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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#1
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149296/comparative-transcriptomics-of-five-high-altitude-vertebrates-and-their-low-altitude-relatives
#2
Qianzi Tang, Yiren Gu, Xuming Zhou, Long Jin, Jiuqiang Guan, Rui Liu, Jing Li, Kereng Long, Shilin Tian, Tiandong Che, Silu Hu, Yan Liang, Xuemei Yang, Xuan Tao, Zhijun Zhong, Guosong Wang, Xiaohui Chen, Diyan Li, Jideng Ma, Xun Wang, Miaomiao Mai, An'an Jiang, Xiaolin Luo, Xuebin Lv, Vadim N Gladyshev, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li
Background: Species living at high altitude are subject to strong selective pressures due to inhospitable environments (e.g., hypoxia, low temperature, high solar radiation, and lack of biological production), making these species valuable models for comparative analyses of local adaptation. Studies that examined high-altitude adaptation identified a vast array of rapidly evolving genes that characterize the dramatic phenotypic changes in high-altitude animals. However, how high-altitude environment shapes gene expression programs remains largely unknown...
November 15, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147740/geo-spatial-characterization-of-soil-mercury-and-arsenic-at-a-high-altitude-bolivian-gold-mine
#3
Glen D Johnson, Brian Pavilonis, Jack Caravanos, Jean Grassman
Soil mercury concentrations at a typical small-scale mine site in the Bolivian Andes were elevated (28-737 mg/kg or ppm) in localized areas where mercury amalgams were either formed or vaporized to release gold, but was not detectable beyond approximately 10 m from its sources. Arsenic was measurable, exceeding known background levels throughout the mine site (77-137,022 ppm), and was also measurable through the local village of Ingenio (36-1803 ppm). Although arsenic levels were high at all surveyed locations, its spatial pattern followed mercury, being highest where mercury was high...
November 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146808/extended-gamma-ray-sources-around-pulsars-constrain-the-origin-of-the-positron-flux-at-earth
#4
A U Abeysekara, A Albert, R Alfaro, C Alvarez, J D Álvarez, R Arceo, J C Arteaga-Velázquez, D Avila Rojas, H A Ayala Solares, A S Barber, N Bautista-Elivar, A Becerril, E Belmont-Moreno, S Y BenZvi, D Berley, A Bernal, J Braun, C Brisbois, K S Caballero-Mora, T Capistrán, A Carramiñana, S Casanova, M Castillo, U Cotti, J Cotzomi, S Coutiño de León, C De León, E De la Fuente, B L Dingus, M A DuVernois, J C Díaz-Vélez, R W Ellsworth, K Engel, O Enríquez-Rivera, D W Fiorino, N Fraija, J A García-González, F Garfias, M Gerhardt, A González Muñoz, M M González, J A Goodman, Z Hampel-Arias, J P Harding, S Hernández, A Hernández-Almada, J Hinton, B Hona, C M Hui, P Hüntemeyer, A Iriarte, A Jardin-Blicq, V Joshi, S Kaufmann, D Kieda, A Lara, R J Lauer, W H Lee, D Lennarz, H León Vargas, J T Linnemann, A L Longinotti, G Luis Raya, R Luna-García, R López-Coto, K Malone, S S Marinelli, O Martinez, I Martinez-Castellanos, J Martínez-Castro, H Martínez-Huerta, J A Matthews, P Miranda-Romagnoli, E Moreno, M Mostafá, L Nellen, M Newbold, M U Nisa, R Noriega-Papaqui, R Pelayo, J Pretz, E G Pérez-Pérez, Z Ren, C D Rho, C Rivière, D Rosa-González, M Rosenberg, E Ruiz-Velasco, H Salazar, F Salesa Greus, A Sandoval, M Schneider, H Schoorlemmer, G Sinnis, A J Smith, R W Springer, P Surajbali, I Taboada, O Tibolla, K Tollefson, I Torres, T N Ukwatta, G Vianello, T Weisgarber, S Westerhoff, I G Wisher, J Wood, T Yapici, G Yodh, P W Younk, A Zepeda, H Zhou, F Guo, J Hahn, H Li, H Zhang
The unexpectedly high flux of cosmic-ray positrons detected at Earth may originate from nearby astrophysical sources, dark matter, or unknown processes of cosmic-ray secondary production. We report the detection, using the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), of extended tera-electron volt gamma-ray emission coincident with the locations of two nearby middle-aged pulsars (Geminga and PSR B0656+14). The HAWC observations demonstrate that these pulsars are indeed local sources of accelerated leptons, but the measured tera-electron volt emission profile constrains the diffusion of particles away from these sources to be much slower than previously assumed...
