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Human resources

Mareike Cora Janiak
All living organisms need to consume nutrients to grow, survive, and reproduce, making the successful acquisition of food resources a powerful selective pressure. However, acquiring food is only part of the challenge. While all animals spend much of their daily activity budget hunting, searching for, or otherwise procuring food, a large part of what is involved in overall nutrition occurs once the meal has been swallowed. Most nutritional components are too complex for immediate use and must be broken down into simpler compounds, which can then be absorbed by the body...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Quynh C Nguyen, Dapeng Li, Hsien-Wen Meng, Suraj Kath, Elaine Nsoesie, Feifei Li, Ming Wen
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that where people live, play, and work can influence health and well-being. However, the dearth of neighborhood data, especially data that is timely and consistent across geographies, hinders understanding of the effects of neighborhoods on health. Social media data represents a possible new data resource for neighborhood research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build, from geotagged Twitter data, a national neighborhood database with area-level indicators of well-being and health behaviors...
October 17, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Bhim Mani Adhikari, Martin Norgaard, Kristen M Quinn, Jenine Ampudia, Justin Squirek, Mukesh Dhamala
Musical improvisation offers an excellent experimental paradigm for the study of real-time human creativity. It involves moment-to-moment decision-making, monitoring of one's performance, and utilizing external feedback to spontaneously create new melodies or variations on a melody. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to study the brain activity during musical improvisation, aiming to unlock the mystery of human creativity. What brain resources come together and how these are utilized during musical improvisation is not well understood...
October 18, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Dennis Wang, Nhu-An Pham, Jiefei Tong, Shingo Sakashita, Ghassan Allo, Lucia Kim, Naoki Yanagawa, Vibha Raghavan, Yuhong Wei, Christine To, Quang M Trinh, Maud H W Starmans, Michelle A Chan-Seng-Yue, Dianne Chadwick, Lei Li, Chang-Qi Zhu, Ni Liu, Ming Li, Sharon Lee, Vladimir Ignatchenko, Dan Strumpf, Paul Taylor, Nadeem Moghal, Geoffrey Liu, Paul C Boutros, Thomas Kislinger, Melania Pintilie, Igor Jurisica, Frances A Shepherd, John D McPherson, Lakshmi Muthuswamy, Michael F Moran, Ming-Sound Tsao
Availability of lung cancer models that closely mimic human tumors remains a significant gap in cancer research, as tumor cell lines and mouse models may not recapitulate the spectrum of lung cancer heterogeneity seen in patients. We aimed to establish a patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) resource from surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fresh tumor tissue from surgical resection was implanted and grown in the subcutaneous pocket of non-obese severe combined immune deficient (NOD SCID) gamma mice...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Julia Schellong, Franziska Epple, Kerstin Weidner, Andrea Möllering
A non-neglectable portion of people that have fled to Germany have been subjected to expulsion, violence, torture and grave human loss. In some of them, signs of secondary mental problems are obvious. In the light of the efforts at integration, these diseases must not be neglected. Outlined are the federal legal requirements and how the cost coverage, as well as the admission to health care system, is structured. Additionally, 2 exemplary regional models for psychosomatic health care are being introduced: Dresden's "Stepped Care Model for Psychologically Vulnerable Refugees" includes phased offers for prevention and treatment of acute mental crises, as well as somatoform disorders in refugees and their volunteer helpers...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Habteab Habtom, Sandrine Demanèche, Lorna Dawson, Chen Azulay, Ofra Matan, Patrick Robe, Ron Gafny, Pascal Simonet, Edouard Jurkevitch, Zohar Pasternak
The ubiquity and transferability of soil makes it a resource for the forensic investigator, as it can provide a link between agents and scenes. However, the information contained in soils, such as chemical compounds, physical particles or biological entities, is seldom used in forensic investigations; due mainly to the associated costs, lack of available expertise, and the lack of soil databases. The microbial DNA in soil is relatively easy to access and analyse, having thus the potential to provide a powerful means for discriminating soil samples or linking them to a common origin...
October 6, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Russell L Margolis, Dobrila D Rudnicki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) is a rare, progressive, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that genetically, clinically, and pathologically closely resembles Huntington's disease. We review HDL2 pathogenic mechanisms and examine the implications of these mechanisms for Huntington's disease and related diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: HDL2 is caused by a CTG/CAG repeat expansion in junctophilin-3. Available data from cell and animal models and human brain suggest that HDL2 is a complex disease in which transcripts and proteins expressed bidirectionally from the junctophilin-3 locus contribute to pathogenesis through both gain-and loss-of-function mechanisms...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Paul E Farmer, Joseph J Rhatigan
Shortages of trained health care workers plague low- and middle-income countries around the world. When resources are scarce, the ability to support medical education is severely constrained. While there are many important "building blocks" of health systems that need to be bolstered in low- and middle-income countries, the authors propose that U.S. academic medicine can make unique contributions in the realm of human resource development-specifically, increasing the supply of physicians who directly provide health care to the populations they serve and who often manage and lead these health systems...
October 4, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Mark W Lowdell, Amy Thomas
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represent the current pinnacle of 'patient-specific medicines' and will change the nature of medicine in the near future. They fall into three categories; somatic cell-therapy products, gene therapy products and cells or tissues for regenerative medicine, which are termed 'tissue engineered' products. The term also incorporates 'combination products' where a human cell or tissue is combined with a medical device. Plainly, many of these new medicines share similarities with conventional haematological stem cell transplant products and donor lymphocyte infusions as well as solid organ grafts and yet ATMPs are regulated as medicines and their development has remained predominantly in academic settings and within specialist centres...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
D J Hamilton, D W Wheeler, C M White, C L Rees, A O Komendantov, M Bergamino, G A Ascoli
Widely spread naming inconsistencies in neuroscience pose a vexing obstacle to effective communication within and across areas of expertise. This problem is particularly acute when identifying neuron types and their properties. is a web-accessible neuroinformatics resource that organizes existing data about essential properties of all known neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation. links evidence supporting the assignment of a property to a type with direct pointers to quotes and figures...
