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New cures

Ilaria Degano, Jacopo La Nasa, Elisa Ghelardi, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini
Lipid binders have traditionally been determined in paintings by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the characteristic profiles and ratios of fatty acids . However, the presence of mixtures in contemporary and modern oil paints makes the GC/MS determination of fatty acids insufficient to fully characterize the lipid binding media. In this study we prove that triacylglycerol (TAG) profiling by high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, using ESI in positive and negative ionization modes is highly effective...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Daniel D Rhoads, Jonathan R Genzen, Christine P Bashleben, James D Faix, M Qasim Ansari
CONTEXT: -Syphilis serology screening in laboratory practice is evolving. Traditionally, the syphilis screening algorithm begins with a nontreponemal immunoassay, which is manually performed by a laboratory technologist. In contrast, the reverse algorithm begins with a treponemal immunoassay, which can be automated. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recognized both approaches, but little is known about the current state of laboratory practice, which could impact test utilization and interpretation...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Lauren E Arthur, Russell S Kizor, Adrian G Selim, Mieke L van Driel, Leonardo Seoane
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, complicating the medical course of approximately 10% of mechanically-ventilated patients, with an estimated attributable mortality of 13%. To treat VAP empirically, the American Thoracic Society currently recommends antibiotic therapy based on the patients' risk of colonisation by an organism with multidrug resistance. The selection of initial antibiotic therapy in VAP is important, as inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stay in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Madhukar Pai, Mark P Nicol, Catharina C Boehme
Rapid and accurate diagnosis is critical for timely initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment, but many people with TB (or TB symptoms) do not have access to adequate initial diagnosis. In many countries, TB diagnosis is still reliant on sputum microscopy, a test with known limitations. However, new diagnostics are starting to change the landscape. Stimulated, in part, by the success and rollout of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated, molecular test, there is now considerable interest in new technologies. The landscape looks promising with a pipeline of new tools, particularly molecular diagnostics, and well over 50 companies actively engaged in product development, and many tests have been reviewed by WHO for policy endorsement...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Christian Demitri, Antonella Giuri, Vincenzo Maria De Benedictis, Maria Grazia Raucci, Daniela Giugliano, Alessandro Sannino, Luigi Ambrosio
In this study, a new foaming method, based on physical foaming combined with microwave-induced curing, is proposed in combination with a surface bioactivation to develop scaffold for bone tissue regeneration. In the first step of the process, a stable physical foaming was induced using a surfactant (Pluronic) as blowing agent of a homogeneous blend of Chitosan and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA700) solutions. In the second step, the porous structure of the foaming was chemically stabilized by radical polymerization induced by homogeneous heating of the sample in a microwave reactor...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
David Graham, Gideon Lipman, Vinay Sehgal, Laurence B Lovat
The landscape for patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BE) has changed significantly in the last decade. Research and new guidelines have helped gastroenterologists to better identify those patients with BE who are particularly at risk of developing oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In parallel, developments in endoscopic image enhancement technology and optical biopsy techniques have improved our ability to detect high-risk lesions. Once these lesions have been identified, the improvements in minimally invasive endoscopic therapies has meant that these patients can potentially be cured of early cancer and high-risk dysplastic lesions without the need for surgery, which still has a significant morbidity and mortality...
October 2016: Frontline Gastroenterology
Xavier Thomas, Caroline Le Jeune
Advances in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) therapy has led to long-term survival rates in children. However, only 30%-40% of adults achieve long-term disease-free survival. After relapse, the outcome of salvage chemotherapy is very disappointing with less than 10% of long survival. Novel agents are therefore desperately required to improve response rates and survival, but also the quality of life of patients. Areas covered. The following review is a comprehensive summary of various novel options reported over the past few years in the therapeutic area of adult ALL...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Poonam Piplani, Chhanda Charan Danta
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the statistical reports stated that Alzheimer is not just memory loss but it kills and has become the 6th leading cause of death. The number of dementia patients is increasing rapidly and expected to rise to 131.5 million by 2050. Still there is not a drug candidate that can cure the cognitive deficits completely. OBJECTIVE: Series of novel piperazine derivatives have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for cognition enhancing activity...
October 14, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Yi Zheng, Yicheng Yang, Shu Wu, Yongqiang Zhu, Xiaolong Tang, Xiaopeng Liu
As the second most common gynecologic malignant tumors with a high mortality rate, cervical cancer jeopardizes women's life worldwide. The low cure rate in cervical cancer patients is mainly attributed to the lack of effective therapies. One feasible novel strategy is to develop immune-based approaches such as adoptive cell immunotherapy of DCCIKs which represents a promising nontoxic antineoplastic immunotherapy preferred in clinic practice. However, the therapeutic effect is not as efficient as anticipated...