November 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143710/importance-of-determining-the-climatic-domains-of-sheep-breeds
#5
D Petit, I Boujenane
The main purpose of the study was to compare the capacity of the major sheep breeds in Morocco to cope with climate changes through the ranges of several climate parameters in which they can be found. We first delimitated the climatic 'domains' of each breed by constructing a database including altitude and climatic parameters (minima mean of the coldest month, maxima mean of the hottest month, annual rainfall, pluviothermic coefficient of Emberger Q 2, annual minima mean and annual maxima mean) on a 30-year period using the representative stations of each breed distribution...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143667/validation-of-whole-blood-transcriptome-signature-during-microdose-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-rhuepo-administration
#6
Guan Wang, Jérôme Durussel, Jonathan Shurlock, Martin Mooses, Noriyuki Fuku, Georgie Bruinvels, Charles Pedlar, Richard Burden, Andrew Murray, Brendan Yee, Anne Keenan, John D McClure, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yannis P Pitsiladis
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. METHODS: Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively)...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143302/convergent-selection-pressures-drive-the-evolution-of-rhodopsin-kinetics-at-high-altitudes-via-non-parallel-mechanisms
#7
Gianni M Castiglione, Ryan K Schott, Frances E Hauser, Belinda S W Chang
Convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures is a well-known phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Less well understood is how selection drives convergence in protein function, and the underlying mechanisms by which this can be achieved. Here we investigate functional convergence in the visual system of two distantly related lineages of high-altitude adapted Andean and Himalayan catfishes. Statistical analyses revealed in the two high-altitude lineages, a parallel acceleration of evolutionary rates in rhodopsin, the dim-light visual pigment...
November 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141880/divergent-respiratory-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-hypoxia-in-bar-headed-geese-and-andean-birds
#8
Sabine L Lague, Beverly Chua, Luis Alza, Graham R Scott, Peter B Frappell, Yang Zhong, Anthony P Farrell, Kevin G McCracken, Yuxiang Wang, William K Milsom
Many high-altitude vertebrates have evolved increased capacities in their oxygen transport cascade (ventilation, pulmonary diffusion, circulation and tissue diffusion), enhancing oxygen transfer from the atmosphere to mitochondria. However, the extent of interspecies variation in the control processes that dictate hypoxia responses remains largely unknown. We compared the metabolic, cardiovascular and respiratory responses to progressive decreases in inspired oxygen levels of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), birds that biannually migrate across the Himalayan mountains, with those of Andean geese (Chloephaga melanoptera) and crested ducks (Lophonetta specularioides), lifelong residents of the high Andes...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140980/prokaryotic-diversity-and-biogeochemical-characteristics-of-benthic-microbial-ecosystems-at-la-brava-a-hypersaline-lake-at-salar-de-atacama-chile
#9
Maria Eugenia Farias, Maria Cecilia Rasuk, Kimberley L Gallagher, Manuel Contreras, Daniel Kurth, Ana Beatriz Fernandez, Daniel Poiré, Fernando Novoa, Pieter T Visscher
Benthic microbial ecosystems of Laguna La Brava, Salar de Atacama, a high altitude hypersaline lake, were characterized in terms of bacterial and archaeal diversity, biogeochemistry, (including O2 and sulfide depth profiles and mineralogy), and physicochemical characteristics. La Brava is one of several lakes in the Salar de Atacama where microbial communities are growing in extreme conditions, including high salinity, high solar insolation, and high levels of metals such as lithium, arsenic, magnesium, and calcium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138459/the-genomic-landscape-of-nepalese-tibeto-burmans-reveals-new-insights-into-the-recent-peopling-of-southern-himalayas
#10
