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New cures

Laura Pasqualucci, Riccardo Dalla-Favera
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most frequent subtype of lymphoid malignancy, remains a significant clinical challenge, as approximately 30% of patients are not cured. Over the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, spurred by the implementation of powerful genomic technologies that enabled the definition of its genetic and epigenetic landscape. These studies have uncovered a multitude of genomic alterations that contribute to the initiation and maintenance of the tumor clone by disrupting biological functions known to be critical for the normal biology of its cells of origin, germinal center B cells...
April 17, 2018: Blood
Shyam Narayan, Chandreshwar Prasad Thakur, Shiv Bahadur, Meenakshi Thakur, Shashi Nath Pandey, Ajit Kumar Thakur, Dipendra K Mitra, Pulok K Mukherjee
Background & objectives: The existing antileishmanial drugs for complete cure of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) are limited. The available drugs are either toxic or less effective leading to disease relapse or conversion to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Several herbal extracts have been shown to have antileishmanial activity, but a herbal drug may not always be safe. In the present study, the extract of Cedrus deodara leaves has been standardized and tested for immunomodulatory antileishmanial activities...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Jingwei He, Hilde M Kopperud
OBJECTIVE: Synthesize a new BPA-free monomer for use in methacrylate-based materials and evaluate critical properties of resin and composite materials based on the monomer. METHODS: Bis-EFMA was synthesized through reaction between 9,9-bis[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-phenyl]fluorene and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl isocyanate. Experimental Bis-EFMA-based resin (Bis-EFMA/TEGDMA=50/50, wt./wt.) and composite were prepared. Critical properties were investigated according to standard or referenced methods Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (50/50, wt...
April 13, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
G Iacoboni, E Zucca, M Ghielmini, A Stathis
Purpose: The first line treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the combination of rituximab with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy, curing approximately 60% of patients. Many clinical trials have been performed over the last 10 years trying to improve the results of this treatment, but the appropriateness of their planning strategies could be rediscussed. Patients and Methods: Reports of phase 3 trials evaluating the addition of molecularly targeted agents (MTA) or new monoclonal antibodies to the classic R-CHOP backbone in first-line induction or maintenance treatment were reviewed...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Rachel J Skilton, Yibing Wang, Colette O'Neill, Simone Filardo, Peter Marsh, Angèle Bénard, Nicholas R Thomson, Kyle H Ramsey, Ian N Clarke
Background: Research in chlamydial genetics is challenging because of its obligate intracellular developmental cycle. In vivo systems exist that allow studies of different aspects of basic biology of chlamydiae, the murine Chlamydia muridarum model is one of great importance and thus an essential research tool. C. muridarum carries a plasmid that has a role in virulence.  Our aim was to compare and contrast the C. muridarum plasmid-free phenotype with that of a chromosomally isogenic plasmid-bearing strain, through the inclusion phase of the developmental cycle...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Myassar O Alekish, Z Bani Ismail, H M Hammouri, M H Daradka, S Al Taha, I Olymat
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using a commercially-available polyvalent mastitis vaccine on the bacteriological cure rate of existing subclinical mastitis in Awassi sheep. Materials and Methods: A total of 164 lactating ewes were divided into two main groups according to udder health and milk somatic cell count (SCC): Group 1=normal (N; n=80) and Group 2=subclinical mastitis (SC; n=84). Each group was then subdivided randomly into two treatment groups: N vaccinated (Nvax ; n=38), N non-vaccinated (Nnvax ; n=42), SC vaccinated (SCvax ; n=42), and SC non-vaccinated (SCnvax ; n=42)...
