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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453817/epidemiology-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-cameroon-the-first-population-based-cohort-survey-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Aimé Bonny, Kemi Tibazarwa, Samuel Mbouh, Jonas Wa, Réné Fonga, Cecile Saka, Marcus Ngantcha
Background: Incidence estimates of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are unknown. Method: Over 12 months, the household administrative office and health community committee within neighbourhoods in two health areas of Douala, Cameroon, registered all deaths among 86 188 inhabitants aged >18 years. As part of an extended multi-source surveillance system, the Emergency Medical Service (EMS), local medical examiners and district hospital mortuaries were also surveyed...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414985/sharp-and-blunt-force-trauma-concealment-by-thermal-alteration-in-homicides-an-in-vitro-experiment-for-methodology-and-protocol-development-in-forensic-anthropological-analysis-of-burnt-bones
#2
Ioana Macoveciuc, Nicholas Márquez-Grant, Ian Horsfall, Peter Zioupos
Burning of human remains is one method used by perpetrators to conceal fatal trauma and expert opinions regarding the degree of skeletal evidence concealment are often disparate. This experiment aimed to reduce this incongruence in forensic anthropological interpretation of burned human remains and implicitly contribute to the development of research methodologies sufficiently robust to withstand forensic scrutiny in the courtroom. We have tested the influence of thermal alteration on pre-existing sharp and blunt trauma on twenty juvenile sheep radii in the laboratory using an automated impact testing system and an electric furnace...
March 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394281/was-jack-the-ripper-a-slaughterman-human-animal-violence-and-the-world-s-most-infamous-serial-killer
#3
Andrew Knight, Katherine D Watson
Hundreds of theories exist concerning the identity of "Jack the Ripper". His propensity for anatomical dissection with a knife-and in particular the rapid location and removal of specific organs-led some to speculate that he must have been surgically trained. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch of one of his victims has revealed several aspects of incisional technique highly inconsistent with professional surgical training. Related discrepancies are also apparent in the language used within the only letter from Jack considered to be probably authentic...
April 10, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321035/disaster-victim-identification-using-orthopedic-implants-in-the-2011-east-japan-earthquake-and-tsunami
#4
Norio Numata, Haruka Makinae, Wataru Yoshida, Masao Daimon, Hideki Murakami
On March 11, 2011, an earthquake (magnitude 9.0) devastated Japan's east coast, and the associated tsunami resulted in social and mechanical destruction. Search for the missing people is still ongoing. Surgical implants are common in the general population. Medical implants usually have lot numbers, and their forensic use is common for victim identification. This investigation was conducted mainly in the cities of Kamaishi and Otsuchi, both of which were affected by the tsunami disaster in 2011. We visited 6 mortuaries with the police between March 20 (9 days after the tsunami) and April 20 (40 days after the tsunami) to examine the presence of surgical scars and related information...
March 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290309/polydactyly-suggesting-local-husbandry-of-pre-columbian-camelids-a-case-from-castillo-de-huarmey-archaeological-site-northern-coast-of-peru
#5
Weronika Tomczyk, Miłosz Giersz
Three camelid metapodials with polydactyly (additional digits) were found at the Wari culture archaeological site (dated to the Middle Horizon) of Castillo de Huarmey. The anomalous bones were excavated among numerous remains, and presumably represent animals that were sacrificed within the principal mortuary mausoleum. The bones derive from at least two individuals. The etiology of the deformities remains unknown, but the most probable causes include low genetic diversity in the herd or unintended effect of selective breeding...
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290305/a-rare-probable-chondroblastoma-of-the-calcaneus-in-a-pre-columbian-subadult-from-illinois
#6
Maria Ostendorf Smith, Christopher E Nicosia
Discrete cystic or tumorous intraosseous lesions can arise from a variety of benign and malignant conditions as well as trauma and infection. They are clinically rarely observed in the calcaneus. A fourteen-to-seventeen-year-old subadult recovered from a Late Woodland (∼AD 800-1100) period mortuary context in the Mississippi River Valley of central Illinois presents with a single lytic intraosseous lesion on the posterior right calcaneus that bilaterally perforates the cortex. The lesion, although primarily anterior to the epiphyseal plate, does breach it...
