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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793110/remembrance-of-inferences-past-amortization-in-human-hypothesis-generation
#1
Ishita Dasgupta, Eric Schulz, Noah D Goodman, Samuel J Gershman
Bayesian models of cognition assume that people compute probability distributions over hypotheses. However, the required computations are frequently intractable or prohibitively expensive. Since people often encounter many closely related distributions, selective reuse of computations (amortized inference) is a computationally efficient use of the brain's limited resources. We present three experiments that provide evidence for amortization in human probabilistic reasoning. When sequentially answering two related queries about natural scenes, participants' responses to the second query systematically depend on the structure of the first query...
May 21, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792253/genocide-rape-trauma-a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-the-psychological-suffering-of-rwandan-survivors
#2
Donatilla Mukamana, Anthony Collins, William E Rosa
In 1994, the Rwandan genocide claimed the lives of approximately 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu citizens. Systematic rape was a strategic component of the Hutu extremist plan to eradicate the Tutsi minority population. This involved collective and repeated sexual assaults with brutal violence, public humiliation, and torture. This article maps the ongoing psychological impact on Rwandan genocide rape survivors and identifies implications for international nursing practice. The research formalizes their narratives, identifying a number of interconnected elements that combine to produce myriad forms of chronic psychological suffering in the Rwandan context...
May 1, 2018: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791945/global-health-epilepsy
#3
Amza Ali
Epilepsy is a frequently misunderstood and highly stigmatized condition. Major treatment gaps exist across the world, most so in areas of financial constraint. Classification permits the best approaches to treatment and to ascertaining prognosis. The International League Against Epilepsy's new classification system emphasizes clinical aspects and utilizes all available resources to determine whether it is a focal or generalized epilepsy. The most important tools are a careful history, clinical examination, electroencephalography, and appropriate neuroimaging...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791767/increased-body-size-along-urbanization-gradients-at-both-community-and-intraspecific-level-in-macro-moths
#4
Thomas Merckx, Aurélien Kaiser, Hans Van Dyck
Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level...
May 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791753/double-jeopardy-missed-care-for-the-vulnerable-in-community-settings
#5
EDITORIAL
Annamaria Bagnasco, Fiona Timmins, Giuseppe Aleo, Loredana Sasso
Inequitable access of the world's population to quality health services is still a problem, despite the fact that good health and wellbeing are recognised as a fundamental human rights (United Nations, 2016). Reducing inequities in health is a major focus of international policy (World Health Organisation, 2015) and in the context of an ever-aging population, world recession, limited resources, and to promote independence in health, community care schemes are gaining increasing popularity (Phelan et al 2017)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791741/diffusing-and-scaling-evidence-based-interventions-eight-lessons-for-early-child-development-from-the-implementation-of-perinatal-home-visiting-in-south-africa
#6
Mark Tomlinson, Xanthe Hunt, Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
Most low- and middle-income countries lack resources with which to implement public health programs. As such, there is a necessity to facilitate programing that judiciously makes use of what resources there are. However, despite evidence for the efficacy of many interventions, translating these into real-world effectiveness, and then into scalability, is complex and has often been neglected. We draw on a case study of Philani+ (a maternal and child health intervention implemented in South Africa) to distil eight features of health programing that aid intervention effectiveness...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791735/practical-considerations-for-transitioning-early-childhood-interventions-to-scale-lessons-from-the-saving-brains-portfolio
#7
James M Radner, Marvin J S Ferrer, Dominique McMahon, Anuraj H Shankar, Karlee L Silver
Small pilot studies of young children have frequently shown promise, but very few have been successfully scaled to the regional or national levels. How can we ensure that these promising approaches move from a suite of pilots to full-scale implementation that can deliver sustainable impact for hundreds of millions of children? To elucidate concrete lessons learned and suggestions on accelerating the transition to impact at scale, we reviewed the Saving Brains portfolio to better understand three points: (1) the extent to which useful signals of impact could be extracted from data at the seed phase, (2) the ways in which innovators (project leaders) were approaching human resource challenges critical for scaling, and (3) the multisector diversity of the portfolio and the way innovators entered partnerships...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790972/isolation-and-biological-characterization-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-goose-dermis
#8
Jingjing Wang, Xulun Wu, Yanjie Zheng, Hebao Wen, Hongda Ji, Yuhua Zhao, Weijun Guan
The skin is a natural target of stem cell research because of its large size and easy accessibility. Cutaneous mesenchymal stem cells have shown to be a promising source of various adult stem cell or progenitor cell populations, which provide an important source of stem cell-based investigation. Nowadays, much work has been done on dermal-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) from humans, mice, sheep, and other mammals, but the literature on avian species has been rarely reported. As an animal model, the goose is an endemic species abounding in dermal tissues which is important in the global economy...
