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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738469/-analysis-on-geographic-distribution-of-high-blood-pressure-prevalence-in-children-and-adolescents-aged-7-18-years-in-china-2014
#1
Y H Dong, Z Y Zou, Z H Wang, S Wang, Z P Yang, Y J Chen, J Ma
Objective: To understand and evaluate the characteristics of geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China in 2014, and provide evidence for the prevention of hypertension in children and adolescents. Methods: The data of 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health conducting 31 provinces (except Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) were collected. A total of 216 299 children and adolescents who had complete blood pressure records were selected as study subjects...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735726/molecular-adaptive-convergence-in-the-%C3%AE-globin-in-subterranean-octodontid-rodents
#2
Ivanna H Tomasco, Nicolás Boullosa, Federico G Hoffmann, Enrique P Lessa
Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys) and related coruros (Spalacopus) are South American subterranean rodents. An energetically demanding lifestyle within the hypoxic/hypercapnic underground atmosphere may change the selective regime on genes involved in O2 transport in blood. In addition, some species of tuco-tucos may be found at high altitude, thus facing additional reductions in changes O2 availabily. We examined sequence variation in the alpha globin subunit gene of hemoglobine in these lineages, within a robust phylogenetic context...
July 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735090/impacts-of-the-2003-and-2015-summer-heatwaves-on-permafrost-affected-rock-walls-in-the-mont-blanc-massif
#3
L Ravanel, F Magnin, P Deline
Rockfall is one of the main geomorphological processes that affects the evolution and stability of rock-walls. At high elevations, rockfall is largely climate-driven, very probably because of the warming of rock-wall permafrost. So with the ongoing global warming that drives the degradation of permafrost, the related hazards for people and infrastructure could continue to increase. The heatwave of summer 2015, which affected Western Europe from the end of June to August, had a serious impact on the stability of high-altitude rock-walls, including those in the Mont Blanc massif...
July 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732756/health-of-high-altitude-pilgrims-a-neglected-topic
#4
EDITORIAL
Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Pranawa Koirala
HASH(0x42cef78)
July 18, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732027/serum-irisin-and-myostatin-levels-after-2-weeks-of-high-altitude-climbing
#5
Ewa Śliwicka, Tomasz Cisoń, Zbigniew Kasprzak, Alicja Nowak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731986/the-effect-of-sex-on-heart-rate-variability-at-high-altitude
#6
Christopher John Boos, Emma Vincent, Adrian Mellor, John O'Hara, Caroline Newman, Richard Cruttenden, Phylip Scott, Mark Cooke, Jamie Matu, David Richard Woods
There is evidence to suggest that high altitude (HA) exposure leads to a fall in heart rate variability (HRV) that is linked to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). The effects of sex on changes in HRV at HA and its relationship to AMS are unknown. METHODS: HRV (5-minute single lead ECG) was measured in 63 healthy adults (41 men and 22 women) aged 18-56 years at sea level (SL) and during a HA trek at 3619m, 4600m and 5140m respectively. The main effects of altitude (SL, 3619, 4600 and 5140m) and sex (men vs women) and their potential interaction were assessed using a Factorial Repeated Measures ANOVA...
July 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726295/antioxidant-defense-and-oxidative-damage-vary-widely-among-high-altitude-residents
#7
Allison J Janocha, Suzy A A Comhair, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Amha Gebremedhin, Anam Khan, Kristin S Ricci, Renliang Zhang, Serpil C Erzurum, Cynthia M Beall
OBJECTIVES: People living at high altitude experience unavoidable low oxygen levels (hypoxia). While acute hypoxia causes an increase in oxidative stress and damage despite higher antioxidant activity, the consequences of chronic hypoxia are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to assess antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in high-altitude natives and upward migrants. METHODS: Individuals from two indigenous high-altitude populations (Amhara, n = 39), (Sherpa, n = 34), one multigenerational high-altitude population (Oromo, n = 42), one upward migrant population (Nepali, n = 12), and two low-altitude reference populations (Amhara, n = 29; Oromo, n = 18) provided plasma for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as a marker of antioxidant capacity, and urine for measurement of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724450/variation-in-species-composition-and-infection-rates-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-at-different-altitudinal-transects-and-the-risk-of-malaria-in-the-highland-of-dirashe-woreda-south-ethiopia
#8
Taye Yohannes Daygena, Fekadu Massebo, Bernt Lindtjørn
BACKGROUND: The transmission of malaria is heterogeneous, and varies due to altitude. The information on whether the transmission of malaria is indigenous or imported to highland areas is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the species composition and infection rates of Anopheles at different altitudinal transects, and the risk of malaria if any in the highland of Dirashe Woreda, South Ethiopia. METHODS: This study was conducted in Gato (low altitude; average elevation of 1273 m), Onota (mid-altitude; average elevation of 1707 m) and Layignaw-Arguba (high altitude; average elevation of 2337 m) from August 2015 to April 2016...
