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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987550/implication-of-galanin-gene-rs948854-polymorphism-in-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents
#1
Fernanda da Conceição Machado, Livia Victorino de Souza, Marina Rangel, Zaira Palomino Jara, Maria do Carmo Franco
Genetic, social, and environmental conditions contribute to the development of depression, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. Data accumulated in recent years provide significant evidence for a direct role of galanin (GAL). This study aimed to investigate the relation between SNPs in the galaninergic system and depressive symptoms in adolescents. A total of112 adolescents aged 10-18years participated in this study. The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms...
October 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805559/effect-of-stress-on-the-expression-of-galanin-receptors-in-rat-heart
#2
J Šípková, P Šída, N Kaspříková, I Kramáriková, S Hynie, V Klenerová
Neuropeptide galanin, galanin-like peptide and galanin receptors 1, 2 and 3 are a crucial part of the so-called galaninergic system. Our previous studies have shown the possible role of this system in mood modulation, especially regarding stress. So far, the galanin receptors have been found in different tissues including brain and heart. Our study deals with changes in expression of galanin receptor subtypes in the heart of Wistar rats exposed to three different types of stress. Galanin receptor subtypes were determined in fluorescently labelled samples using specific primary antibodies, and all sections were analysed in an immunofluorescent microscope and microphotographs...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730831/the-galanin-and-galanin-receptor-subtypes-its-regulatory-role-in-the-biological-and-pathological-functions
#3
J Šípková, I Kramáriková, S Hynie, V Klenerová
The multitalented neuropeptide galanin was first discovered 30 years ago but initially no biologic activity was found. Further research studies discovered the presence of galanin in the brain and some peripheral tissues, and galanin was identified as a modulator of neurotransmission in the central and peripheral nervous system. Over the last decade there were performed very intensive studies of the neuronal actions and also of nonneuronal actions of galanin. Other galanin family peptides have been described, namely galanin, galanin-like peptide, galanin-message associated peptide and alarin...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431685/galr3-mediates-galanin-proliferative-effects-on-postnatal-hippocampal-precursors
#4
D Khan, M Khan, Johan Runesson, M Zaben, W P Gray
Galanin, a neuropeptide co-released from noradrenergic and serotonergic projection neurons to the dentate gyrus, has recently emerged as an important mediator for signaling neuronal activity to the subgranular neurogenic stem cell niche supporting adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Galanin and its receptors appear to play key roles in depression-like behavior, and effects on hippocampal neurogenesis are relevant to pharmacological strategies for treating depression, which in part appear to rely on restoring altered neurogenesis...
April 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422162/a-comparative-analysis-of-human-and-mouse-islet-g-protein-coupled-receptor-expression
#5
Stefan Amisten, Patricio Atanes, Ross Hawkes, Inmaculada Ruz-Maldonado, Bo Liu, Fariborz Parandeh, Min Zhao, Guo Cai Huang, Albert Salehi, Shanta J Persaud
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for islet function, but most studies use rodent islets due to limited human islet availability. We have systematically compared the GPCR mRNA expression in human and mouse islets to determine to what extent mouse islets can be used as surrogates for human islets to study islet GPCR function, and we have identified species-specific expression of several GPCRs. The A3 receptor (ADORA3) was expressed only in mouse islets and the A3 agonist MRS 5698 inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion from mouse islets, with no effect on human islets...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382595/preclinical-analgesic-and-safety-evaluation-of-the-galr2-preferring-analog-nax-810-2
#6
Cameron S Metcalf, Misty D Smith, Brian D Klein, Daniel R McDougle, Liuyin Zhang, Grzegorz Bulaj
The potential clinical utility of galanin peptidic analogs has been hindered by poor metabolic stability, lack of brain penetration, and hyperglycemia. In addition to possessing potent anticonvulsant efficacy, galanin analogs are analgesic in various assays. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the lead galanin receptor type 2 (GalR2)-preferring analog, NAX 810-2, in various pain assays, as well as determine any potential for insulin inhibition, growth hormone stimulation, and cognitive impairment. NAX 810-2 was evaluated in mouse (carrageenan, formalin, tail flick, plantar incision) and rat pain models (partial sciatic nerve ligation)...
July 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288814/galanin-1-15-enhancement-of-the-behavioral-effects-of-fluoxetine-in-the-forced-swimming-test-gives-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-against-depression
#7
Antonio Flores-Burgess, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Guadalupe Mengod, José Angel Narváez, Kjell Fuxe, Luis Santín, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale
The pharmacological treatment of major depression is mainly based on drugs elevating serotonergic (5-HT) activity. Specifically, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, including Fluoxetine (FLX), are the most commonly used for treatment of major depression. However, the understanding of the mechanism of action of FLX beyond its effect of elevating 5-HT is limited. The interaction between serotoninergic system and neuropeptides signaling could be a key aspect. We examined the ability of the neuropeptide Galanin(1-15) [GAL(1-15)] to modulate the behavioral effects of FLX in the forced swimming test (FST) and studied feasible molecular mechanisms...
