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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531268/implementation-of-an-integrated-approach-to-the-national-hiv-aids-strategy-for-improving-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-for-youths
#1
J Dennis Fortenberry, Linda J Koenig, Bill G Kapogiannis, Carrie L Jeffries, Jonathan M Ellen, Craig M Wilson
Importance: Youths aged 13 to 24 years old living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are less likely than adults to receive the health and prevention benefits of HIV treatments, with only a small proportion having achieved sustained viral suppression. These age-related disparities in HIV continuum of care are owing in part to the unique developmental issues of adolescents and young adults as well as the complexity and fragmentation of HIV care and related services. This article summarizes a national, multiagency, and multilevel approach to HIV care for newly diagnosed youths designed to bridge some of these fragmentations by addressing National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals for people living with HIV...
May 22, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531205/cost-analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-related-cervical-diseases-and-genital-warts-in-swaziland
#2
Themba G Ginindza, Benn Sartorius, Xolisile Dlamini, Ellinor Östensson
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC), and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530330/-the-sherlock-system-clinical-and-logistic-pharmaceutical-services
#3
Roni Leibowitz, Shahar Aflalo, Ornit Cohen, Ahuva Lustig
BACKGROUND: The drug inventory in the hospital consumes a large part of the hospital's budget. Classic drug management is based on weekly visits of the pharmacist in the departments, writing an order and dispensing it. This method is wasteful in terms of sending a bulk of drugs that will not necessarily be utilized, and it is also inefficient in terms of human resources. The unit-dose method, which is more advanced, is based on filling out individual prescriptions for each of the inpatients in the department...
August 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530039/transition-from-paediatric-to-adult-care-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa-challenges-youth-friendly-models-and-outcomes
#4
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Chloé Gautier-Lafaye, Chloe A Teasdale, Lorna Renner, Marcel Yotebieng, Sophie Desmonde, Samuel Ayaya, Mary-Ann Davies, Valériane Leroy
INTRODUCTION: The number of adolescents with perinatally or behaviourally acquired HIV is increasing in low-income countries, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence and incidence are the highest. As they survive into adulthood in the era of antiretroviral therapy, there is a pressing need to transfer them from paediatric to adult care, known as the transition of care. We conducted a narrative review of recent evidence on their transition outcomes in Africa, highlighting the specific needs and challenges in these populations and settings, and the different models of care for transition...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529385/shocking-behavior-random-wealth-in-antebellum-georgia-and-human-capital-across-generations
#5
Hoyt Bleakley, Joseph Ferrie
Does the lack of wealth constrain parents' investments in the human capital of their descendants? We conduct a nearly fifty-year followup of an episode in which such constraints would have been plausibly relaxed by a random allocation of substantial wealth to families. We track descendants of participants in Georgia's Cherokee Land Lottery of 1832, in which nearly every adult white male in Georgia took part. Winners received close to the median level of wealth - a large financial windfall orthogonal to participants' underlying characteristics that might have also affected their children's human capital...
August 2016: Quarterly Journal of Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529078/hcsgd-an-integrated-database-of-human-cellular-senescence-genes
#6
Qiongye Dong, Hongqing Han, Xuehui Liu, Lei Wei, Wei Zhang, Zhen Zhao, Michael Q Zhang, Xiaowo Wang
Cellular senescence is an irreversible cell cycle arrest program in response to various exogenous and endogenous stimuli like telomere dysfunction and DNA damage. It has been widely accepted as an anti-tumor program and is also found closely related to embryo development, tissue repair, organismal aging and age-related degenerative diseases. In the past decades, numerous efforts have been made to uncover the gene regulatory mechanisms of cellular senescence. There is a strong demand to integrate these data from various resources into one open platform...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528990/proteomics-survey-of-solanaceae-family-current-status-and-challenges-ahead
#7
Arindam Ghatak, Palak Chaturvedi, Puneet Paul, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal, Sun Tae Kim, Wolfram Weckwerth, Ravi Gupta
Solanaceae is one of the major economically important families of higher plants and has played a central role in human nutrition since the dawn of human civilization. Therefore, researchers have always been interested in understanding the complex behavior of Solanaceae members to identify key transcripts, proteins or metabolites, which are potentially associated with major traits. Proteomics studies have contributed significantly to understanding the physiology of Solanaceae members. A compilation of all the published reports showed that both gel-based (75%) and gel-free (25%) proteomic technologies have been utilized to establish the proteomes of different tissues, organs, and organelles under normal and adverse environmental conditions...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528753/healthcare-access-and-quality-index-based-on-mortality-from-causes-amenable-to-personal-health-care-in-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2015-a-novel-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#8
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015...