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287121/tool-use-for-corpse-cleaning-in-chimpanzees
#7
Edwin J C van Leeuwen, Katherine A Cronin, Daniel B M Haun
For the first time, chimpanzees have been observed using tools to clean the corpse of a deceased group member. A female chimpanzee sat down at the dead body of a young male, selected a firm stem of grass, and started to intently remove debris from his teeth. This report contributes novel behaviour to the chimpanzee's ethogram, and highlights how crucial information for reconstructing the evolutionary origins of human mortuary practices may be missed by refraining from developing adequate observation techniques to capture non-human animals' death responses...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280581/cultural-factors-that-affected-the-spatial-and-temporal-epidemiology-of-kuru
#8
J T Whitfield, W H Pako, J Collinge, M P Alpers
Kuru is a prion disease which became epidemic among the Fore and surrounding linguistic groups in Papua New Guinea, peaking in the late 1950s. It was transmitted during the transumption (endocannibalism) of dead family members at mortuary feasts. In this study, we aimed to explain the historical spread and the changing epidemiological patterns of kuru by analysing factors that affected its transmission. We also examined what cultural group principally determined a family's behaviour during mortuary rituals...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193766/molecular-mechanisms-of-chronic-wasting-disease-prion-propagation
#9
Julie A Moreno, Glenn C Telling
Prion disease epidemics, which have been unpredictable recurrences, are of significant concern for animal and human health. Examples include kuru, once the leading cause of death among the Fore people in Papua New Guinea and caused by mortuary feasting; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and its subsequent transmission to humans in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), and repeated examples of large-scale prion disease epidemics in animals caused by contaminated vaccines. The etiology of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a relatively new and burgeoning prion epidemic in deer, elk, and moose (members of the cervid family), is more enigmatic...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101750/mortuary-operations-following-mass-fatality-natural-disasters-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Madelyn Anderson, Jodie Leditschke, Richard Bassed, Stephen M Cordner, Olaf H Drummer
This is a critical review to discuss the best practice approaches to mortuary operations in preparation for and the response to natural, mass fatality, disaster events, as identified by a review of published articles. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) Statement guided the identification of potential articles to use in this critical review. Subsequent searches were also conducted to identify articles relating to heat wave, and flood mortality. All identified peer-reviewed studies published in English which discussed the preparation and response of mortuaries to mass fatality natural disasters occurring in developed countries were included...
March 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902736/provisioning-the-ritual-neolithic-site-of-kfar-hahoresh-israel-at-the-dawn-of-animal-management
#11
Jacqueline S Meier, A Nigel Goring-Morris, Natalie D Munro
It is widely agreed that a pivotal shift from wild animal hunting to herd animal management, at least of goats, began in the southern Levant by the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (10,000-9,500 cal. BP) when evidence of ritual activities flourished in the region. As our knowledge of this critical change grows, sites that represent different functions and multiple time periods are needed to refine the timing, pace and character of changing human-animal relationships within the geographically variable southern Levant...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849489/early-intervention-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-depression-and-quality-of-life-in-mortuary-affairs-soldiers-postdeployment
#12
Quinn M Biggs, Carol S Fullerton, James E McCarroll, Xian Liu, Leming Wang, Nicole M Dacuyan, Douglas F Zatzick, Robert J Ursano
U.S. Army mortuary affairs (MA) soldiers experience stressors of deployment and exposure to the dead, increasing risk for post-traumatic stress and depression. This study examines Troop Education for Army Morale, a postdeployment early intervention based on Psychological First Aid. MA soldiers (N = 126) were randomized to intervention or comparison groups 1-month postdeployment. Intervention sessions were held at 2, 3, 4, and 7 months. Assessments of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality of life (QOL) were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 months for both groups...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762330/strontium-isotope-evidence-for-a-highly-mobile-population-on-the-pamir-plateau-2500-years-ago
#13
Xueye Wang, Zihua Tang, Jing Wu, Xinhua Wu, Yiqun Wu, Xinying Zhou
Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762003/the-hospital-mortuary-learning-about-death%C3%A2-and-life
#14
Julie Y Chen, Gavin S W Chan, Joyce P Y Tsang, Gary K F Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729441/estimating-the-burden-of-injury-in-urban-and-rural-sudan-in-2008
#15
Safa Abdalla, Suad Ahmed, Zeinab Swareldahab, Kavi Bhalla
BACKGROUND: Sudan has been undergoing demographic and social changes that could have a tangible impact on population injury rates. However, reliable estimates of injury epidemiology are lacking. We aimed to estimate injury incidence and mortality in urban and rural Sudan, using existing data sources. METHODS: We used the 2008 national census mortality data with mortuary data to construct unintentional and intentional injury mortality estimates in urban and rural areas...