May 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270751/understanding-the-role-of-gpcr-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-modulating-the-brain-networks-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jens Carlsson, Patricia Ambrogini, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Alexander O Tarakanov, Xiang Li, Carmelo Millón, Luca Ferraro, Riccardo Cuppini, Sergio Tanganelli, Fang Liu, Malgorzata Filip, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203483/galanin-protects-from-caspase-8-12-initiated-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain-via-galr1
#9
Yun Li, Zhu Mei, Shuiqiao Liu, Tong Wang, Hui Li, Xiao-Xiao Li, Song Han, Yutao Yang, Junfa Li, Zhi-Qing David Xu
Galanin (GAL) plays key role in many pathophysiological processes, but its role in ischemic stroke remains unclear. Here, the models of 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/1-7 d reperfusion (R)-induced ischemic stroke and in vitro cell ischemia of 1 h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/24 h reoxygenation in primary cultured cortical neurons were used to explore GAL's effects and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed significant increases of GAL protein levels in the peri-infarct region (P) and infarct core (I) within 48 h R of MCAO mice (p<0...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098336/preclinical-evaluation-of-intravenous-nax-810-2-a-novel-galr2-preferring-analog-for-anticonvulsant-efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics
#10
Cameron S Metcalf, Brian D Klein, Daniel R McDougle, Liuyin Zhang, Dan Kaufmann, Grzegorz Bulaj, H Steve White
OBJECTIVE: Potential clinical utility of galanin or peptidic analogs has been hindered by poor metabolic stability, lack of brain penetration, and hyperglycemia due to galanin receptor subtype 1 (GalR1) activation. NAX 810-2, a galanin receptor subtype 2 (GalR2)-preferring galanin analog, possesses 15-fold greater affinity for GalR2 over GalR1 and protects against seizures in the mouse 6 Hz, corneal kindling, and Frings audiogenic seizure models. The purpose of these studies was to further evaluate the preclinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of NAX 810-2 in mice...
February 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062253/spinal-neuropeptide-expression-and-neuropathic-behavior-in-the-acute-and-chronic-phases-after-spinal-cord-injury-effects-of-progesterone-administration
#11
María F Coronel, Marcelo J Villar, Pablo R Brumovsky, Susana L González
Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop chronic pain that severely compromises their quality of life. We have previously reported that progesterone (PG), a neuroprotective steroid, could offer a promising therapeutic strategy for neuropathic pain. In the present study, we explored temporal changes in the expression of the neuropeptides galanin and tyrosine (NPY) and their receptors (GalR1 and GalR2; Y1R and Y2R, respectively) in the injured spinal cord and evaluated the impact of PG administration on both neuropeptide systems and neuropathic behavior...
February 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013000/galanin-contributes-to-monoaminergic-dysfunction-and-to-dependent-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy
#12
Jesus-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
Status epilepticus (SE) in rats, along with chronic epilepsy, leads to the development of behavioral impairments resembling depressive disorder and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thus reflecting respective comorbidities in epilepsy patients. Suppressed neurotransmitter tone in the raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) serotonergic pathway and in the locus coeruleus (LC)-PFC noradrenergic pathway underlies depressive- and impulsive-like behavioral deficits respectively. We examined possible mechanisms leading to the monoamine dysfunction in brainstem efferents, namely modulatory effects of the neuropeptide galanin on serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling...
March 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896617/comprehensive-dna-methylation-and-mutation-analyses-reveal-a-methylation-signature-in-colorectal-sessile-serrated-adenomas
#13
Árpád V Patai, Barbara Kinga Barták, Bálint Péterfia, Tamás Micsik, Réka Horváth, Csaba Sumánszki, Zoltán Péter, Árpád Patai, Gábor Valcz, Alexandra Kalmár, Kinga Tóth, Tibor Krenács, Zsolt Tulassay, Béla Molnár
Colorectal sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) are hypothesized to be precursor lesions of an alternative, serrated pathway of colorectal cancer, abundant in genes with aberrant promoter DNA hypermethylation. In our present pilot study, we explored DNA methylation profiles and examined selected gene mutations in SSA. Biopsy samples from patients undergoing screening colonoscopy were obtained during endoscopic examination. After DNA isolation and quality analysis, SSAs (n = 4) and healthy controls (n = 5) were chosen for further analysis...