July 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724405/environmental-drivers-of-viral-community-composition-in-antarctic-soils-identified-by-viromics
#9
Evelien M Adriaenssens, Rolf Kramer, Marc W Van Goethem, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Ian Hogg, Don A Cowan
BACKGROUND: The Antarctic continent is considered the coldest and driest place on earth with simple ecosystems, devoid of higher plants. Soils in the ice-free regions of Antarctica are known to harbor a wide range of microorganisms from primary producers to grazers, yet their ecology and particularly the role of viruses is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the virus community structures of 14 soil samples from the Mackay Glacier region. METHODS: Viral communities were extracted from soil and the dsDNA was extracted, amplified using single-primer amplification, and sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton platform...
July 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723912/ginger-and-the-beetle-evidence-of-primitive-pollination-system-in-a-himalayan-endemic-alpine-ginger-roscoea-alpina-zingiberaceae
#10
Babu Ram Paudel, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G Dyer, Qing-Jun Li
The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies. We studied the pollination biology of Roscoea alpina, observed potential floral visitors and determined their foraging behaviour, visitation frequency and pollination efficiency, to seek evidence in support of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. We also measured the floral spectra of R. alpina flowers to evaluate if signals fit with the currently known framework for observed floral visitors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722582/population-movement-as-a-risk-factor-for-malaria-infection-in-high-altitude-villages-of-tahtay-maychew-district-tigray-northern-ethiopia-a-case-ccontrol-study
#11
Mebrahtom Haile, Hailemariam Lemma, Yemane Weldu
Key goal and targets of the Ethiopian national malaria control strategy are to achieve malaria elimination within specific geographical areas with historically low malaria transmission and to reach near-zero malaria transmission in the remaining malarious areas by 2020. However, back and forth population movement between high-transmission and low-transmission area imposes challenge on the success of national malaria control programs. Therefore, examining the effect of human movement and identification of at-risk populations is crucial in an elimination setting...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720533/phylogenetic-relationships-of-diurnal-phytotelm-breeding-melanophryniscus-anura-bufonidae-based-on-mitogenomic-data
#12
Marcio R Pie, Patrícia R Ströher, Ricardo Belmonte-Lopes, Marcos R Bornschein, Luiz F Ribeiro, Brant C Faircloth, John E McCormack
Melanophryniscus is a bufonid frog genus with a broad geographic distribution over southeastern South America. In recent years, several new species of Melanophryniscus have been discovered in southern Brazil showing a distinctive life-history strategy for the genus - breeding in phytotelmata - as well as a strong association with high-altitude regions. In this study, we use mitogenomic data to infer the phylogenetic relationships among diurnal, phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus and to determine the timing of their divergence...
July 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717592/epas1-variants-in-high-altitude-tibetan-wolves-were-selectively-introgressed-into-highland-dogs
#13
Bridgett vonHoldt, Zhenxin Fan, Diego Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Robert K Wayne
BACKGROUND: Admixture can facilitate adaptation. For example, black wolves have obtained the variant causing black coat color through past hybridization with domestic dogs and have higher fitness than gray colored wolves. Another recent example of the transfer of adaptive variation between the two species has been suggested by the similarity between high altitude Tibetan mastiffs and wolves at the EPAS1 gene, a transcription factor induced in low oxygen environments. METHODS: Here, we investigate the directionality of admixture in EPAS1 between 28 reference highland gray wolves, 15 reference domestic dogs, and 21 putatively admixed highland wolves...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716290/yarsagumba-fungus-health-problems-in-the-himalayan-gold-rush
#14
Pranawa Koirala, Bidur Pandit, Pratibha Phuyal, Ken Zafren
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. METHODS: In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. RESULTS: There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus...