October 18, 2016: Bioengineered
Wei-Jei Lee
Obesity is a pan-endemic health problem in both developed and developing countries, in both western and eastern countries. It increases risk for many common diseases, including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, osteoarthritis, cancers and depression etc.. Although the incidence of obesity in Asia is relatively low, Asian patients tend to have similar incidence of obesity related metabolic syndrome at lower BMI level comparing to Caucasians because of central obesity...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michael Medinger, Claudia Lengerke, Jakob Passweg
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a biologically complex and molecularly and clinically heterogeneous disease, and its incidence is increasing as the population ages. Cytogenetic anomalies and mutation testing remain important prognostic tools for tailoring treatment after induction therapy. Despite major advances in understanding the genetic landscape of AML and its impact on the pathophysiology and biology of the disease, as well as the rapid development of new drugs, standard treatment options have not experienced major changes during the past three decades...
2016: Leukemia Research Reports
Mark W Lowdell, Amy Thomas
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represent the current pinnacle of 'patient-specific medicines' and will change the nature of medicine in the near future. They fall into three categories; somatic cell-therapy products, gene therapy products and cells or tissues for regenerative medicine, which are termed 'tissue engineered' products. The term also incorporates 'combination products' where a human cell or tissue is combined with a medical device. Plainly, many of these new medicines share similarities with conventional haematological stem cell transplant products and donor lymphocyte infusions as well as solid organ grafts and yet ATMPs are regulated as medicines and their development has remained predominantly in academic settings and within specialist centres...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
CĂ©line Marban, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Amina Ait-Ammar, Faiza Fahmi, Hala El Mekdad, Fadoua Daouad, Olivier Rohr, Christian Schwartz
One of the top research priorities of the international AIDS society by the action "Towards an HIV Cure" is the purge or the decrease of the pool of all latently infected cells. This strategy is based on reactivation of latently reservoirs (the shock) followed by an intensifying combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to kill them (the kill). The central nervous system (CNS) has potential latently infected cells, i.e., perivascular macrophages, microglial cells, and astrocytes that will need to be eliminated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Romana Parveen, Tooba Naz Shamsi, Sadaf Fatima
This review helps to understand protein misfolding events, which results in protein aggregation, and hence to related neurodegenerative diseases. Many chaperones and folding factors are found inside the cell system for the proper folding of protein. If protein gets misfolded, it may accumulate in cells and can lead to several fatal diseases. In some cases, misfolded proteins aggregated in form of loop-sheet polymer and amyloid fibril when they escape the degradation process and leads to neurodegenerative disorders...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Imranul Alam, Amie K McQueen, Dena Acton, Austin M Reilly, Rita L Gerard-O'Riley, Dana K Oakes, Charishma Kasipathi, Abigail Huffer, Weston B Wright, Michael J Econs
Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO2) is a heritable osteosclerotic bone disorder due to dysfunctional osteoclast activity. ADO2 is caused by missense mutations in the chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) gene characterized by osteosclerosis with multiple fractures. ADO2 can result in osteomyelitis, visual loss and bone marrow failure. Currently, there is no cure for ADO2, and until recently no appropriate animal model of ADO2 existed to understand better the pathogenesis of this disease and to test new therapies...
October 14, 2016: Bone
Mohamed A Kharfan-Dabaja, Jessica El-Asmar, Farrukh T Awan, Mehdi Hamadani, Ernesto Ayala
Novel therapies targeting various kinases downstream of the B-cell receptor have emerged along with monoclonal antibodies and BCL-2 antagonists, and are changing the therapeutic landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, cure remains unattainable unless eligible patients are offered an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Access to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has expanded considerably with availability of reduced intensity conditioning regimens which is capable offering durable remissions even in poor-risk disease...
March 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
Sebastien Boucle, Leda Bassit, Maryam Ehteshami, Raymond F Schinazi
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The majority of chronically infected individuals do not achieve a functional and complete cure. Treated persons who achieve a long-term sustained virologic response (undetectable HBV DNA), are still at high risk of developing morbidity and mortality from liver complications. This review focuses on novel, mechanistically diverse anti-HBV therapeutic strategies currently in development or in clinical evaluation, and highlights new combination strategies that may contribute to full elimination of HBV DNA and covalently closed circular DNA from the infected liver, leading to a complete cure of chronic hepatitis B...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Shlomo Chamny, Dan Miron, Nadia Lumelsky, Hana Shalev, Elana Gazal, Rita Keynan, Avner Shemer, Dov Tamarkin
BACKGROUND: Currently available treatment options for impetigo are limited by either systemic side effects (for oral therapy) or lack of ease of use (for topical ointment). A novel foam formulation of minocycline for topical use may improve convenience and treatment utilization for pediatric patients with impetigo. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topically applied minocycline foam (FMX-102 1% and 4%) in the treatment of impetigo and to determine the optimal therapeutic active ingredient concentration...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Zobair M Younossi, Haesuk Park, Douglas Dieterich, Sammy Saab, Aijaz Ahmed, Stuart C Gordon
BACKGROUND: New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has dramatically increased cure rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but has also substantially raised treatment costs. AIM: The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the therapeutic benefit and net costs (i.e. efficiency frontier) and the quality-adjusted cost of care associated with the evolution of treatment regimens for patients with HCV genotype 1 in the United States. DESIGN: A decision-analytic Markov model...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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