type of stimuli they will see or when to expect them, yet it is unclear whether older adults benefit when given both types of predictive information. Here, electroencephalogram recordings of older (aged 62-87 years) and younger (aged 20-32 years) adults were recorded during a working memory task. Each trial contained 2 faces and 2 scenes presented sequentially, followed by a 5-second delay and a probe stimulus...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
Daniel T Gray, Anne C Smith, Sara N Burke, Adam Gazzaley, Carol A Barnes
One hallmark of the normal cognitive aging process involves alterations in executive function. Executive function can be divided into at least three separable components, including set shifting, attentional updating and monitoring, and inhibition of prepotent responses. The ability to study the neural basis of cognitive aging has been enriched by the use of animal models such as the macaque monkey. In aged macaques, changes in attentional updating and monitoring systems are poorly understood compared to changes in shifting and inhibition...
March 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Christian Thompson, Caleb Khan, Leticia Whitton-Martinez, Josh Volpini, Juliana Souza, Alexander Simon, Sasha Skinner, Daniel Kingsbook, Alan Leggitt, Joaquin Anguera, Adam Gazzaley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jyoti Mishra, Joaquin A Anguera, Adam Gazzaley
Sophisticated video games that integrate engaging cognitive training with real-time biosensing and neurostimulation have the potential to optimize cognitive performance in health and disease. We argue that technology development must be paired with rigorous scientific validation and discuss academic and industry opportunities in this field.
April 20, 2016: Neuron
Hyein Cho, Pareezad Zarolia, Adam Gazzaley, Ezequiel Morsella
In ironic processing, one is more likely to think about something (e.g., white bears) when instructed to not think about that thing. Entry into consciousness of such content may be automatic, reflecting the 'encapsulated' nature of the generation of conscious contents. Based on this research, the Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT) reveals that, following the activation of action sets, conscious contents can arise involuntarily and systematically in response to external stimuli. In the most basic version of this paradigm, participants are presented with visual objects and instructed to not think of the names of the objects, which is challenging...
May 2016: Acta Psychologica
Joaquin A Anguera, Joshua T Jordan, Diego Castaneda, Adam Gazzaley, Patricia A Areán
IMPORTANCE: Advances in mobile technology have resulted in federal and industry-level initiatives to facilitate large-scale clinical research using smart devices. Although the benefits of technology to expand data collection are obvious, assumptions about the reach of mobile research methods (access), participant willingness to engage in mobile research protocols (engagement), and the cost of this research (cost) remain untested. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a fully mobile randomised controlled trial using assessments and treatments delivered entirely through mobile devices to depressed individuals...
January 2016: BMJ Innovations
Jacki Janowich, Jyoti Mishra, Adam Gazzaley
Goal-directed behavior is often impaired by interference from the external environment, either in the form of distraction by irrelevant information that one attempts to ignore, or by interrupting information that demands attention as part of another (secondary) task goal. Both forms of external interference have been shown to detrimentally impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM). Emerging evidence suggests that these different types of external interference exert different effects on behavior and may be mediated by distinct neural mechanisms...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Camarin E Rolle, Bradley Voytek, Adam Gazzaley
Many studies have validated consumer-facing hardware platforms as efficient, cost-effective, and accessible data collection instruments. However, there are few reports that have assessed the reliability of these platforms as assessment tools compared with traditional data collection platforms. Here we evaluated performance on a spatial attention paradigm obtained by our standard in-lab data collection platform, the personal computer (PC), and compared performance with that of two widely adopted, consumer technology devices: the Apple (Cupertino, CA) iPad(®) 2 and Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Xbox(®) Kinect(®)...
June 2015: Games for Health
Omar Al-Hashimi, Theodore P Zanto, Adam Gazzaley
Multitasking performance costs have largely been characterized by experiments that involve two overlapping and punctuated perceptual stimuli, as well as punctuated responses to each task. Here, participants engaged in a continuous performance paradigm during fMRI recording to identify neural signatures associated with multitasking costs under more natural conditions. Our results demonstrated that only a single brain region, the superior parietal lobule (SPL), exhibited a significant relationship with multitasking performance, such that increased activation in the multitasking condition versus the singletasking condition was associated with higher task performance (i...
