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Vasant S Shinde, Yong Jun Kim, Eun Jin Woo, Nilesh Jadhav, Pranjali Waghmare, Yogesh Yadav, Avradeep Munshi, Malavika Chatterjee, Amrithavalli Panyam, Jong Ha Hong, Chang Seok Oh, Dong Hoon Shin
An insufficient number of archaeological surveys has been carried out to date on Harappan Civilization cemeteries. One case in point is the necropolis at Rakhigarhi site (Haryana, India), one of the largest cities of the Harappan Civilization, where most burials within the cemetery remained uninvestigated. Over the course of the past three seasons (2013 to 2016), we therefore conducted excavations in an attempt to remedy this data shortfall. In brief, we found different kinds of graves co-existing within the Rakhigarhi cemetery in varying proportions...
2018: PloS One
Heather Draper, Simon Jenkins
BACKGROUND: As part of its response to the 2014 Ebola outbreak in west Africa, the United Kingdom (UK) government established an Ebola treatment unit in Sierra Leone, staffed by military personnel. Little is known about the ethical challenges experienced by military medical staff on humanitarian deployment. We designed a qualitative study to explore this further with those who worked in the treatment unit. METHOD: Semi-structured, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with 20 UK military personnel deployed between October 2014 and April 2015 in one of three roles in the Ebola treatment unit: clinician; nursing and nursing assistant; and other medical support work, including infection control and laboratory and mortuary services...
December 19, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
Laura J Heathfield, Sairita Maistry, Lorna J Martin, Raj Ramesar, Jantina de Vries
BACKGROUND: The use of tissue collected at a forensic post-mortem for forensic genetics research purposes remains of ethical concern as the process involves obtaining informed consent from grieving family members. Two forensic genetics research studies using tissue collected from a forensic post-mortem were recently initiated at our institution and were the first of their kind to be conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. MAIN BODY: This article discusses some of the ethical challenges that were encountered in these research projects...
November 29, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
Iain E Yardley, Andrew Carson-Stevens, Liam J Donaldson
Objectives To describe serious incidents occurring in the management of patient remains after their death. Design Incidents occurring after patient deaths were analysed using content analysis to determine what happened, why it happened and the outcome. Setting The Strategic Executive Information System database of serious incidents requiring investigation occurring in the National Health Service in England. Participants All cases describing an incident that occurred following death, regardless of the age of the patient...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Ingrid Egerod, Gudrun Kaldan, Maureen Coombs, Marion Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Mortality in Danish intensive care units (ICUs) continues at 27%, resulting in a large number of bereaved family members being cared for in the ICU. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the provision of bereavement care and follow-up services for bereaved families in Danish ICUs. METHODOLOGY: Self-administered computerized cross-sectional nation-wide survey of Danish ICUs. RESULTS: Nurses at 46 of 48 (96%) ICUs in Denmark responded...
November 14, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Naeemah Abrahams, Shanaaz Mathews, Carl Lombard, Lorna J Martin, Rachel Jewkes
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective national mortuary based study to identify all adult female homicides (18 years and older) and all child homicides (boys and girls < 18 years) in 2009 in a randomly selected, proportionate sample of mortuaries. Victim, perpetrator and crime data were collected in three processes: from the mortuary register, the autopsy report and from police with the identification of sexual homicides validated across the data collection processes. FINDINGS: Among the 2670 (95% CI: 2311-2979) adult women killed in 2009, 494 (95% CI: 406-574) were identified as sexual homicides which was 19...
2017: PloS One
Teresa Fernández-Crespo, Rick J Schulting
Variation in burial location and treatment is often observed in the prehistoric archaeological record, but its interpretation is usually highly ambiguous. Biomolecular approaches provide the means of addressing this variability in a way not previously possible, linking the lives of individuals to their funerary treatment. Here, we undertake stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses on a substantial sample of 166 individuals from a series of broadly contemporary Late Neolithic/ Early Chalcolithic (3500 to 2900 cal BC) mortuary monuments (El Sotillo, Alto de la Huesera, Chabola de la Hechicera and Longar) and caves (Las Yurdinas II, Los Husos I and Peña Larga) within a very spatially restricted area of north-central Spain, with sites separated by no more than 10 km on average...
2017: PloS One
Laura Peddle, Gavin Martin Kirk
BACKGROUND: Weighing organs at autopsy provides objective evidence of pathology. Reference ranges must be locally applicable, accurate, and regularly defined. AIMS: The aims of this study were the generation of postmortem organ weight reference ranges for use in South African mortuaries, analysis of factors influencing organ weights, and comparison to international populations. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of autopsy reports from the Salt River medicolegal mortuary in Cape Town, South Africa, between 2013 and 2016...
December 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Nicholas J York, Christopher Tinley
BACKGROUND: Corneal pathology is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in South Africa (SA). A corneal transplant can restore or significantly improve vision in most cases. However, in SA there is a gross shortage of corneal tissue available to ophthalmologists. Little has been published describing the magnitude of the problem. OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in the number of corneal donors per year in SA, the number of corneal transplants performed each year, the origin of donors, the allocation of corneas to the public or private sector, and the demographics of donors...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Silvia M Bello, Rosalind Wallduck, Simon A Parfitt, Chris B Stringer
Cut-marked and broken human bones are a recurrent feature of Magdalenian (~17-12,000 years BP, uncalibrated dates) European sites. Human remains at Gough's Cave (UK) have been modified as part of a Magdalenian mortuary ritual that combined the intensive processing of entire corpses to extract edible tissues and the modification of skulls to produce skull-cups. A human radius from Gough's Cave shows evidence of cut marks, percussion damage and human tooth marks, indicative of cannibalism, as well as a set of unusual zig-zagging incisions on the lateral side of the diaphysis...