October 11, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726230/red-pigments-and-boraginaceae-leaves-in-mortuary-ritual-of-late-neolithic-china-a-case-study-of-shengedaliang-site
#16
Yan Wu, XiaoNing Guo, WeiLin Wang, XiangLong Chen, Zhijun Zhao, Xiumin Xia, YiMin Yang
Investigation of mortuary ritual is an important method to reconstruct many aspects of past societies. Due to the lack of relevant analytical work, little evidence related to organic materials in a burial can be found in China. Here we report materials collected from a burial during the excavation of the Shengedaliang site. The recovered materials were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and plant analysis: flotation, pollen and phytolith analysis. The red pigments found scattered over the human remains were identified as cinnabar...
February 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725028/fatalities-involving-illicit-drug-use-in-pretoria-south-africa-for-the-period-2003-2012
#17
J Liebenberg, L Du Toit-Prinsloo, V Steenkamp, G Saayman
BACKGROUND: Globally, illicit drugs are responsible for many fatalities annually, yet accurate data on the nature and extent of these deaths in South Africa (SA) are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence and profile of illicit drugs detected in deceased persons who were subjected to medicolegal autopsies and upon whom analyses were carried out in search of illicit drugs in their body fluids at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL), SA, over a 10-year period...
September 7, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627862/exploring-imperial-expansion-using-an-isotopic-analysis-of-paleodietary-and-paleomobility-indicators-in-chachapoyas-peru
#18
J Marla Toyne, Warren B Church, Jose Luis Coronado Tello, Ricardo Morales Gamarra
OBJECTIVES: Inca imperial strategies of political and territorial expansion varied across conquered regions depending on local ecology and cultural resistance, and Chachapoya peoples in Peru's forested northeastern Andes were renowned for their rebellions against the invaders. The cliff tombs of Los Pinchudos (AD 1470-1535) present opportunities to use stable isotopes to: (1) explore dietary and mobility patterns from a mortuary community interred at a site attributed to the poorly-known Chachapoya culture during the period of Inca domination, and (2) explore the origins of the individuals as either local or foreign (Inca)...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601116/the-south-african-child-death-review-pilot-a-multiagency-approach-to-strengthen-healthcare-and-protection-for-children
#19
Shanaaz Mathews, Lorna J Martin, David Coetzee, Chris Scott, Threnesan Naidoo, Yasheen Brijmohun, Karisha Quarrie
BACKGROUND: Child mortality trends in South Africa (SA) show a decrease, but remain high and appear to have plateaued. To attain the new sustainable development goals, we need a better understanding of causes of death and the associated factors. OBJECTIVES: To describe the SA child death review (CDR) pilot, the pattern of child deaths reviewed and the factors associated with these deaths. METHODS: CDR teams were established at two pilot sites, Salt River mortuary (Western Cape Province) and Phoenix mortuary (KwaZulu-Natal Province)...
September 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601103/child-deaths-in-south-africa-lessons-from-the-child-death-review-pilot
#20
Shanaaz Mathews, Lorna J Martin, David Coetzee, Chris Scott, Yasheen Brijmohun
South Africa (SA) has not met the child mortality target for the Millennium Development Goals, despite having invested substantially in programmes and policies to achieve these targets. The scale-up of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes reduced HIV transmission from mother to child, but this has not been sustained owing to limitations in community-based child health services. Child mortality has declined, but has now plateaued. Children continue to die from preventable and treatable causes of death...
September 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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