October 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Ezequiel Morsella, Christine A Godwin, Tiffany K Jantz, Stephen C Krieger, Adam Gazzaley
What is the primary function of consciousness in the nervous system? The answer to this question remains enigmatic, not so much because of a lack of relevant data, but because of the lack of a conceptual framework with which to interpret the data. To this end, we have developed Passive Frame Theory, an internally coherent framework that, from an action-based perspective, synthesizes empirically supported hypotheses from diverse fields of investigation. The theory proposes that the primary function of consciousness is well-circumscribed, serving the somatic nervous system...
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Adam Gazzaley, Charvy Narain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Wan-Yu Hsu, Theodore P Zanto, Joaquin A Anguera, Yung-Yang Lin, Adam Gazzaley
BACKGROUND: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been proposed to play an important role in neural processes that underlie multitasking performance. However, this claim is underexplored in terms of direct causal evidence. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to delineate the causal involvement of the DLPFC during multitasking by modulating neural activity with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prior to engagement in a demanding multitasking paradigm...
August 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Wan-Yu Hsu, Yixuan Ku, Theodore P Zanto, Adam Gazzaley
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of noninvasive brain stimulation on cognitive function in healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer's disease. A comprehensive literature search was performed on noninvasive stimulation studies published from January 1990 to November 2014 in Pubmed and Web of Science. Fourteen articles with a total of 331 participants were identified as studies with healthy older adults, and the mean effect size and 95% confidence interval were estimated. A significant effect size of 0...
August 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
Jyoti Mishra, Adam Gazzaley
A new study trains attention by implementing a closed-loop neurofeedback approach that monitors attention status in the whole brain using real-time fMRI. Offline analyses underscore information carried by the frontoparietal attention network as most relevant for the training-driven behavioral improvements.
May 2015: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Christina Merrick, Melika Farnia, Tiffany K Jantz, Adam Gazzaley, Ezequiel Morsella
The stream of consciousness often appears whimsical and free from external control. Recent advances, however, reveal that the stream is more susceptible to external influence than previously assumed. Thoughts can be triggered by external stimuli in a manner that is involuntary, systematic, and nontrivial. Based on these advances, our experimental manipulation systematically triggered a sequence of, not one, but two involuntary thoughts. Participants were instructed to (a) not subvocalize the name of visual objects and (b) not count the number of letters comprising object names...
May 2015: Consciousness and Cognition
Jyoti Mishra, Adam Gazzaley
Cognitive deficits are common in older adults, as a result of both the natural aging process and neurodegenerative disease. Although medical advancements have successfully prolonged the human lifespan, the challenge of remediating cognitive aging remains. The authors discuss the current state of cognitive therapeutic interventions and then present the need for development and validation of more powerful neurocognitive therapeutics. They propose that the next generation of interventions be implemented as closed-loop systems that target specific neural processing deficits, incorporate quantitative feedback to the individual and clinician, and are personalized to the individual's neurocognitive capacities using real-time performance-adaptive algorithms...
November 2014: Seminars in Neurology
Jyoti Mishra, Etienne de Villers-Sidani, Michael Merzenich, Adam Gazzaley
Aging is associated with deficits in the ability to ignore distractions, which has not yet been remediated by any neurotherapeutic approach. Here, in parallel auditory experiments with older rats and humans, we evaluated a targeted cognitive training approach that adaptively manipulated distractor challenge. Training resulted in enhanced discrimination abilities in the setting of irrelevant information in both species that was driven by selectively diminished distraction-related errors. Neural responses to distractors in auditory cortex were selectively reduced in both species, mimicking the behavioral effects...
December 3, 2014: Neuron
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