2017: PloS One
Peter W Young, Andrea A Kim, Joyce Wamicwe, Lilly Nyagah, Catherine Kiama, John Stover, Johansen Oduor, Emily A Rogena, Edwin Walong, Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, Andrew Imbwaga, Martin Sirengo, Timothy A Kellogg, Kevin M De Cock
BACKGROUND: Declines in HIV prevalence and increases in antiretroviral treatment coverage have been documented in Kenya, but population-level mortality associated with HIV has not been directly measured. In urban areas where a majority of deaths pass through mortuaries, mortuary-based studies have the potential to contribute to our understanding of excess mortality among HIV-infected persons. We used results from a cross-sectional mortuary-based HIV surveillance study to estimate the association between HIV and mortality for Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya...
2017: PloS One
John Berketa, Denice Higgins
Fatalities due to fire events such as bushfires, domestic and industrial fires and vehicle accident related incineration, leave victims with limited prospects of being accurately identified. Due to their morphology and anatomical position teeth are uniquely protected in incineration cases and via comparison to dental records often provide the only scientifically valid means of identification. However, extreme heat and direct exposure to flame can render the teeth extremely fragile and vulnerable to damage and loss especially during collection and transportation to the mortuary...
October 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Mohd Suhani Mohd Noor, Lay See Khoo, Wan Zafirah Zamaliana Alias, Ahmad Hafizam Hasmi, Mohamad Azaini Ibrahim, Mohd Shah Mahmood
The first ever mass identification operation of skeletal remains conducted for the clandestine graves in Malaysia consisted of 165 individuals unearthed from 28 human trafficking transit camps located in Wang Kelian, along the Thai-Malaysia border. A DVI response was triggered in which expert teams comprising of pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists, radiologists and DNA experts were gathered at the identified operation centre. The Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Star, Kedah, located approximately 75km away from Wang Kelian, was temporarily converted into a victim identification centre (VIC) as it is the nearest available forensic facility to the mass grave site...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
İlhami Kömür, Rifat O Ozdemirel, İsmail Ozver, Bünyamin Başpinar, Muhammet Demir, Fatih Gönen, Eyüp Kandemir, Murat Emul
We aimed to investigate burnout and posttraumatic stress symptoms in mortuary staff members who work for the Council of Forensic Medicine where more than 4500 autopsies are annually performed.The data were collected from 142 mortuary staff members from the Council of Forensic Medicine, Turkey. The participants were divided into the following 4 groups: forensic medicine specialists (n = 40, 28.2%), forensic medicine residents (n = 54, 38.0%), autopsy technicians (n = 24, 16.9%), and other staff members (n = 24, 16...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Nina Whittle
When patients die in emergency departments (EDs), it is important to record information that can be shared with staff in other departments, such as the mortuary and bereavement office. This can be a time-consuming exercise but, if information is omitted, it can increase families' distress by delaying documents such as death certificates. This article describes how a new, tick-box-style death-in-department checklist was introduced in a London hospital adult ED to increase and improve communication and information sharing between the ED, the mortuary and the bereavement office...
June 29, 2017: Nursing Management (Harrow)
I Yu Makarov, V A Fetisov, B A Filimonov, A A Gusarov
The objective of the present study was to analyze the experience of the coroners and pathologists in the Great Britain based on the results of the coroner's autopsies and recommendations of the experts involved in the activities carried out in the framework of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD). The recommendations are designed to reform the country's medical examiner system, improve the equipment of the mortuary facilities, and optimize funding for the autopsy studies...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
C Kaur, I Pal, S Saini, T G Jacob, T C Nag, A Thakar, D N Bhardwaj, T S Roy
Estimation of total number of neurons in the Spiral Ganglion (SG) at various ages and their functional status is important as these neurons are constantly exposed to noise and other environmental factors that may lead to neuronal loss with aging due to excitotoxic damage. Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium-binding protein (CBP), found in highly metabolically active neurons. It helps in buffering cytosolic calcium, which is essential for neurotransmitter release. The neurons in the adult human SG express PV more strongly than other CBPs like calbindin and calretinin...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Joseph A Hyder, R Sterling Haring, Daniel Sturgeon, Priscilla K Gazarian, Wei Jiang, Zara Cooper, Stuart R Lipsitz, Holly G Prigerson, Joel S Weissman
BACKGROUND: End-of-life (EOL) care intensity is known to vary by secular and geographic patterns. US physicians receive less aggressive EOL care than the general population, presumably the result of preferences shaped by work-place experience with EOL care. OBJECTIVE: We investigated occupation as a source of variation in EOL care intensity. METHODS: Across 4 states, we identified 660 599, nonhealth maintenance organization Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥66 years who died between 2004 and 2011...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Marissa C Stewart, Giuseppe Vercellotti
OBJECTIVES: Socioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th-13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations...
September 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Robert J Losey, Andrea L Waters-Rist, Tatiana Nomokonova, Artur A Kharinskii
The spread of pastoralism in Asia is poorly understood, including how such processes affected northern forager populations. Lake Baikal's western shore has a rich Holocene archaeological record that tracks these processes. The Early Bronze Age here is evidenced by numerous forager burials. The Early Iron Age (EIA) is thought to mark the arrival of pastoralists, but archaeological remains from this period have received little analysis. New radiocarbon dates for EIA human remains from 23 cemeteries indicate that no burials were created along this shore for ~900 years...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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