May 21, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790964/evidence-of-evolutionary-history-and-selective-sweeps-in-the-genome-of-meishan-pig-reveals-its-genetic-and-phenotypic-characterization
#9
Pengju Zhao, Ying Yu, Wen Feng, Heng Du, Jian Yu, Huimin Kang, Xianrui Zheng, Zhiquan Wang, George E Liu, Catherine W Ernst, Xueqin Ran, Jiafu Wang, Jian-Feng Liu
Background: Meishan is a pig breed indigenous to China and famous for its high fecundity. The traits of Meishan are strongly associated with its distinct evolutionary history and domestication. However, the genomic evidence linking the domestication of Meishan pigs with the unique features are still poorly understood. The goal of this study is to investigate the genomic signatures and evolutionary evidence related to phenotypic traits of Meishan by large-scale sequencing. Results: We found the unique domestication of Meishan pigs happened at the Taihu Basin area between the Majiabang and the Liangzhu culture, during which 300 protein-coding genes have undergone positive selection...
May 22, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789629/non-coding-rnas-in-various-stages-of-liver-disease-leading-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma-differential-expression-of-mirnas-pirnas-lncrnas-circrnas-and-sno-mt-rnas
#10
Srinivas V Koduru, Ashley N Leberfinger, Yuka I Kawasawa, Milind Mahajan, Niraj J Gusani, Arun J Sanyal, Dino J Ravnic
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was the fifth leading cause of cancer death in men and eighth leading cause of death in women in the United States in 2017. In our study, we sought to identify sncRNAs in various stages of development of HCC. We obtained publicly available small RNA-seq data derived from patients with cirrhosis (n = 14), low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDN, n = 9), high grade dysplastic nodules (HGDN, n = 6), early hepatocellular carcinoma (eHCC, n = 6), and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 20), along with healthy liver tissue samples (n = 9)...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789618/the-diversity-of-chemoprotective-glucosinolates-in-moringaceae-moringa-spp
#11
Jed W Fahey, Mark E Olson, Katherine K Stephenson, Kristina L Wade, Gwen M Chodur, David Odee, Wasif Nouman, Michael Massiah, Jesse Alt, Patricia A Egner, Walter C Hubbard
Glucosinolates (GS) are metabolized to isothiocyanates that may enhance human healthspan by protecting against a variety of chronic diseases. Moringa oleifera, the drumstick tree, produces unique GS but little is known about GS variation within M. oleifera, and even less in the 12 other Moringa species, some of which are very rare. We assess leaf, seed, stem, and leaf gland exudate GS content of 12 of the 13 known Moringa species. We describe 2 previously unidentified GS as major components of 6 species, reporting on the presence of simple alkyl GS in 4 species, which are dominant in M...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789072/new-earth-abundant-materials-for-large-scale-solar-fuels-generation
#12
Rajiv Ramanujam Prabhakar, Wei Cui, S David Tilley
The solar resource is immense, but the power density of light striking the Earth's surface is relatively dilute, necessitating large area solar conversion devices in order to harvest substantial amounts of power for renewable energy applications. In addition, energy storage is a key challenge for intermittent renewable resources such as solar and wind, which adds significant cost to these energies. As the majority of humanity's present-day energy consumption is based on fuels, an ideal solution is to generate renewable fuels from abundant resources such as sunlight and water...
May 30, 2018: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788551/defining-a-land-boundary-for-sustainable-livestock-consumption
#13
Hannah H E Van Zanten, Mario Herrero, Ollie Van Hal, Elin Röös, Adrian Muller, Tara Garnett, Pierre J Gerber, Christian Schader, Imke J M De Boer
The need for more sustainable production and consumption of animal-source food is central to the achievement of the sustainable development goals: within this context, wise use of land is a core challenge and concern. A key question in feeding the future world is: how much animal-source food should we eat? We demonstrate that livestock raised under the circular economy concept could provide a significant, non-negligible part (9-23g/per capita) of our daily protein needs (~50-60 g/per capita). This livestock then would not consume human-edible biomass, such as grains, but mainly convert leftovers from arable land and grass resources into valuable food, implying that production of livestock feed is largely decoupled from arable land...
May 22, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788443/pediatric-infectious-diseases-meets-the-future
#14
Janet R Gilsdorf, Paul Spearman, Janet A Englund, Tina Q Tan, Kristina A Bryant
Pediatric infectious diseases physicians are dedicated to the diagnosis, prevention, and management of infections in children. As such, we play large, and important, roles in the clinical care of children from birth to late adolescence and in infection prevention, antimicrobial stewardship, research pertaining to infections, public health, international and global health, and advocacy for children's health. Furthermore, we are critical to the education of future physicians (in general), pediatricians, and infectious diseases doctors...