June 9, 2016: Brain Informatics
Brett K Beaulieu-Jones, Casey S Greene
Patient interactions with health care providers result in entries to electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs were built for clinical and billing purposes but contain many data points about an individual. Mining these records provides opportunities to extract electronic phenotypes, which can be paired with genetic data to identify genes underlying common human diseases. This task remains challenging: high quality phenotyping is costly and requires physician review; many fields in the records are sparsely filled; and our definitions of diseases are continuing to improve over time...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Victoria Porthé, Ingrid Vargas, Belén Sanz-Barbero, Isabel Plaza-Espuña, Lola Bosch, Maria Luisa Vázquez
Policy measures introduced in Spain during the economic crisis included a reduction in public health expenditure and in healthcare entitlements (RDL16/2012), which affected the general population as a whole, but especially immigrants. This paper analyzes changes in immigrants' access to health care during the economic crisis from the perspective of health professionals (medical and administrative) and immigrants. A qualitative descriptive-interpretative study was conducted in Catalonia through individual interviews with a theoretical sample of health professionals (n=34) and immigrant users (n=20)...
September 19, 2016: Health Policy
Christina Backes, Tim Kehl, Daniel Stöckel, Tobias Fehlmann, Lara Schneider, Eckart Meese, Hans-Peter Lenhof, Andreas Keller
In the last decade, miRNAs and their regulatory mechanisms have been intensively studied and many tools for the analysis of miRNAs and their targets have been developed. We previously presented a dictionary on single miRNAs and their putative target pathways. Since then, the number of miRNAs has tripled and the knowledge on miRNAs and targets has grown substantially. This, along with changes in pathway resources such as KEGG, leads to an improved understanding of miRNAs, their target genes and related pathways...
October 13, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Wei Lan, Min Li, Kaijie Zhao, Jin Liu, Fang-Xiang Wu, Yi Pan, Jianxin Wang
MOTIVATION: Increasing evidences have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in many human diseases. Therefore, predicting novel lncRNA-disease associations would contribute to dissect the complex mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Some computational methods have been developed to infer lncRNA-disease associations. However, most of these methods infer lncRNA-disease associations only based on single data resource. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a new computational method to predict lncRNA-disease associations by integrating multiple biological data resources...
October 14, 2016: Bioinformatics
Shakoor Hajat, Ceri Whitmore, Christophe Sarran, Andy Haines, Brian Golding, Harriet Gordon-Brown, Anthony Kessel, Lora E Fleming
BACKGROUND: Improved data linkages between diverse environment and health datasets have the potential to provide new insights into the health impacts of environmental exposures, including complex climate change processes. Initiatives that link and explore big data in the environment and health arenas are now being established. OBJECTIVES: To encourage advances in this nascent field, this article documents the development of a web browser application to facilitate such future research, the challenges encountered to date, and how they were addressed...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jose Antonio Moreno, Joana Díaz-Gómez, Carmina Nogareda, Eduardo Angulo, Gerhard Sandmann, Manuel Portero-Otin, José C E Serrano, Richard M Twyman, Teresa Capell, Changfu Zhu, Paul Christou
Carotenoids are important dietary nutrients with health-promoting effects. The biofortification of staple foods with carotenoids provides an efficient delivery strategy but little is known about the fate and distribution of carotenoids supplied in this manner. The chicken provides a good model of human carotenoid metabolism so we supplemented the diets of laying hens using two biofortified maize varieties with distinct carotenoid profiles and compared the fate of the different carotenoids in terms of distribution in the feed, the hen's livers and the eggs...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amitava Banerjee, Shweta Khandelwal, Lavanya Nambiar, Malvika Saxena, Victoria Peck, Mohammed Moniruzzaman, Jose Rocha Faria Neto, Katherine Curi Quinto, Andrew Smyth, Darryl Leong, José Pablo Werba
BACKGROUND: Secondary prevention is cost-effective for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but uptake is suboptimal. Understanding barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention for CVD at multiple health system levels may inform policy. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to adherence/persistence to secondary CVD prevention medications at health system level. METHODS: Included studies reported effects of health system level factors on adherence/persistence to secondary prevention medications for CVD (coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease)...
2016: Open Heart
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Sabrina Giacoppo, Oriana Trubiani, Francesca Diomede, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Conditioned medium derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects in preclinical models. Given the difficulty to harvest MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissues, research has been focused to find alternative resources for MSCs, such as oral-derived tissues. Recently, we have demonstrated the protective effects of MSCs obtained from healthy human periodontal ligament tissue (hPDLSCs) in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of conditioned medium obtained from hPDLSCs of Relapsing Remitting- Multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients on NSC34 mouse motoneurons stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 11, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Joël Ladner, Marie-Hélène Besson, Etienne Audureau, Mariana Rodrigues, Joseph Saba
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the greatest cause of age-weighted years of life lost in the developing world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with a high proportion of cervical cancers, and HPV vaccination may help to reduce the incidence of cancer. The aim of the study was to identify barriers, obstacles, and strategies and to analyze key concerns and lessons learned with respect to the implementation of HPV vaccination program in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The Gardasil Access Program (GAP) is a donation program established to enable organizations and institutions in eligible low-resource countries to gain operational experience designing and implementing HPV vaccination programs...
October 13, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
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