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high altitud

Bingwen Qiu, Jiangping Zhong, Zhenghong Tang, Min Feng, Chongcheng Chen, Xiaoqin Wang
Plateau vegetation is considered to be highly sensitive to climate change, especially at higher altitudes. Although the Tibetan Plateau has experienced intensive warming over the past few decades, there is much contradictory evidence regarding its phenological variations and the impact of climatic change. In this study, we explored vegetation phenology through the inflexion point-based method with the weekly 0.05° EVI2 datasets from 1982 to 2010. We observed complex spatiotemporal variations in vegetation phenology on the higher Tibetan Plateau from three aspects...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Sudharsana V Iyengar, Janaki Balakrishnan, Jürgen Kurths
We study the dynamics of a discrete-time tritrophic model which mimics the observed periodicity in the population cycles of the larch budmoth insect which causes widespread defoliation of larch forests at high altitudes periodically. Our model employs q-deformation of numbers to model the system comprising the budmoth, one or more parasitoid species, and larch trees. Incorporating climate parameters, we introduce additional parasitoid species and show that their introduction increases the periodicity of the budmoth cycles as observed experimentally...
September 2016: Chaos
Joe X Zhang, Jacob R Berry, Devin P Beckstrand
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a rare condition in the flying community most often only ever seen in flight while operating at high altitude or incidents involving hypobaric chambers. This article describes a severe case of AGE that occurred in a pilot of a fourth generation fighter aircraft at ground level. The environmental control system (ECS) malfunctioned, causing an overpressurized cockpit and a subsequent explosive decompression when the pilot opened the canopy to egress...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Alejandro Garbino, Derek M Nusbaum, Daniel M Buckland, Anil S Menon, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
The Stratex Project is a high altitude balloon flight that culminated in a freefall from 41,422 m (135,890 ft), breaking the record for the highest freefall to date. Crew recovery operations required an innovative approach due to the unique nature of the event as well as the equipment involved. The parachutist donned a custom space suit similar to a NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with life support system mounted to the front and a parachute on the back. This space suit had a metal structure around the torso, which, in conjunction with the parachute and life support assembly, created a significant barrier to extraction from the suit in the event of a medical emergency...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Yun Li, Ping Xie, Dandan Zhao, Tianshun Zhu, Longgen Guo, Jing Zhang
To assess whether and how zooplankton communities respond to variations in temperature and how these assemblages change with eutrophication, we performed a large-scale, monthly survey from August 2011 to July 2012 to determine the seasonal and spatial variations in these communities in a high-altitude lake. A detrended correspondence analysis and a path analysis demonstrated that temperature and chlorophyll a were important factors influencing zooplankton. The path diagram showed that Daphnia was negatively affected directly by chlorophyll a and indirectly by temperature, whereas Bosmina was directly and positively affected by temperature...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Johannes Charlier, Aklilu H Ghebretinsae, Bruno Levecke, Els Ducheyne, Edwin Claerebout, Jozef Vercruysse
Helminth parasites of grazing ruminants are highly prevalent globally and impact negatively on animal productivity and food security. There is a growing concern that climate change increases helminth disease frequency and intensity. In Europe, these concerns stem from case reports and theoretical life cycle models assessing the effects of climate change scenarios on helminth epidemiology. We believe this study is the first to investigate climate-driven trends in helminth infections of cattle on a cohort of randomly selected farms...
October 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Clare A Johnson, Diana S Goodwine, Ingrid Passier
We present a case of a 57-year-old man who fell while climbing a mountain in California and sustained severe facial trauma. Three firefighters and 2 emergency physicians witnessed the fall and resuscitated the patient. The patient ultimately required a surgical cricothyrotomy performed with a pocket knife and Platypus hydration pack. The physicians made a makeshift positive pressure airway device using the Platypus hydration pack. We believe this is the first case report describing an improvised cricothyrotomy performed in the wilderness using only hiking gear...
October 18, 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Prativa Pandey, Benu Lohani, Holly Murphy
Pandey, Prativa, Benu Lohani, and Holly Murphy. Pulmonary embolism masquerading as high altitude pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2016.-Pulmonary embolism (PE) at high altitude is a rare entity that can masquerade as or occur in conjunction with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and can complicate the diagnosis and management. When HAPE cases do not improve rapidly with descent, other diagnoses, including PE, ought to be considered. From 2013 to 2015, we identified eight cases of PE among 303 patients with initial diagnosis of HAPE...
October 21, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Abdul Akbar, Ananya Kuanar, Raj K Joshi, I S Sandeep, Sujata Mohanty, Pradeep K Naik, Antaryami Mishra, Sanghamitra Nayak
The drug yielding potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is largely due to the presence of phyto-constituent 'curcumin.' Curcumin has been found to possess a myriad of therapeutic activities ranging from anti-inflammatory to neuroprotective. Lack of requisite high curcumin containing genotypes and variation in the curcumin content of turmeric at different agro climatic regions are the major stumbling blocks in commercial production of turmeric. Curcumin content of turmeric is greatly influenced by environmental factors...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cheng-Yong Feng, Wei-Wei Wang, Jian-Fei Ye, Shan-Shan Li, Qian Wu, Dan-Dan Yin, Bing Li, Yan-Jun Xu, Liang-Sheng Wang
Vaccinium glaucoalbum, a perennial evergreen shrub, is naturally distributed in high-altitude areas. In this study, the composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the fruit and leaf of V. glaucoalbum were characterized. In total, 24 chemical compounds were detected and identified by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(2). Among all the compounds determined, 15 were anthocyanins and detected in fruit, 5 were flavonols and monitored in leaf, and 4 were chlorogenic acids and found in both fruit and leaf. The total anthocyanin content (TAC) of fruit (682mg/100gFW) was the highest among wild Vaccinium berries in China which have been investigated for now, and the total flavonol content of leaf was 2764mg/100gFW...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Andrew M Luks, Colin Grissom, Luanne Freer, Peter Hackett
Luks, Andrew M., Colin Grissom, Luanne Freer, and Peter Hackett. Medication use among mount Everest climbers: practice and attitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2016.-The lay public, media, and medical experts have expressed concern about the ethics of climbers using medications to improve performance and increase the odds of summit success while climbing at high altitude, but the true incidence of this practice remains unclear. We conducted an anonymous survey of climbers who have attempted to climb Mt...