May 19, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788430/indicators-to-assess-the-functionality-of-clubfoot-clinics-in-low-resource-settings-a-delphi-consensus-approach-and-pilot-study
#15
Tracey Smythe, Debra Mudariki, Allen Foster, Christopher Lavy
Background: This study aims to determine the indicators for assessing the functionality of clubfoot clinics in a low-resource setting. Methods: The Delphi method was employed with experienced clubfoot practitioners in Africa to rate the importance of indicators of a good clubfoot clinic. The consistency among the participants was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient. Indicators that achieved strong agreement (mean≥9 [SD <1.5]) were included in the final consensus definition...
May 19, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788225/lnchrom-a-resource-of-experimentally-validated-lncrna-chromatin-interactions-in-human-and-mouse
#16
Fulong Yu, Guanxiong Zhang, Aiai Shi, Jing Hu, Feng Li, Xinxin Zhang, Yan Zhang, Jian Huang, Yun Xiao, Xia Li, Shujun Cheng
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute an important layer of chromatin regulation that contributes to various biological processes and diseases. By interacting with chromatin, many lncRNAs can regulate that state of chromatin by recruiting chromatin-modifying complexes and thus control large-scale gene expression programs. However, the available information on interactions between lncRNAs and chromatin is hidden in a large amount of dispersed literature and has not been extensively collected. We established the LnChrom database, a manually curated resource of experimentally validated lncRNA-chromatin interactions...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786768/risk-prediction-score-for-hiv-infection-development-and-internal-validation-with-cross-sectional-data-from-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#17
Lu Yin, Yuejuan Zhao, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Liang Song, Xiangjun Zhang, Ruolei Xin, Zheya Sun, Yunan Xu, Li Zhang, Yifei Hu, Chun Hao, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sten H Vermund, Han-Zhu Qian
Receptive anal intercourse, multiple partners, condomless sex, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and drug/alcohol addiction are familiar factors that correlate with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). To improve estimation to HIV acquisition, we created a composite score using questions from routine survey of 3588 MSM in Beijing, China. The HIV prevalence was 13.4%. A risk scoring tool using penalized maximum likelihood multivariable logistic regression modeling was developed, deploying backward step-down variable selection to obtain a reduced-form model...
May 21, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786590/hepatitis-c-and-human-rights-comparison-of-legal-experience-of-ukraine-and-georgia
#18
Iryna Y Senyuta
A comparative legal research of human rights provision in Ukraine and Georgia, in the aspect of combating viral HCV, was conducted. Ukrainian advocacy experience and Georgian strategic litigation experience with regard to human rights and HCV was analyzed. Key international instruments, which lay the conceptual foundations as well as outline the measures, which are directed at human rights in patient care provision and fighting viral hepatitis, were elucidated. Attention was paid to the Global health sector strategy...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786565/modelling-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-human-hepatocyte-like-cells
#19
Marcus J Lyall, Jessy Cartier, John P Thomson, Kate Cameron, Jose Meseguer-Ripolles, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Dagmara Szkolnicka, Baltasar Lucendo Villarin, Yu Wang, Giovanny Rodriguez Blanco, Warwick B Dunn, Richard R Meehan, David C Hay, Amanda J Drake
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease in developed countries. An in vitro NAFLD model would permit mechanistic studies and enable high-throughput therapeutic screening. While hepatic cancer-derived cell lines are a convenient, renewable resource, their genomic, epigenomic and functional alterations mean their utility in NAFLD modelling is unclear. Additionally, the epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a cell lineage identifier, is rapidly lost during cell culture, alongside expression of the Ten-eleven-translocation ( TET ) methylcytosine dioxygenase enzymes, restricting meaningful epigenetic analysis...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786564/developing-defined-substrates-for-stem-cell-culture-and-differentiation
#20
REVIEW
Louise Hagbard, Katherine Cameron, Paul August, Christopher Penton, Malin Parmar, David C Hay, Therése Kallur
Over the past few decades, a variety of different reagents for stem cell maintenance and differentiation have been commercialized. These reagents share a common goal in facilitating the manufacture of products suitable for cell therapy while reducing the amount of non-defined components. Lessons from developmental biology have identified signalling molecules that can guide the differentiation process in vitro , but less attention has been paid to the extracellular matrix used. With the introduction of more biologically relevant and defined matrices, that better mimic specific cell niches, researchers now have powerful resources to fine-tune their in vitro differentiation systems, which may allow the manufacture of therapeutically relevant cell types...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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