February 2018: Veterinary World
Kelvinson Fernandes Viana, Giulia Lacerda, Natália Soares Teixeira, Alex Sander Rodrigues Cangussu, Raimundo Wagner Sousa Aguiar, Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti
A key goal in the control of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) has been the development of vaccines with a highly protective capability to interrupt the parasite transmission cycle. However, in addition to promising vaccine searches, researchers have sought to develop new drugs capable of eliminating parasites in humans and dogs. With that in mind, this study analyzed an immunotherapeutic approach in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Fourteen dogs were divided into two groups and received a protocol of immunotherapeutic treatment with five doses of total antigens of Leishmania amazonensis or total antigens of L...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Mahmoudreza Ovissipour, Setareh Ghorban Shiroodi, Barbara Rasco, Juming Tang, Shyam S Sablani
This study investigated the effect of different electrolyzed water (EO) solutions, including acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), alone and in combination with mild thermal processing (50, 55, 60, 65 °C) at different exposure times (2, 6, 10 min) on the reduction of Listeria monocytogenes on Atlantic salmon fillets. The effects of the EO water solutions on cell wall structures of L. monocytogenes and on the secondary structure of salmon protein were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Maria Nina Chitasombat, Noppadol Larbcharoensub, Ariya Chindamporn, Theerapong Krajaejun
OBJECTIVES: Vascular pythiosis is a life-threatening infection, caused by Pythium insidiosum. We presented the clinical presentation, serodiagnosis, pathology, and outcome from our institution. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with proven vascular pythiosis at Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand from January 2006 to December 2016. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were analyzed, eight thalassemias. Five had aplastic anemia, myelodysplasia, acute leukemia, cirrhosis, and alcoholism...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Azmat Ali Khan, Amer M Alanazi, Mumtaz Jabeen, Shahnavaj Khan, Abdul Mallik
Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most lethal fungi causing mortality across the globe with the highest incidences in immuno-compromised person. Patients taking immuno-suppressive medications and immuno-competent hosts are extremely susceptible to its infection. Thus, new forms of therapy are urgently required for effective cure to the fungal burden. So, in the present study we have tried to explore the potential effects of amphotericin B (AMB) and fluconazole (FLC) in combination antifungal drug therapy...
April 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ji Hoon Phi, Ae Kyung Park, Semin Lee, Seung Ah Choi, In-Pyo Baek, Pora Kim, Eun-Hye Kim, Hee Chul Park, Byung Chul Kim, Jong Bhak, Sung-Hye Park, Ji Yeoun Lee, Kyu-Chang Wang, Dong-Seok Kim, Kyu Won Shim, Se Hoon Kim, Chae-Yong Kim, Seung-Ki Kim
Despite great advances in understanding of molecular pathogenesis and achievement of a high cure rate in medulloblastoma, recurrent medulloblastomas are still dismal. Additionally, misidentification of secondary malignancies due to histological ambiguity leads to misdiagnosis and eventually to inappropriate treatment. Nevertheless, the genomic characteristics of recurrent medulloblastomas are poorly understood, largely due to a lack of matched primary and recurrent tumor tissues. We performed a genomic analysis of recurrent tumors from 17 pediatric medulloblastoma patients...
April 11, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Nicky A Mandall, Joy Hickman, Tatiana V Macfarlane, Rye Cr Mattick, Declan T Millett, Helen V Worthington
BACKGROUND: Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2003. A new full search was conducted on 26 September 2017 but no new studies were identified...
April 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Laura Siqueira Pintado, Eliana do Nascimento Torre, Maicon Dos Santos Selayaran, Rodrigo Varella de Carvalho, Cesar Henrique Zanchi, Fábio Renato Manzolli Leite, Adriana Etges
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the physical, mechanical, and biocompatibility properties of a new dual-cure white mineral trioxide aggregate (D-W-MTA) and a commercial W-MTA. Materials and Methods: Diametral tensile strength (DTS), water sorption (WSp), and water solubility (WSl) tests were performed. Cytotoxicity was observed in primary culture of human pulp fibroblasts (HPFs) and mouse 3T3/NIH fibroblast lineage. Specimens of both materials were embedded in 1 mL of Dulbecco's modified essential medium for 24 h...