July 14, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716196/maximum-entropy-modeling-risk-of-anthrax-in-the-republic-of-kazakhstan
#15
S K Abdrakhmanov, Y Y Mukhanbetkaliyev, F I Korennoy, A A Sultanov, A S Kadyrov, D B Kushubaev, T G Bakishev
The objective of this study was to zone the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) into risk categories according to the probability of anthrax emergence in farm animals as stipulated by the re-activation of preserved natural foci. We used historical data on anthrax morbidity in farm animals during the period 1933 - 2014, collected by the veterinary service of the RK. The database covers the entire territory of the RK and contains 4058 anthrax outbreaks tied to 1798 unique locations. Considering the strongly pronounced natural focality of anthrax, we employed environmental niche modeling (Maxent) to reveal patterns in the outbreaks' linkages to specific combinations of environmental factors...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712974/diversity-and-altitudinal-distribution-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-endemic-areas-of-northwest-ethiopia
#16
Solomon Yared, Araya Gebreselassie, Essayas Akililu, Kebede Deribe, Meshesha Balkew, Alon Warburg, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre-Michael
BACKGROUND: The Leishmaniases are caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are widely distributed in different parts of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies from Kafta Humera to Gondar town in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Seven localities were selected with distinct altitudinal variations between 550m above sea level (m a...
July 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712261/application-of-living-high-training-low-enhances-cardiac-function-and-skeletal-muscle-oxygenation-during-submaximal-exercises-in-athletes
#17
Hun-Young Park, Sang-Seok Nam
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of the application of living high-training low (LHTL) on cardiac function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during submaximal exercises compared with that of living low-training low (LLTL) in athletes. METHODS: Male middle- and long-distance runners (n = 20) were randomly assigned into the LLTL group (n = 10, living at 1000-m altitude and training at 700-1330-m altitude) and the LHTL group (n = 10, living at simulated 3000-m altitude and training at 700-1330-m altitude)...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712155/economic-activity-and-patterns-of-infant-growth-in-a-high-altitude-district-of-peru
#18
Morgan K Hoke
OBJECTIVES: Changing economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru. METHODS: The length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711847/vertical-patterns-and-controls-of-soil-nutrients-in-alpine-grassland-implications-for-nutrient-uptake
#19
Liming Tian, Lin Zhao, Xiaodong Wu, Hongbing Fang, Yonghua Zhao, Guangyang Yue, Guimin Liu, Hao Chen
Vertical patterns and determinants of soil nutrients are critical to understand nutrient cycling in high-altitude ecosystems; however, they remain poorly understood in the alpine grassland due to lack of systematic field observations. In this study, we examined vertical distributions of soil nutrients and their influencing factors within the upper 1m of soil, using data of 68 soil profiles surveyed in the alpine grassland of the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) stocks decreased with depth in both alpine meadow (AM) and alpine steppe (AS), but remain constant along the soil profile in alpine swamp meadow (ASM)...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710383/wider-geographic-distribution-and-higher-diversity-of-hexaploids-than-tetraploids-in-carassius-species-complex-reveal-recurrent-polyploidy-effects-on-adaptive-evolution
#20
Xiao-Li Liu, Fang-Fang Jiang, Zhong-Wei Wang, Xi-Yin Li, Zhi Li, Xiao-Juan Zhang, Fan Chen, Jian-Feng Mao, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Polyploidy roles on adaptive evolution and ecological novelty have been extensively studied in plants but remained unclear in vertebrates owing to the rare polyploidy incidences. Here, a huge number of 3105 specimens in Carassius species complex including 2211 hexaploids and 894 tetraploids were sampled from 34 locations through mainland China. And hexaploids had wider geographic distribution than tetraploids especially in the areas with high altitude, high latitude and low annual precipitation. Then, an approximate 1050 bp transferrin (tf) fragments were amplified from all the samples, and 526 tf alleles were identified from a total of 37260 sequences at last...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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