May 18, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527379/diagnosing-water-security-in-the-rural-north-with-an-environmental-security-framework
#9
Henry J F Penn, Philip A Loring, William E Schnabel
This study explores the nature of water security challenges in rural Alaska, using a framework for environmental security that entails four interrelated concepts: availability, access, utility, and stability of water resources. Many researchers and professionals agree that water insecurity is a problem in rural Alaska, although the scale and nature of the problem is contested. Some academics have argued that the problem is systemic, and rooted in an approach to water security by the state that prioritizes economic concerns over public health concerns...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526730/a-targeted-capture-linkage-map-anchors-the-genome-of-the-schistosomiasis-vector-snail-biomphalaria-glabrata
#10
Jacob A Tennessen, Stephanie R Bollmann, Michael S Blouin
The aquatic planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrate is one of the most intensively-studied mollusks due to its role in the transmission of schistosomiasis. Its 916 Mb genome has recently been sequenced and annotated, but it remains poorly assembled. Here we used targeted capture markers to map over 10,000 B. glabrate scaffolds in a linkage cross of 94 F1 offspring, generating 24 linkage groups. We added additional scaffolds to these linkage groups based on linkage disequilibrium analysis of targeted capture and whole-genome sequences of 96 unrelated snails...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526231/exposures-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-consumer-products-a-guide-for-pediatricians
#11
Katelyn H Wong, Timur S Durrani
Endocrine disrupting chemicals, a group of exogenous chemicals that can interfere with hormone action in the body, have been implicated in disrupting endocrine function, which negatively affects human health and development. Endocrine disrupting chemicals are ubiquitously detected in consumer products, foods, beverages, personal care products, and household cleaning products. Due to concerns about their negative effects on human health, several professional health provider societies have recommended the reduction of common endocrine disrupting chemical exposures...
May 16, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526029/cell-fixation-and-preservation-for-droplet-based-single-cell-transcriptomics
#12
Jonathan Alles, Nikos Karaiskos, Samantha D Praktiknjo, Stefanie Grosswendt, Philipp Wahle, Pierre-Louis Ruffault, Salah Ayoub, Luisa Schreyer, Anastasiya Boltengagen, Carmen Birchmeier, Robert Zinzen, Christine Kocks, Nikolaus Rajewsky
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in droplet-based microfluidics allow the transcriptional profiling of thousands of individual cells in a quantitative, highly parallel and cost-effective way. A critical, often limiting step is the preparation of cells in an unperturbed state, not altered by stress or ageing. Other challenges are rare cells that need to be collected over several days or samples prepared at different times or locations. METHODS: Here, we used chemical fixation to address these problems...
May 19, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525526/critical-analysis-of-the-council-for-international-organizations-of-medical-sciences-2016-international-guidelines-for-health-related-research-involving-humans
#13
REVIEW
Miguel Hugo Kottow Lang
This paper presents a preliminary discussion of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), recently issued “International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans” (2016) that acknowledges the document’s declared concern of the protection of human subjects and awareness of their needs and interests in “low-resource settings”. Nevertheless, guideline recommendations present exceptional situations –vulnerability, mental incompetence- wherein voluntary and consented participation may be reduced or omitted under three concurrent conditions: compelling scientific value, the need to include persons that will not benefit directly from participation, exposure to minimal or slight risks...