Guido A Gnecchi-Ruscone, Choongwon Jeong, Sara De Fanti, Stefania Sarno, Michela Trancucci, Davide Gentilini, Anna M Di Blasio, Mingma G Sherpa, Phurba T Sherpa, Giorgio Marinelli, Marco Di Marcello, Luca Natali, Davide Peluzzi, Davide Pettener, Anna Di Rienzo, Donata Luiselli, Marco Sazzini
While much research attention has focused on demographic processes that enabled human diffusion on the Tibetan plateau, little is known about more recent colonization of Southern Himalayas. In particular, the history of migrations, admixture and/or isolation of populations speaking Tibeto-Burman languages, which is supposed to be quite complex and to have reshaped patterns of genetic variation on both sides of the Himalayan arc, remains only partially elucidated. We thus described the genomic landscape of previously unsurveyed Tibeto-Burman (i...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136449/does-this-patient-have-acute-mountain-sickness-the-rational-clinical-examination-systematic-review
#11
David Meier, Tinh-Hai Collet, Isabella Locatelli, Jacques Cornuz, Bengt Kayser, David L Simel, Claudio Sartori
Importance: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) affects more than 25% of individuals ascending to 3500 m (11 500 ft) and more than 50% of those above 6000 m (19 700 ft). AMS may progress from nonspecific symptoms to life-threatening high-altitude cerebral edema in less than 1% of patients. It is not clear how to best diagnose AMS. Objective: To systematically review studies assessing the accuracy of AMS diagnostic instruments, including the visual analog scale (VAS) score, which quantifies the overall feeling of sickness at altitude (VAS[O]; various thresholds), Acute Mountain Sickness-Cerebral score (AMS-C; ≥0...
November 14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135065/a-simple-pre-lithiation-strategy-to-build-high-rate-and-long-life-lithium-ion-battery-with-improved-low-temperature-performance
#12
Yonggang Wang, Yao Liu, Bingchang Yang, Xiaoli Dong, Yongyao Xia
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are being used to power the commercial electric vehicles (EVs). However, the charge/discharge rate and life of current LIBs still cannot satisfy the further development of EVs. Furthermore, the poor low temperature performance of LIBs limits their application in cold climates and high altitude areas. Herein, a simple pre-lithiation method is developed to fabricate a new LIB. In this strategy, a Li3V2(PO4)3 cathode and a pristine hard carbon anode are used to form a primary cell, and the initial Li+ extraction from Li3V2(PO4)3 is used to pre-lithiate the hard carbon...
November 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131669/research-in-high-altitude-and-mountain-emergency-medicine-is-methodology-key
#13
Hermann Brugger, Matiram Pun, Erik R Swenson, Markus Falk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130497/ubc-nepal-expedition-acclimatization-to-high-altitude-increases-spinal-motoneurone-excitability-during-fatigue-in-humans
#14
Luca Ruggiero, Alexandra F Yacyshyn, Jane Nettleton, Chris J McNeil
The fatigue-induced failure of the motor cortex to drive muscles maximally increases in acute hypoxia (AH) compared to normoxia (N) but improves with acclimatization (chronic hypoxia; CH). Despite their importance to muscle output, it is unknown how locomotor motoneurones in humans are affected by hypoxia and acclimatization. Eleven participants performed 16 min of submaximal (25% maximal torque, MVC) intermittent isometric elbow flexions in N, AH (environmental chamber), and CH (7-14 days at 5050 m) (PI O2 =  140, 74, and 76 mmHg, respectively)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130480/antidesmoglein-1-and-3-antibodies-in-healthy-subjects-of-a-population-in-the-peruvian-high-amazon
#15
Willy Ramos, Jesús Díaz, Ericson L Gutierrez, Jose S Lazarte, Mary C Bohnett, Gerardo Ronceros, Alex G Ortega-Loayza
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the presence of anti-Dsg1 and Dsg3 antibodies in healthy subjects of the high Peruvian Amazon (Tuemal, Rodriguez de Mendoza province, department of Amazonas) to establish the theoretical presence of environmental factors or triggers in the area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study. The study population included persons of any age or gender, clinically healthy, who were evaluated by a dermatologist to confirm the absence of blistering diseases...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130390/investigation-of-the-differences-between-the-tibetan-and-han-populations-in-the-hemoglobin-oxygen-affinity-of-red-blood-cells-and-in-the-adaptation-to-high-altitude-environments