October 20, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
John L Semple, G W Kent Moore, Petros Koutrakis, Jack M Wolfson, Paolo Cristofanelli, Paolo Bonasoni
: Semple, John L., G.W. Kent Moore, Petros Koutrakis, Jack M. Wolfson, Paolo Cristofanelli, and Paolo Bonasoni. High concentrations of ozone air pollution on Mount Everest: health implications for Sherpa communities and mountaineers. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2016.-Introduction: Populations in remote mountain regions are increasingly vulnerable to multiple climate mechanisms that influence levels of air pollution. Few studies have reported on climate-sensitive health outcomes unique to high altitude ecosystems...
October 20, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Alberto Muñoz, Xavier Santos, Ángel M Felicísimo
Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) are widely used to describe how environmental factors influence species distribution. Modelling at a local scale, compared to a large scale within a high environmental gradient, can improve our understanding of ecological species niches. The main goal of this study is to assess and compare the contribution of environmental variables to amphibian and reptile ENMs in two Spanish national parks located in contrasting biogeographic regions, i.e., the Mediterranean and the Atlantic area...
2016: PeerJ
Matthias Peter Hilty, Andrea Müller, Daniela Flück, Christoph Siebenmann, Peter Rasmussen, Stefanie Keiser, Katja Auinger, Carsten Lundby, Marco Maggiorini
: Matthias Peter Hilty, Andrea Mueller, Daniela Flück, Christoph Siebenmann, Peter Rasmussen, Stefanie Keiser, Katja Auinger, Carsten Lundby, and Marco Maggiorini. Effect of increased blood flow on the pulmonary circulation before and during high altitude acclimatization. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2016.-Introduction and Methods: Acute exposure to high altitude increases pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The evolution of Ppa and PVR with continuous hypoxic exposure remains, however, elusive...
October 18, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Jiao Ren, Xiaoping Wang, Chuanfei Wang, Ping Gong, Xiruo Wang, Tandong Yao
Biomagnification of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been found in marine and freshwater food chains; however, due to the relatively short food chains in high-altitude alpine lakes, whether trophic transfer would result in the biomagnification of POPs is not clear. The transfer of various POPs, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), along the aquatic food chain in Nam Co Lake (4700 m), in the central Tibetan Plateau, was studied. The POPs levels in the water, sediment and biota [plankton, invertebrates and fish (Gymnocypris namensis)] of Nam Co were generally low, with concentrations comparable to those reported for the remote Arctic...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Grégoire P Millet, Franck Brocherie, Raphael Faiss, Olivier Girard
The authors report that many LHTL studies in normobaric hypoxia (NH) "failed to show a positive outcome", which in our view is only partially true. In a cross-over design, we (Saugy et al. 2016) recently tested if LHTL in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) would lead to larger performance enhancement than in NH. Our hypothesis was that HH (i.e. natural altitude) would lead to larger enhancement than NH but the results were contrary to this hypothesis. So we cannot support the affirmation by Lundby & Robach that "natural altitude remains the best approach"...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Sergio Caravita, Andrea Faini, Grzegorz Bilo, Morin Lang, Gianfranco Parati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Jonny Coppel, Hennis Phillip, Michael Grocott, Can Ince, Daniel Martin
Present knowledge of how the microcirculation is altered by prolonged exposure to hypoxia at high altitude is incomplete and modification of existing analytical techniques may improve our knowledge considerably. We set out to use a novel simplified method of measuring in vivo capillary density during an expedition to high altitude using a CytoCam incident dark field imaging video-microscope. The simplified method of data capture involved recording one-second images of the mucosal surface of the inner lip to reveal data about microvasculature density in ten individuals...
2016: F1000Research
Michael P Heaton, Timothy P L Smith, Jacky K Carnahan, Veronica Basnayake, Jiansheng Qiu, Barry Simpson, Theodore S Kalbfleisch
The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle. Thus, our first aim was to use 96 beef sires, sharing minimal pedigree relationships, to create a searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes relevant for 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle. Our second aim was to identify protein variants encoded by the bovine endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene ( EPAS1), a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension in Angus cattle...
2016: F1000Research
Masahiro Horiuchi, Yoko Handa, Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka
We measured oxygen consumption during walking per unit distance (Cw) values for 12 human healthy young males at six speeds from 0.667 to 1.639 m s(-1) (four min per stage) on a level gradient under normobaric normoxia, moderate hypoxia (15% O2), and severe hypoxia (11% O2). Muscle deoxygenation (HHb) was measured at the vastus lateralis muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy. Economical speed which can minimize the Cw in each individual was calculated from a U-shaped relationship. We found a significantly slower economical speed (ES) under severe hypoxia [1...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
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