May 15, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525252/-medical-supply-planning-dynamic-registry-of-physicians-sixth-reform-of-the-state-and-numerus-clausus
#14
N Benahmed, A De Wever, M Pirson
INTRODUCTION: The last few years have seen major changes in the Belgian medical planning. The paper aims to describe them and to assess how they will affect the medical demography. METHOD: Grey literature review and federal and federated entities legislation summary. RESULTS: A new dynamic register allows a better knowledge of medical workforce in all sectors of labour market. Recent legislation evolutions induce fragmentation of competences related to human resource for health planning : federal authorities are responsive for the fixation of number of GP and specialists and community authorities for registration of health professionals and fixation of sub-quotas in different branches of specialised medicine...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524625/mrna-decay-an-adaptation-tool-for-the-environmental-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#15
REVIEW
Amanda L M Bloom, Jay Leipheimer, John C Panepinto
Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment and humans constantly encounter them in the soil, air, water, and food. The vast majority of these interactions are inconsequential. However, in the context of immunodeficiency precipitated by HIV infection, hematologic malignancy, or transplantation, a small subset of fungi can cause devastating, systemic infection. The most deadly of the opportunistic environmental fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, is estimated to cause hundreds of thousands of deaths per year, mostly in the context of HIV co-infection...
May 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524117/ebutterfly-leveraging-massive-online-citizen-science-for-butterfly-consevation
#16
Kathleen L Prudic, Kent P McFarland, Jeffrey C Oliver, Rebecca A Hutchinson, Elizabeth C Long, Jeremy T Kerr, Maxim Larrivée
Data collection, storage, analysis, visualization, and dissemination are changing rapidly due to advances in new technologies driven by computer science and universal access to the internet. These technologies and web connections place human observers front and center in citizen science-driven research and are critical in generating new discoveries and innovation in such fields as astronomy, biodiversity, and meteorology. Research projects utilizing a citizen science approach address scientific problems at regional, continental, and even global scales otherwise impossible for a single lab or even a small collection of academic researchers...
May 18, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523997/differences-in-relative-levels-of-88-micrornas-in-various-regions-of-the-normal-adult-human-brain
#17
Elena Vladislavovna Filatova, Anelya Khanlarovna Alieva, Maria Igorevna Shadrina, Petr Andreevich Slominsky
AIM OF STUDY: Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the 1990s, our knowledge about their biology has grown considerably. The increasing number of studies addressing the role of miRNAs in development and in various diseases emphasizes the need for a comprehensive catalogue of accurate sequence, expression and conservation information regarding the large number of miRNAs proposed recently in all organs and tissues. The objective of this study was to provide data on the levels of miRNA expression in 15 tissues of the normal human brain...
May 19, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523853/radiographic-evaluation-of-cardiac-silhouette-using-vertebral-heart-size-method-in-squirrel-monkey-saimiri-sciureus
#18
L N Coutinho, Mbs Brito, A A Imbeloni, Acc Lacreta, F Rech, M P Souto, Ira Ataíde
BACKGROUND: The Saimiri sciureus represents a valuable resource for biomedical research, due to its large number on primate centers and similarity to human anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to apply the method proposed by Buchanan & Bücheler in healthy squirrel monkeys (S. sciureus) and determine by radiographic examination, the average value of the vertebral heart size (VHS) for the specie. METHOD: Laterolateral left (LLL), laterolateral right (LLR), ventrodorsal (VD), and dorsoventral (DV) projections were used for radiographic examinations to evaluate the heart silhouette of S...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523005/impact-of-temperature-and-nutrients-on-carbon-nutrient-tissue-stoichiometry-of-submerged-aquatic-plants-an-experiment-and-meta-analysis
#19
Mandy Velthuis, Emma van Deelen, Ellen van Donk, Peiyu Zhang, Elisabeth S Bakker
Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1-5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522661/quantitative-folding-pattern-analysis-of-early-primary-sulci-in-human-fetuses-with-brain-abnormalities
#20
K Im, A Guimaraes, Y Kim, E Cottrill, B Gagoski, C Rollins, C Ortinau, E Yang, P E Grant
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aberrant gyral folding is a key feature in the diagnosis of many cerebral malformations. However, in fetal life, it is particularly challenging to confidently diagnose aberrant folding because of the rapid spatiotemporal changes of gyral development. Currently, there is no resource to measure how an individual fetal brain compares with normal spatiotemporal variations. In this study, we assessed the potential for automatic analysis of early sulcal patterns to detect individual fetal brains with cerebral abnormalities...
May 18, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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