November 29, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884736/brain-and-intestinal-expression-of-galanin-like-peptide-galp-galanin-receptor-r1-and-galanin-receptor-r2-and-galp-regulation-of-food-intake-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#14
Elsie Tachie Mensah, Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Andrew Donini, Suraj Unniappan
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60 amino acid neuropeptide originally discovered from porcine hypothalamus, and is involved in the regulation of food intake in mammals. Since its discovery, GALP and its receptors (GALR1 and GALR2) have been characterized in mammals, but no publications are available on GALP in fish and other non-mammals. The present study aimed to characterize brain and intestinal GALP and its receptors using immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), and to study its effects on feeding behavior...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882166/galanin-receptor-2-mediates-antifibrogenic-effects-of-galanin-on-hepatic-stellate-cells
#15
Lingnan He, Zhenghong Li, Da Zhou, Yongnian Ding, Leiming Xu, Yuanwen Chen, Jiangao Fan
Galanin is an endogenous factor involved in the negative regulation of the biological effects of leptin in bioenergetic metabolism. Leptin promotes fibrogenic effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), however, little is known about the effects of galanin on HSCs. In the present study, the biological functions of galanin and its receptors (GalRs) in HSCs were investigated using cell culture in vitro. It was found that galanin and GalR3 mRNA are expressed in quiescent and activated HSCs. GalR2 expression was undetectable in quiescent HSCs but was markedly induced in activated HSCs...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685843/site-specific-methylation-patterns-of-the-gal-and-galr1-2-genes-in-head-and-neck-cancer-potential-utility-as-biomarkers-for-prognosis
#16
Kiyoshi Misawa, Daiki Mochizuki, Shiori Endo, Masato Mima, Yuki Misawa, Atsushi Imai, Kazuya Shinmura, Takeharu Kanazawa, Thomas E Carey, Hiroyuki Mineta
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the promoter methylation status of galanin (GAL) and galanin receptor 1/2 (GALR1/2) by assessing their association with disease-free survival and known prognostic factors in head and neck cancer. We generated methylation profiles of GAL and GALR1/2 in tumor samples obtained from 202 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); these included 43 hypopharynx, 42 larynx, 59 oral cavity, and 58 oropharynx tumor samples. CpG island hypermethylation status of the three genes was analyzed using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP)...
March 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512003/pituitary-galaninergic-system-activity-in-female-rats-the-regulatory-role-of-gonadal-steroids
#17
A Gajewska, M Zielinska-Gorska, E Wasilewska-Dziubinska, M Baran, G Kotarba, K Gorski
The well-recognized sensitivity of the galanin gene in the anterior pituitary gland to estrogen suggests that estrogen receptor activity may influence the galaninergic system through modulation of galanin receptor (GALR) gene expression. Here, we evaluated the following: (i) the effects of estrogen on GALR mRNA expression; (ii) the estrogen receptor subtype that is specifically involved in this activity; and (iii) the effects of progesterone in the absence or presence of estrogen on galanin concentration in anterior pituitary gland...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457954/depression-like-behavior-in-rat-involvement-of-galanin-receptor-subtype-1-in-the-ventral-periaqueductal-gray
#18
Peng Wang, Hui Li, Swapnali Barde, Ming-Dong Zhang, Jing Sun, Tong Wang, Pan Zhang, Hanjiang Luo, Yongjun Wang, Yutao Yang, Chuanyue Wang, Per Svenningsson, Elvar Theodorsson, Tomas G M Hökfelt, Zhi-Qing David Xu
The neuropeptide galanin coexists in rat brain with serotonin in the dorsal raphe nucleus and with noradrenaline in the locus coeruleus (LC), and it has been suggested to be involved in depression. We studied rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS), a rodent model of depression. As expected, these rats showed several endophenotypes relevant to depression-like behavior compared with controls. All these endophenotypes were normalized after administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The transcripts for galanin and two of its receptors, galanin receptor 1 (GALR1) and GALR2, were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR using laser capture microdissection in the following brain regions: the hippocampal formation, LC, and ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG)...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375434/long-term-estrogen-receptor-beta-agonist-treatment-modifies-the-hippocampal-transcriptome-in-middle-aged-ovariectomized-rats
#19
Miklós Sárvári, Imre Kalló, Erik Hrabovszky, Norbert Solymosi, Annie Rodolosse, Zsolt Liposits
Estradiol (E2) robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER). Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc.) on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month) rats...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359210/galanin-activates-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channels-and-suppresses-kisspeptin-10-activation-of-gnrh-neurons
#20
Stephanie Constantin, Susan Wray
GnRH neurons are regulated by hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons. Recently, galanin was identified in a subpopulation of kisspeptin neurons. Although the literature thoroughly describes kisspeptin activation of GnRH neurons, little is known about the effects of galanin on GnRH neurons. This study investigated whether galanin could alter kisspeptin signaling to GnRH neurons. GnRH cells maintained in explants, known to display spontaneous calcium oscillations, and a long-lasting calcium response to kisspeptin-10 (kp-10), were used...
August 2016: Endocrinology
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