#16
Cuiying Li, Xiaowei Li, Juan Liu, Xiu Fan, Guoxing You, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou, Jingqi Li, Huifen Lei
OBJECTIVE: High altitude is characterized by low oxygen pressure, resulting in multiple adaptive responses. Tibetans who have lived in the plateau for thousands of years have developed unique phenotypes, such as downregulation of the HIF pathway through EPAS1 and EGLN1 gene mutation. However, the changes of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity under hypoxia environment remain elusive. METHODS: A blood cell analyzer and a blood oxygen analyzer were used to conduct routine blood tests and measure the oxygen affinity P50 in in the Han population that rapidly entered the plateau (for 3-7 days), the plateau-acclimatized Han population (residing for 30 days on the plateau), the plateau Han population (more than 10 years on the plateau), and the Tibetan population...
November 12, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129021/the-effect-of-natural-or-simulated-altitude-training-on-high-intensity-intermittent-running-performance-in-team-sport-athletes-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Michael J Hamlin, Catherine A Lizamore, Will G Hopkins
BACKGROUND: While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. METHODS: A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model...
November 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128891/prmt1-promotes-hyperglycemia-in-a-foxo1-dependent-manner-affecting-glucose-metabolism-during-hypobaric-hypoxia-exposure-in-rat-model
#18
Susovon Bayen, Supriya Saini, Priya Gaur, Arul Joseph Duraisamy, Alpesh Kumar Sharma, Karan Pal, Praveen Vats, Shashi Bala Singh
PURPOSE: High-altitude (HA) environment causes changes in cellular metabolism among unacclimatized humans. Previous studies have revealed that insulin-dependent activation of protein kinase B (Akt) regulates metabolic processes via discrete transcriptional effectors. Moreover, protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT)1-dependent arginine modification of forkhead box other (FoxO)1 protein interferes with Akt-dependent phosphorylation. The present study was undertaken to test the involvement of PRMT1 on FoxO1 activation during hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure in rat model...
November 11, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125912/an-in-vitro-examination-of-the-effects-of-altitude-on-dry-powder-inhaler-performance
#19
Conor A Ruzycki, Andrew R Martin, Reinhard Vehring, Warren H Finlay
BACKGROUND: The effects of altitude on dry powder inhaler (DPI) performance remain understudied. As existing standardized testing methodologies do not consider altitude, inhalation devices may be used in environments in which their performance has not been sufficiently characterized. METHODS: Six DPIs spanning a range of device resistances were examined in vitro in an environmental chamber mimicking a high-altitude environment equivalent to an altitude of 4200 m, with controls established at an altitude of 700 m...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125907/risk-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-development-in-the-native-population-of-low-and-high-altitude-regions-of-kyrgyzstan-finnish-diabetes-risc-score-questionnaire-results
#20
Marina S Moldobaeva, Anastasiya V Vinogradova, Marina K Esenamanova
Moldobaeva, Marina S., Anastasiya V. Vinogradova, and Marina K. Esenamanova. Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus development in the native population of low- and high-altitude regions of Kyrgyzstan: Finnish Diabetes Risc Score questionnaire results. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2017. OBJECTIVE: The number of patients with diabetes is steadily growing, but likely only half of all cases are ever identified. The Kyrgyz, native inhabitants of Central Asia, live in the mountainous area and have a particular lifestyle and nutrition...
November 10, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
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