January 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Cuicui Lyu, Jun Shen, Rui Wang, Haihui Gu, Jianping Zhang, Feng Xue, Xiaofan Liu, Wei Liu, Rongfeng Fu, Liyan Zhang, Huiyuan Li, Xiaobing Zhang, Tao Cheng, Renchi Yang, Lei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Replacement therapy for hemophilia remains a lifelong treatment. Only gene therapy can cure hemophilia at a fundamental level. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system is a versatile and convenient genome editing tool which can be applied to gene therapy for hemophilia. METHODS: A patient's induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) using episomal vectors...
April 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Maxine J Roberts, Rebecca E Broome, Toby C Kent, Steven J Charlton, Elizabeth M Rosethorne
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive fibrotic lung disease for which there is no cure. Current therapeutics are only able to slow disease progression, therefore there is a need to explore alternative, novel treatment options. There is increasing evidence that the 3', 5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway is an important modulator in the development of fibrosis, with increasing levels of cAMP able to inhibit cellular processes associated with IPF...
April 7, 2018: Respiratory Research
Torbjørn Wisløff, Richard White, Olav Dalgard, Ellen J Amundsen, Hinta Meijerink, Hilde Kløvstad
New drugs for treating hepatitis C have considerably increased the probability of being cured. Treatment uptake, however, is still low. The objectives of this study were to analyse the impact of initiatives that may increase the proportion of infected people on treatment and interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of new infection among people who inject drugs. A compartmental model for Norway was used to simulate hepatitis C and related complications. We analysed two different screening initiatives aimed to increase the proportion of infected people on treatment...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Miranda S Moore, Angelica Bocour, Ann Winters
Patients receiving hemodialysis are at increased risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and routine screening is recommended. Highly effective HCV treatments for dialysis patients are newly available and cure >90% of patients in 12 weeks. Dialysis facilities should screen individuals for HCV, confirm infections, and treat or link patients to care and treatment. The New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene electronically receives all positive HCV antibody and all positive and negative HCV RNA tests for NYC residents...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Wolfgang Miesbach, Eileen K Sawyer
Gene therapy for severe hemophilia is on the cusp of entering clinical practice. However, there is limited clinical experience in this area given that gene transfer is a relatively recent technology. Therefore, this clinical perspective article will review the evidence supporting gene therapy in this field, examine ways to open a dialogue about gene therapy with patients in the clinic setting, and present a case of a participant in a recent clinical trial of gene therapy for hemophilia. Clinical trials in hemophilia using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to transfer functional factor IX (FIX) have reported increases in FIX activity to functional levels, reduced bleed frequency, and a lessening or abrogation of the need for costly FIX replacement...
April 6, 2018: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
Andre Gorgen, Hala Muaddi, Wei Zhang, Ian McGilvray, Steven Gallinger, Gonzalo Sapisochin
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most incident cancer worldwide. Most of CRC patients will develop distant metastases, mainly to the liver, and liver resection is the only potential chance for cure. On the other hand, only a small proportion of patients with hepatic CRC metastasis are candidates for upfront liver resection. Liver transplantation (LT) is an attractive option for patients with nonresectable CRC liver metastases (NRCLM) without extrahepatic involvement. Initial experiences with LT for NRCLM achieved very poor outcomes, with a 5-year overall survival (OS) lower than 20%...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lingli Li, Conglie Lu, Lei Wang, Mei Chen, Jacinta F White, Xiaojuan Hao, Keith M McLean, Hao Chen, Timothy C Hughes
In this study, an injectable, photo-curable gelatin system, consisting of acrylated gelatin and thiolated gelatin, with tunable mechanical, biodegradation and biological properties was used as a potential cell supportive scaffold for the repair of focal corneal wounds. The mechanical property of hydrogels can be readily modified (post-cure shear modulus of between 0.3 and 22 kPa) by varying the ratio of acrylate to thiol groups, photo intensity and solids content, and the biodegradation times also varied with change of solids content...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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